Ch03 stress and managing it


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Essential Concepts for Healthy Living, 6th Edition

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Ch03 stress and managing it

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Stress and Its Management
  2. 2. What is Stress? Stress—a complex series of reactions, both psychological and physical, in response to demanding or threatening situations Stressors—events that produce physical and psychological demands on a person
  3. 3. What is Stress? Distress—events or situations that produce negative or unwanted outcomes and are difficult to control Eustress—events or situations that create demands on a person that result in positive outcomes (e.g., becoming a new parent, accepting a desired job) – Eustress can still have negative effects on the body and mind because it requires physical and psychological adjustments.
  4. 4. Stress Responses
  5. 5. Physical Responses • Hormones - chemical messengers that convey information from a gland to other cells in the body • Glands of the endocrine system produce several different hormones and secrete them directly into the bloodstream
  6. 6. Physical Responses • Stress hormones increase heart rate, blood pressure, central nervous system (CNS) activity, and blood flow to the heart and skeletal muscles.
  7. 7. Physical Responses • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) − Alarm – adrenal glands release stress hormones to prepare your body to deal with the stressful event − Resistance – body maintains its protective physical reactions to the stressor − Exhaustion – physical stress defenses are weakened, and you become more susceptible to infections
  8. 8. Psychological Responses • Distressed individuals are more likely to report psychological symptoms such as frustration, anxiety, and anger. • Irritability, overeating and/or abusing drugs often occurs when one is overstressed. • “Stressed- out” people often have difficulty focusing their attention, making decisions, and sleeping.
  9. 9. Psychological Responses • Burnout - feeling as though one has exhausted their physical and psychological abilities to cope with stressors. • Low levels of psychological stress can enhance performance by increasing one’s effort and attention to the task.
  10. 10. Impact of Stress on Health
  11. 11. Stressful Life Events • Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) see pg 77: Table 3.2 - States that people who experience numerous major life events within a short time span are likely to develop illnesses. • Observing an association between stressful events and the onset of illnesses does not mean that stress causes health problems.
  12. 12. The Mind-Body Relationship • Psychoneuroimmunology - the study of the relationships between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, is the field of medical research that explores the connection between mind and body. • Stress alters the normal functioning of the brain, which in turn, affects immune system functioning.
  13. 13. The Mind-Body Relationship • Stress may also stimulate other components of the body’s immune response, resulting in inflammation.
  14. 14. The Mind-Body Relationship • Chronic mild inflammation is thought to be associated with the development of many serious diseases, including heart and other blood vessel diseases, obesity, diabetes, smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disorders, certain cancers, and Alzheimer’s disease.
  15. 15. Personality and Stress • Each person’s unique combination of personality traits and background experiences contributes to his or her stress response. • People who see only the negative aspects of a stressor may view a difficult situation as impossible to overcome and be more vulnerable to stress than those who make positive appraisals of the situation.
  16. 16. Personality and Stress • People who are less vulnerable to the negative effects of stress may have personalities that act as buffers • Committed to achieving their goals, have a sense of control over their lives, and view stressful situations as challenges rather than threats.
  17. 17. Stress and Chronic Health Problems • IBS • Anxiety and stress worsen the signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). • Irritable bowel syndrome often occurs with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)
  18. 18. Stress and Chronic Health Problems • Intestinal Ulcers • Stress can make intestinal ulcers worse when they occur • Tension Headaches • May be triggered by stress • Migraines • roughly 12% of Americans suffer • symtoms include vision impairment, pain, numbness, nausea, vomiting
  19. 19. Stress and Chronic Health Problems • Anxiety and stress worsen the signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). • Irritable bowel syndrome often occurs with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)
  20. 20. Stress and Chronic Health Problems • Overweight and Obesity • About 80% of people alter their eating habits when they feel stressed out. • Can lead to obesity
  21. 21. Stress and Chronic Health Problems • Heart Disease and Cancer • Excessive stress hormones in bloodstream = inflammation • Inflammation = can cause high blood pressure and damage to inside of blood vessel walls.
  22. 22. Stress and Chronic Health Problems • Hostility • Hostile people harbor negative feelings, such as anger, hostility, and mistrust • immune system may respond to negative feelings by producing chronic inflammation, increasing the risk of heart disease
  23. 23. Coping Strategies
  24. 24. Coping with Stress • Coping Strategies - behavioral responses and thought processes that individuals use to deal actively with sources of stress. – Problem-focused – Emotion-focused – Social-support
  25. 25. Coping with Stress • Problem-Focused Strategies - behaviors that can directly reduce or eliminate the negative effects of stressors. • planning, confronting, and problem-solving activities • Increases feelings of control over the stressor = less distress and fewer health problems
  26. 26. Problem-Focused Strategies • Time Management • Make a list • Prioritize • Assess length of each task based on priority • Make sure there is relaxation and rest time
  27. 27. Problem-Focused Strategies • Journal Writing • Entering your thoughts in a journal regularly can help you focus on your emotional responses to situations.
  28. 28. Emotion-Focused Strategies • Emotion-Focused Strategies – alteration of one’s appraisal of stressful situations. • can improve mood and reduce anxiety by making the events seem less threatening. • unhealthy lifestyles generally relieve stress for the short term, but the consequences often create even more stress for the individual. • some are helpful, especially if the strategy aids in mental relaxation or encourages more positive thinking.
  29. 29. Social-Support Strategies • Social-Support Strategies – include seeking the advice, assistance, or consolation of close friends and relatives; participating in support groups; and obtaining spiritual help from members of the clergy or religious congregations.
  30. 30. Relaxation Techniques
  31. 31. Relaxation Techniques • Practicing relaxation techniques when you feel stressed can help restore many body processes to normal, which reduces the potentially damaging effects that stress can have on your body.
  32. 32. Relaxation Techniques • Deep Breathing – Hyperventilation alters the chemistry of the blood, which increases the heart rate and causes dizziness. – By deliberately breathing more slowly and deeply, distressed people can feel more relaxed as their blood chemistry values return to normal.
  33. 33. Alternating Nasal Breathing Technique • Close one nostril with thumb • Inhale for a count of 3 • Hold Breath • Switch nostrils with thumb • Exhale for a count of 3 • Repeat 30 times (3 minutes)
  34. 34. Relaxation Techniques • Progressive Muscular Relaxation – Distressed individuals are often tense – Individuals learn how to release muscle tension voluntarily, becoming aware of the relaxed sensations.
  35. 35. Empty the Glass Technique • Tighten whole body • Inhale and visualize you are a glass filling up with water • Count to 10 • Exhale slowly, empty the glass gradually with the exhale
  36. 36. Relaxation Techniques • Meditation – an activity in which a person relaxes by mentally focusing on a single word, object, or thought.
  37. 37. Relaxation Techniques • Mindfulness Meditation – involves a variety of relaxation methods that focus your attention completely and in a nonjudgmental way on what you are doing or experiencing at the moment.
  38. 38. Relaxation Techniques • Imagery – Mental activity that is often combined with progressive muscular relaxation exercises to enhance physical relaxation. – After relaxing his or her muscles, the person thinks of a peaceful, pleasurable scene, using imagination or past experiences as a guide.
  39. 39. Relaxation Techniques • Self-Talk – Positive self-talk reflects a person’s attributes and boosts self confidence. – Think of at least three affirmative statements to say about yourself, including your feelings, accomplishments, skills, and characteristics.
  40. 40. Relaxation Techniques • Physical Exercise – can reduce stress by shifting one’s attention away from stressors and toward the enjoyable aspects of the activity. – can metabolize the extra energy released during the stress response, lessening the impact of stress on the body. – can enhance social and spiritual well- being.
  41. 41. Physical Exercise • Tai Chi • A form of martial art that originated in China, emphasizes relaxation of the mind while the body is in motion.
  42. 42. Physical Exercise • Yoga • Includes specific physical exercises, breathing techniques, meditation activities, and dietary restrictions to promote a healthier body and manage stress.
  43. 43. Across the Live Span: Stress • Childhood – Common stressors for children include separation from a parent through divorce or death, moving to a new neighborhood and changing schools, and illness of a close family member. • Young Adult – individuals undergo numerous physical and social changes during this time.
  44. 44. Across the Live Span: Stress • Aging Adult – Work, finances, adult, children/ grandchildren • Elderly – Loneliness, deaths of many close friends/ family members, illness.