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Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
Ch02 psychological health copy
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Ch02 psychological health copy

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Essential Concepts for Healthy Living, 6th Edition

Essential Concepts for Healthy Living, 6th Edition

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Psychological Health
  • 2. Psychology • The study of the mental processes that influence human behavior 2
  • 3. Psychological Health • Psychological health is the ability to deal effectively with psychological challenges of life. – Becomes more positive or negative as one responds to a constantly changing environment – The quality of one’s psychological health often affects the other components of health, such as social, spiritual, and physical health.
  • 4. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People • Psychologically healthy people: – Accept themselves – Have realistic/optimistic outlooks on life – Function independently – Form satisfying interpersonal relationships – Cope effectively with change
  • 5. Characteristics of Psychologically Healthy People (continued) – Resolve problems without resorting to substance abuse or violence – Assert themselves appropriately in social situations
  • 6. Improving Psychological Health • Make positive lifestyle changes, such as exercising regularly, obtaining adequate sleep, and eating a nutritious diet. • Improve intellectual health and attend to spiritual needs. • Foster social contacts. • Protect the quality of your environment.
  • 7. Adjustment and Growth 7
  • 8. Adjustment and Growth • Psychological Adjustment occurs when a person learns that certain coping responses meet the demands of life more effectively than others. • Psychological Growth occurs when a person learns that certain adjustment strategies enhance his or her sense of freedom and control over self and the environment.
  • 9. Adjustment and Growth • Interpersonal conflicts can hinder psychological adjustment and growth. – Aggressive reactions often injure others physically or emotionally. – Assertive reactions maintain one’s rights without interfering with the rights of others or harming them. • Psychological growth fosters the development of autonomy (self-control), which is associated with self-esteem.
  • 10. Effective Growth • Obtain reliable information • Set realistic goals • Plan effectively to achieve goals • Take action • Consistent evaluation of results What does this look similar to? 10
  • 11. Appropriate Development • Most people learn how to respond to situations in socially and culturally acceptable ways when they are children – social environment – parents – family – teachers – friends 11
  • 12. Heredity • Transmitting genetic code from parent to offspring may also impact personality development. Characteristics genetic code determines includes: • physical • emotional • intellectual 12
  • 13. Self-Esteem Self-esteem is a key component of personality. – Influences one’s thoughts, actions, and feelings – Begins to develop early in childhood – Remains fairly constant over time
  • 14. People with Positive Self-Esteem • Have a high degree of autonomy • Are self-confident and have self-respect • Are satisfied with themselves • Accept challenges • Work well with others • Seek supportive and loving relationships • Adjust easily to change • Accept responsibility for their actions
  • 15. People with Low Self-Esteem • Have difficulty making decisions • Resist changing behavior • Resent any form of criticism • Put down others to make themselves look or feel better
  • 16. Know Your Strengths • Focus on strengths, or natural aptitudes as opposed to dwelling on “improving weaknesses” http://freestrengthsfinder.workuno.com/1-free- strengthsfinder-test.html 16
  • 17. The Nervous System 17
  • 18. The Nervous System • Central Nervous System (CNS) – Consists of the brain and spinal cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – Consists of nerves that relay information to and from CNS
  • 19. Major Functions of the Nervous System • The Nervous System –Receives, sends, and interprets messages by means of electrical and chemical signals (neurotransmitters) –Produces thoughts, emotions, and physical responses • Emotions are a way of communicating moods.
  • 20. Neurotransmitters • acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin • Chemical messengers that can be increased or decreased, affecting physical responses, thoughts, and emotions 21
  • 21. The Mind • Parts of the brain, generally referred to as the mind, process information received from the rest of the body and the environment.
  • 22. The Mind (continued) The mind: • Thinks about what takes place • Finds meaning in events • Considers actions • Makes decisions • Directs responses • Evaluates and remembers consequences • Plans for the future
  • 23. Theories of Personality Development 24
  • 24. Personality • A set of distinct thoughts and behaviors, including emotional responses, that characterize how one responds to situations –Many factors, such as biological, cultural, social, and psychological forces, influence personality.
  • 25. Personality (continued) • Temperament is the predictable way a person responds to the environment • Interactions with family members and learning from experiences also mold a person’s psychological development
  • 26. Freud’s Framework of Personality • The unconscious mind influences behaviors. – Defense mechanisms are ways of thinking and behaving that reduce or eliminate anxiety and guilt by altering a person’s perceptions of reality. – Defense mechanisms protect the mind against psychological conflicts and threats.
  • 27. Freud’s Framework of Personality Common Defense Mechanisms Repression—blocking unpleasant thoughts or feelings Projection—attributing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges to someone else Rationalization—making up false or self- serving excuses for unpleasant situations or behaviors
  • 28. Freud’s Framework of Personality Common Defense Mechanisms (cont) Denial—refusing to acknowledge unpleasant situations or feelings Displacement—redirecting a feeling or response to a less threatening target Avoidance—taking action to prevent situations that produce powerful feelings Regression—reducing anxiety by acting immature to feel more secure
  • 29. Freud States: • Many use moral values as guidelines to judge behaviors, both their own and others – What’s the danger, if any, in this? 30
  • 30. Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development • Social influences shape personality. • Individuals progress through eight psychosocial stages throughout their lifetimes. – In order to achieve emotional well-being, one must resolve conflicts associated with each stage
  • 31. Trust vs. mistrust Birth to 1 year Autonomy vs. doubt/shame 1 to 3 years Initiative vs. guilt 3 to 6 years Industry vs. inferiority 6 to12 years Industry vs. inferiority 12 to 18 years Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development
  • 32. Intimacy vs. isolation Young Adult Generativity vs. stagnation Middle age Integrity vs. despair Old age Erickson’s Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development
  • 33. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs • Individuals behave in response to their values rather than unconscious drives. • Human needs include basic biological needs and more complex psychological needs. • Personality development is driven by the need to achieve psychological fulfillment or self- actualization.
  • 34. Summary • Freud-unconscious mind • Erickson-stages of social conflict • Maslow-Value based development 36
  • 35. Understanding Psychological (Mental) Illness
  • 36. Understanding Psychological (Mental) Illness • Occasionally, healthy people have disturbing thoughts, experience unpleasant feelings, or display inappropriate behaviors. • Mentally ill individuals experience abnormal feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that persist, interfere with daily life, and hinder psychological adjustment and growth.
  • 37. Understanding Psychological (Mental) Illness • Psychosis - a severe type of mental illness characterized by disorganized thoughts and unreal perceptions that result in strange behavior, isolation, delusions, and hallucinations • Delusions - inaccurate and unreasonable beliefs that often result in decision--making errors • Hallucinations - false sensory perceptions that have no apparent external cause, but they are real to the psychotic individual
  • 38. Understanding Psychological (Mental) Illness • Between 2005 and 2009, about one in ten adult Americans reported experiencing “frequent mental distress” for 14 or more days during the previous 30 days. • Although mental health disorders are common and can be quite disabling, fewer than 50% of Americans who have these conditions seek treatment.
  • 39. Causes of Psychological Disorders • Alterations of the normal chemical environment of the brain (may be genetic) • Brain damage from injuries, tumors, or infections • Drugs such as cocaine • Extremely stressful experiences, particularly in childhood • Pollutants such as pesticides and toxic minerals (e.g., lead, mercury, and arsenic)
  • 40. Treating Psychological Disorders • Treatment for psychological problems generally involves a combination of: – Counseling –Cognitive behavioral therapy –Group therapy –Support groups – Medications – Equine Therapy (research shows very effective)
  • 41. Common Psychological Disorders
  • 42. Anxiety Disorders – Generalized Anxiety Disorder—uncontrollable chronic worrying and nervousness – Phobias—intense and irrational fear of objects or situation – Panic Disorder—panic attacks, unpredictable episodes of extreme fear and loss of emotional control – Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—persistent anxiety and re-experiencing of traumatic events
  • 43. Anxiety Disorders – Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder—repetitive thoughts that produce anxiety and obsessive behaviors that follow in order to reduce anxiety
  • 44. Impulse Control Disorders • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder—short attention span and/or hyperactivity that results in serious social impairment • Problem Gambling—compulsive and excessive gambling that disrupts personal, family, or vocational pursuits
  • 45. Mood Disorders • Major Depressive Disorder • Persistent and profound feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness • Loss of interest in usual activities • Lack of energy • Insomnia • Inability to concentrate • Appetite disturbances
  • 46. Mood Disorders – Bipolar Disorder—episodes of depression followed by episodes or elevated mood (mania) – Seasonal Affective Disorder— depression that is a result of lack of exposure to bright light (e.g., sunlight) – Vitamin D3 may help, studies underway
  • 47. Eating Disorders Persistent, abnormal eating patterns that can threaten a person’s health and well--being.
  • 48. Eating Disorders – Anorexia Nervosa—disorder in which individuals refuse to eat enough food to maintain a healthy weight – Bulimia Nervosa—disorder characterized by a craving for food that is difficult to satisfy; often involves eating excessive amounts of food followed by purging (vomiting)
  • 49. Eating Disorders - Binge Eating Disorder—pattern of excessive eating, without purging or exercise, in response to emotional distress - Female Athlete Triad—disordered eating affecting female athletes characterized by absence of menstruation and osteopenia - Muscle Dysmorphia—condition that affects weightlifters/bodybuilders; characterized by dissatisfaction with body, disordered eating, excessive exercise, and abuse of steroids
  • 50. Psychotic Disorders – Schizophrenia—mental disorder characterized by disorganized thoughts, hallucinations and delusions, strange behaviors, inappropriate emotions and disjointed speech
  • 51. Suicide • Although suicide is not a psychological disorder, it is usually preceded by other psychological problems such as depression. • Often, those who commit suicide: – Feel overwhelmed by the demands of life – Are unable to solve their problems or adapt to their situation – Abuse alcohol • Suicide was the third leading cause of death for Americans between 18 and 24 years of age.
  • 52. Suicide • Consider a person at high suicide risk when he or she: – Is preoccupied with thoughts of death – Communicates the intent to commit suicide to others – Has a history of suicide attempts – Has a family history of suicide – Grieves excessively over the death of a loved one – Has marital or financial problems – Has schizophrenia, an eating disorder, or a terminal illness • Take ALL signs of impending suicide seriously and immediately seek help for the suicidal person.
  • 53. Across the Life Span • ADHD is a common childhood behavioral disorder. • Affects more boys than girls • Characteristics of ADHD: – Inability to focus or maintain attention to tasks such as homework – Short attention spans, difficulty following simple instructions – Impulsive behaviors such as interrupting conversations, talking when it’s inappropriate, and acting without thinking about consequences
  • 54. Across the Life Span • Characteristics of ADHD: – Excessive levels of physical activity or restlessness – Some children with ADHD are aggressive, argumentative, and defiant – Affected children frequently suffer from low self- esteem and have conflicts with family members – Treatment involves certain stimulant medications, behavioral and family counseling – ADHD can persist into adulthood

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