Healthy Weight
and Body Composition
BODY COMPOSITION
•Body composition is the ratio between fat and
fat-free mass
•Fat-free mass includes all tissues exclusiv...
MEASURING BODY COMPOSITION
•Height/weight tables do not reflect body composition and
are poor instruments for weight-loss recommendations
•Body mass ...
BMI-Body Mass Index
• Healthy weight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) equal to or no more than 18.5
and no more than 24.9
• Overweight is...
• Bioelectrical impedance analysis
• uses a low-level, single-frequency electric current to measure body
composition
• Ski...
•Underwater weighing is one of
the most accurate indirect
measurement techniques
•People with more muscle mass
weigh more ...
•Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry
•bone mineral density, quantification of fat, and
lean tissue using very low exposures t...
ACHIEVING A HEALTHY WEIGHT
•At any given time, more than one-half of women and
one-fourth of men are on a diet
•For some p...
OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT
•Obesity is overfatness
•Obesity in men is defined as body fat equal
to or greater than 25% of tota...
REGIONAL FAT DISTRIBUTION
•Most women store fat in the hips,
buttocks, thighs, and breasts (gynoid fat)
•Most men store fa...
ADIPOSE CELL DEPOSITS
DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY
•Obesity occurs when the 30 to 40 million adipose (fat)
cells in the body increase in size (hypertr...
HEALTH ASPECTS OF OBESITY
• Coronary heart
disease
• Stroke
• Hypertension
• LDL cholesterol
• Diabetes II
• Psychological...
OBESITY TRENDS AMONG U.S. ADULTS
CAUSES OF OBESITY
• Biological Theories
• Age, metabolism, gender, disease, heredity and set point, the body
internal sign...
• The set point theory suggests that the body works to maintain a
certain weight no matter what a person does
• Sometimes ...
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
• Behavioral explanations of obesity include
overeating, lack of exercise
• Overeating - consuming mor...
OVEREATING AND INACTIVITY
• People cannot eat as much as they want
to just because a food is fat free
• Modern convenience...
INACTIVITY
• Hypokinesis – physical inactivity or sedentary
lifestyle
• Some experts view lack of physical activity as the...
STRATEGIES FOR FAT LOSS
• The loss of one pound of body fat requires a deficit of
3500 calories
• A desirable long-term go...
•the method of choice for most people to
lose weight
•Only 5% of dieters successfully lose and
maintain their weight loss ...
•Caloric intake should not drop below 1200 per day for women or
1500 per day for men
•Popular Diets
•Potentially hazardous...
•Low fat diets
•Americans are consuming fewer fat calories but more total
calories and are getting heavier
•Very low calor...
• Overcompensatory eating is when the consumption of
low-fat foods leads to an increase in total calories
• Increases in p...
• Bariatric surgery – surgery to reduce weight
• Gastroplasty –limits stomach size
• Popular term – stomach stapling
• Sev...
• Herbal remedies are unregulated and when
taken in large, concentrated doses should be
viewed as drugs
• The optimal appr...
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
• Physical activity and dieting should yield a daily
caloric deficit of 500 calories
•3500 caloric reduc...
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
• Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy required to
sustain life when the body is rested and fasting
...
GUIDELINES
• To reduce risk of chronic diseases in adulthood: 30min of moderate
physical activity daily
• To prevent unhea...
EATING DISORDERS
• Anorexia nervosa
• the refusal to maintain minimally normal weight for age and height.
• characterized ...
PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
• Avoiding an obsession with body
weight
• Avoiding fad diets
• Avoiding fasting and restr...
Ch 7 and 8
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Wellness Concepts and Applications

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Ch 7 and 8

  1. 1. Healthy Weight and Body Composition
  2. 2. BODY COMPOSITION •Body composition is the ratio between fat and fat-free mass •Fat-free mass includes all tissues exclusive of fat (muscle, bone, organs, fluids) •Essential fat is necessary for normal biological function •Essential fat for men is 3% to 5% of total weight; it is 8% to 12% percent for women
  3. 3. MEASURING BODY COMPOSITION
  4. 4. •Height/weight tables do not reflect body composition and are poor instruments for weight-loss recommendations •Body mass index (BMI) is the ratio of body weight in kilograms to height in meters squared •People with BMIs of 25 to 29.9 are considered overweight; people with BMIs of 30 or higher are considered obese TECHNIQUES
  5. 5. BMI-Body Mass Index
  6. 6. • Healthy weight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) equal to or no more than 18.5 and no more than 24.9 • Overweight is defined as having a BMI between 25 and 29.9 • Obesity is defined as having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass or a BMI or 30 or higher • Adult obesity has grown from 13% in 1960 to 40% in 2012 • Children and adolescent ages 2-19 – 32% are obese • 17% of children have a BMI of 30 or higher • Americans are heavier because: • Too little energy going out • Too much energy going in • America has become an obesogenic environment i.e. one that promotes increase food intake
  7. 7. • Bioelectrical impedance analysis • uses a low-level, single-frequency electric current to measure body composition • Skinfold measurements • one of the most economical ways to measure body composition and, when performed by skilled technicians, correlate well with hydrostatic weighing • Air-Displacement Plethysmography • Uses air displacement rather than water displacement for assessing body composition by sitting in the Bod Pod MORE TECHNIQUES
  8. 8. •Underwater weighing is one of the most accurate indirect measurement techniques •People with more muscle mass weigh more in water than those with less Hydrostatic Weighing
  9. 9. •Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry •bone mineral density, quantification of fat, and lean tissue using very low exposures to radiation. DEXA
  10. 10. ACHIEVING A HEALTHY WEIGHT •At any given time, more than one-half of women and one-fourth of men are on a diet •For some people the weight obsession can lead to serious body-image problems, including body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) •The number of people who would benefit from a fat- loss program is at an all-time high •Term weight loss should be replaced with the more specific term fat- loss
  11. 11. OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT •Obesity is overfatness •Obesity in men is defined as body fat equal to or greater than 25% of total body weight •Obesity in women is defined as body fat equal to or greater than 35% of total body weigh •Overweight is excessive weight for height and does not consider body composition
  12. 12. REGIONAL FAT DISTRIBUTION •Most women store fat in the hips, buttocks, thighs, and breasts (gynoid fat) •Most men store fat in the abdomen, lower back, chest, and nape of the neck (android fat) •Intra-abdominal fat is stored deep in the abdominal cavity and carries a high risk for cardiovascular diseases
  13. 13. ADIPOSE CELL DEPOSITS
  14. 14. DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY •Obesity occurs when the 30 to 40 million adipose (fat) cells in the body increase in size (hypertrophy), number (hyperplasia), or both • Gender differences in fat storage • Males- upper half of body (android) • Females- lower half of body (gynoid) • Biological factors that influence obesity are age, metabolism, gender, disease, heredity, and set point
  15. 15. HEALTH ASPECTS OF OBESITY • Coronary heart disease • Stroke • Hypertension • LDL cholesterol • Diabetes II • Psychological distress • Gallbladder disease • Osteoarthritis • Sleep apnea • Some cancers
  16. 16. OBESITY TRENDS AMONG U.S. ADULTS
  17. 17. CAUSES OF OBESITY • Biological Theories • Age, metabolism, gender, disease, heredity and set point, the body internal signal for the level of fatness • Two major biological explanations of obesity are heredity and set point • Heredity influences both body weight and body shape • Leptin – hormone made in fat cells by a gene call OB • leptin signals brain to suppress appetite – if missing or not functioning brain does not get signal to stop eating
  18. 18. • The set point theory suggests that the body works to maintain a certain weight no matter what a person does • Sometimes referred to as Defended Weight •Weight that body strives to attain when not on a diet or participating in an exercise program – normal weight •Body has internal set point for the weight it defends • Physiological evidence to support the set point explanation •As the energy intake is reduced, the blood concentration of thyroid hormone falls and the metabolic rate slow
  19. 19. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES • Behavioral explanations of obesity include overeating, lack of exercise • Overeating - consuming more calories than are required by the body • Most experts view high dietary fat intake as the major factor in obesity • Calories from fat appear to convert to body fat more readily than calories from carbohydrates and protein • Portion size • Fat grams and low-carbohydrate diets are of less concern than the quantity of food eaten
  20. 20. OVEREATING AND INACTIVITY • People cannot eat as much as they want to just because a food is fat free • Modern conveniences and labor-saving devices have resulted in less physical activity • A sedentary lifestyle is partially responsible for the obesity in America • Physical exercise is vital for weight maintenance
  21. 21. INACTIVITY • Hypokinesis – physical inactivity or sedentary lifestyle • Some experts view lack of physical activity as the distinguishing factor that separates the obese from those of normal weight • Exercise alone is not a major component in weight loss, but it is the most important component in weight gain
  22. 22. STRATEGIES FOR FAT LOSS • The loss of one pound of body fat requires a deficit of 3500 calories • A desirable long-term goal for losing weight is 1 to 2 pounds a week until 10% of total body weight is lost • A six-month maintenance program should follow weight loss before losing more • Weight loss should be a combination of restricting calories and increasing caloric expenditure
  23. 23. •the method of choice for most people to lose weight •Only 5% of dieters successfully lose and maintain their weight loss for one year •Weight cycling (yo-yo dieting) usually results in a greater weight gain following a loss period and increases the risk of death Dieting
  24. 24. •Caloric intake should not drop below 1200 per day for women or 1500 per day for men •Popular Diets •Potentially hazardous •Characteristics of fad diets •Promote quick results; •focus on eating one type of food or • excluding an entire food group, •rarely emphasize permanent lifestyle changes
  25. 25. •Low fat diets •Americans are consuming fewer fat calories but more total calories and are getting heavier •Very low calorie diets (VLCDs) have fewer than 800 calories a day and should be viewed as medical intervention
  26. 26. • Overcompensatory eating is when the consumption of low-fat foods leads to an increase in total calories • Increases in portion sizes of foods in restaurants and in the grocery contribute to greater food consumption • Diet drugs offer only a temporary solution and side effects can be deadly
  27. 27. • Bariatric surgery – surgery to reduce weight • Gastroplasty –limits stomach size • Popular term – stomach stapling • Several variations of gastroplasty • Considered a treatment for those individuals whose BMI is 40 or greater • men 100 pounds overweight • Women 80 pounds overweight • Liposuction – surgical removal of fat tissue • Cosmetic procedure Extreme Treatments
  28. 28. • Herbal remedies are unregulated and when taken in large, concentrated doses should be viewed as drugs • The optimal approach to weight loss combines mild caloric restriction with regular physical activity • Fasting and modified fasts can be harmful especially if done for a prolonged period of time
  29. 29. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • Physical activity and dieting should yield a daily caloric deficit of 500 calories •3500 caloric reduction to lose one pound of fat •Exercise stimulates metabolism •Metabolism affected by age, gender, nervous system activity, endocrine glands, nutrition, sleep, fever, climate & amount of muscle tissue
  30. 30. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy required to sustain life when the body is rested and fasting • Persons who are deconditioned need to start slowly and progress gradually • Increased muscle tissue raises BMR • People who lose weight and keep it off almost always exercise daily • Low intensity exercise burns more fat calories
  31. 31. GUIDELINES • To reduce risk of chronic diseases in adulthood: 30min of moderate physical activity daily • To prevent unhealthy weight gain in adulthood: 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days • To sustain weight loss in adulthood: 60min moderate daily physical activity
  32. 32. EATING DISORDERS • Anorexia nervosa • the refusal to maintain minimally normal weight for age and height. • characterized by the refusal to eat • Bulimia nervosa • alternates bingeing with purging (Symptoms of disordered eating are also serious • Binge-eating disorder • Consuming large amounts of food in one sitting • Lack of control • The Female AthleteTriad is common among young athletes • Disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis
  33. 33. PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT MANAGEMENT • Avoiding an obsession with body weight • Avoiding fad diets • Avoiding fasting and restrictive dieting • Avoiding volume eating • Watching “hidden sugar” • Developing a plan • Set realistic goals • Being physically active • Making gradual lifestyle changes • Avoiding diet pills • Avoiding very-low calorie diets • Avoid fasting • Avoid skipping meals • Remember weight maintenance may be more appropriate than weight loss • Consulting a nutritionist, physician, or weight-loss program provider to help develop a plan
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