Ch04 violence and abuse


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Essentials of Healthy Living, 6th Edition

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Ch04 violence and abuse

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Violence and Abuse
  2. 2. Violence and Abuse • Every society tolerates certain controlled uses of force. For example, –Spanking misbehaving children –Playing contact sports • Violence refers to the interpersonal uses of force that are not socially sanctioned. • No gender or life stage is exempt. • Hate crimes target certain groups of people.
  3. 3. Hate Crimes • Pre-supposes that the victim is from a minority group in main stream media – Is this true? – What’s wrong with the term “hate crime” 3
  4. 4. Violence and Abuse • Assault—intentional use of force to injure another person physically – For example: shoving, slapping, punching, kicking • Abuse—taking advantage of a relationship to mistreat someone, often using frequent threats of force – Does it have to be physical?
  5. 5. How Violence Affects Health • Physical injuries range from minor cuts or bruises and lost teeth to broken bones and firearm or knife injuries. • Rape victims may need immediate treatment to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. • Psychological damage (i.e., anxiety and depression) and strained family relationships are also consequences.
  6. 6. What Causes Violent Behavior? There is no single cause of violence. • Contributing factors: – Poverty – Substance abuse – Access to firearms – Psychological problems – Poor self-esteem • Learned behavior—home and media – Children witnessing acts of abuse or violence between parents – Visual media often glamorize violent people (TV, movies, computer games)
  7. 7. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Sexual Violence • Sexual activity gained through force, threat of force, or coercion • Rape—sexual intercourse by force or with a person incapable of legal consent – In the United States, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 33 men have been victims of an attempted or completed rape. – Most female victims are raped by someone they know. – Most male victims are raped by male strangers or male acquaintances.
  8. 8. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Sexual Violence • Marital Rape - refers to the use or threat of violence against one’s spouse to force sexual activity • Acquaintance Rape - forced sexual activity that occurs between unmarried adults who know each other • Date Rape - forced sexual activity that occurs between those who are dating
  9. 9. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Sexual Violence • Reporting Sexual Assault – Sexual crimes are underreported. – Shame, embarrassment, and feeling partially to blame prevent victims from reporting sexual assaults. – Victims may fear further victimization and negative reactions from others.
  10. 10. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Sexual Violence • Reporting Sexual Assault – Preservation of all evidence, obtaining medical attention, and notifying the police is crucial. – Rape crisis centers assist victims in this process.
  11. 11. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Family Violence • A pattern of behavior characterized by physical assaults, psychological abuse, or threats between family members, intimate partners, or unrelated people who live together – Includes spouse, child, and elder abuse
  12. 12. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Family Violence • Intimate Partner Violence – This includes actual or threatened physical or sexual violence as well as emotional abuse by a current or former intimate partner. – Acts range from slapping, shoving, and punching to beating and murder. – Verbal and emotional abuse usually accompany physical violence.
  13. 13. Major Types of Violence and Family Violence • Intimate Partner Violence – Contributing factors • Having a low income • Being unemployed or in a low-status occupation • Witnessing violence between parents as a child • Using alcohol and other drugs • Having low self-esteem and being highly dependent on intimate partner
  14. 14. Intimiate Partner Violence • More prevalent in gay/lesbian couples: – 25-50+ % experience it – 5-25% of heterosexual couples 14
  15. 15. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Sexual Harassment • Intentional use of annoying and offensive sexually related comments or behaviors to intimidate or coerce others into sexual activity – Unwelcome requests for dates – Sexually offensive jokes, lewd comments – Touching and fondling • The person should be confronted and told to discontinue the behavior. • Legal action can be taken.
  16. 16. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Stalking • Willful and repeated following and harassing another person (usually someone known) • Most stalkers are lonely, emotionally disturbed men who have been rejected by their partners. • Victims experience severe emotional distress and are at risk of being physically attacked by stalker.
  17. 17. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Community Violence • Occurs in public settings (i.e., street corners, bars). • Gangs attract adolescents whose safety, belonging, and self-identity needs are met by associating with the gang. • Gang association increases a member’s risk of being murdered.
  18. 18. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Institutional Violence • Schools – Most acts of institutional violence occur in schools. – Involve attacks on peers, teachers, and school administrators. – Efforts are underway to identify potential troublemakers in schools. – Youth prone to become violent tend to have difficulty controlling anger, are impulsive, bully others, and defy authority figures.
  19. 19. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Institutional Violence • Violence on College Campuses – Majority of rapes, robberies, and assaults occur to students living off campus. – Associated with use of drugs, especially alcohol, and the availability of guns. – Security measures may include call boxes, escort services, improved lighting on campus, and limited visiting hours in residence halls.
  20. 20. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Institutional Violence • Violence on College Campuses – The Student Right to Know and Campus Security Act requires administrators of colleges and universities that receive federal funds to report information concerning the number of murders, assaults, rapes, and other specific crimes that take place on their campuses.
  21. 21. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Workplace Violence • Acts of violence directed towards individuals who are performing their jobs. • Psychiatric hospitals and prisons are the most dangerous workplaces. • Cab drivers, convenience store clerks, police, and security guards have a high risk of being murdered while working. • Work-related homicides are most likely to occur during armed robbery in grocery stores, restaurants, bars, and gas stations.
  22. 22. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Workplace Violence • People who have a high risk of becoming violent in workplaces include those whohave been laid off, fired, or not promoted as well as men who: – Are between 25 and 40 years of age – Are loners – Have marital and other family problems – Appear angry and paranoid – Abuse alcohol and/or other drugs – Blame others for their problems
  23. 23. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Terrorism • Terrorism is intentional violent acts against civilians to produce extreme fear, property damage, and numerous deaths. • Major purpose—to frighten people and make them feel vulnerable and helpless. – eradicate perceived enemies • Arsenal includes bombs, poisonous chemicals, life-threatening infectious agents, and hijacked airplanes as missiles.
  24. 24. Major Types of Violence and Abuse Terrorism • Survivors of a terrorist attack often experience physical as well as long term psychological consequences such as post--traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression • Individuals not directly impacted can experience same symptoms – ex: 9/11 - large part of country
  25. 25. Assessing Your Risk of Violence • Family disruption (i.e., separation, divorce, desertion) • Presence of criminal or drug-addicted parents • Neighborhood conditions (i.e., high rates of unemployment) • Social isolation • Large number of children in family or presence of children with special needs • Schools with poor discipline and low expectations for student performance • Availability of alcohol, illegal drugs, and guns
  26. 26. Assessing Your Risk of Violence • Age (under 25yrs) • Sex (women vs. men) • Race & ethnicity An objective of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce the homicide rate from 6.1 per 100,000 (the rate in 2007) to 5.5 per 100,000 Americans by 2020 – dropped to 5.1 per 100,000 in 2009
  27. 27. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Improved street lighting • Neighborhood watch organizations • Surveillance by closed-circuit cameras • Avoidance of “risky” situations • Avoiding unsafe places • Avoid using destructive responses such as angry verbal exchanges, including insults and name calling, to manage interpersonal conflicts
  28. 28. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Don’t go out alone at night • Lock car doors upon entering the car • Avoid dangerous people • Display friendly attitude, good manners, tact, and diplomacy • Consider taking self-defense lessons
  29. 29. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Home Security Measures – Always lock windows and doors – Use the peep hole – Dog – Leave lights and a radio on when you leave your house
  30. 30. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Community Security Measures – Moving to a safer neighborhood – Avoid isolated places – Do not walk, jog, or bike alone, especially at night. – Wear a whistle to signal an alarm or carry of can of pepper spray to use if threatened – Look alert. – Park in a well-lit, busy area.
  31. 31. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Reducing the Risk of Violence while in a Car – As soon as you enter your car, lock the doors – If you are involved in a minor accident, stay in your car; call the police, and keep the doors locked and the windows rolled up until they arrive. – If someone demands that you surrender your car. Get out of the car and quickly move away from the area. – If someone is following you drive to the police station
  32. 32. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Workplace Safety Measures – Learn your company’s security measures, for example, the locations of fire alarms so you can activate one in case of any trouble.
  33. 33. Preventing and Avoiding Violence • Self-Protection – Attract as much attention as possible if you are attacked – Vomit or defecate – Run away if you feel overwhelmed and frightened. – Some may choose to fight back.
  34. 34. Reporting Violence • You should report any attempted or completed crime of violence by strangers or acquaintances to the police. • Consider reporting the incident to an agency, such as a rape crisis center or a women’s self- help service that can assist you in dealing with legal authorities and medical establishments if you feel uncomfortable reporting to police.
  35. 35. Across the Life Span • Child Physical Abuse – This includes beating, squeezing, burning, cutting, suffocating, binding, or poisoning a child. – Most acts of violence against children are committed by parents and other adults the victims know. – Children under age 2 are most at risk of dying as a result of physical violence.
  36. 36. Across the Life Span • Child Physical Abuse • Abusive parents often: • Have unrealistic expectations and distorted notions about the causes of their child’s behavior. • Are under stress and isolated from others who could help. • Il-prepared to be parents in the first place
  37. 37. Across the Life Span • Child Physical Abuse – Pedophiles are sexually attracted to and fantasize about having physical contact with children, generally 8 to 10 yrs old and are heterosexual males (70%) – The child molester acts on sexual urges by having sexual activity with children.
  38. 38. Across the Life Span • Child Physical Abuse – The abuser is usually known and trusted. – Incest is sexual abuse by a family member. – Preventing child sexual abuse involves teaching children how to recognize and report sexual abuse. – Very young children need to learn which parts of their bodies are private.
  39. 39. Across the Life Span • Elder Abuse – Elder abuse is physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse that occurs in family settings, hospitals, and nursing homes. – Abusers are most likely to be spouses or adult children who care for victims. – Report situations of elder abuse or neglect to a local adult protective services agency.