Ch 15 and 16


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Ch 15 and 16

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Ch 15 and 16

  1. 1. Environmental Health, Aging, and Death !1
  2. 2. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning – Most human poisonings in 2009—about 91% —occurred in the home – Approximately 82% of poisonings were unintentional, which included medication errors, bites and stings, food poisonings, and occupational mishaps. – In 2009, poisoning occurred in children under the age of 6 approximately 68% of the time.
  3. 3. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning – Toxic plants – Ingestion of household cleaning products, medications, and vitamins – Lead poisoning – Carbon monoxide poisoning
  4. 4. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning – Suspect poisoning and contact a poison control center if a person: • Becomes ill suddenly with symptoms affecting many systems of the body • Appears drowsy and indifferent • Exhibits bizarre behavior – Call 911 if suspected poisoning victim experiences severe symptoms.
  5. 5. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning • Ingestion of Household Cleaning Aids, Medications, and Vitamins – Children under 5 years of age are most in danger from ingesting toxic household products. – Warning stickers are generally not effective. – Childproof packaging can be opened by children. – Store all dangerous household substances, including medicines and dietary supplements in locked cabinets.
  6. 6. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning • Lead Poisoning – Many sources of lead have been removed from the environment: leaded gasoline, leaded solder in food and beverage cans, and leaded paint. – Leaded dangers still exist in poorly made ceramic dishes or pottery, car batteries, water pipes that contain lead-based solder, soil surrounding some roads and highways, and some pre-1978 paints in the interiors of older homes.
  7. 7. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning • Lead Poisoning – Many cases of lead poisoning occur when older homes are remodeled. – Children are extremely susceptible to absorbing lead through their digestive tract or lungs. – Lead poisoning is associated with decreased intelligence, learning disabilities, impaired nervous system development, behavioral problems, and delayed or stunted growth.
  8. 8. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning – Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas. • A by-product of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels such as oil, coal, wood, natural gas, charcoal, and gasoline – Fires are a major source of carbon monoxide poisoning. – Other sources include: automobile exhaust, malfunctioning furnaces, poorly ventilated kerosene, or gas space heaters
  9. 9. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Poisoning • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning – To lower CO poisoning risk: – Maintain and handle properly tools and appliances that burn such fuels. – Properly vent stoves and furnaces. – Use charcoal grills and gas-powered tools only in well-ventilated areas. – Install CO detectors.
  10. 10. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Inhalation of Asbestos Fibers – Asbestos was used in various products primarily for its fire-resistant properties. • Inhaling asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis as well as lung and stomach cancer. – All asbestos-containing products have been banned by the EPA since 1996.
  11. 11. Environmental Health in and Around the Home Inhalation of Asbestos Fibers – Primary danger is to people who live in homes built between 1920 and 1978. – Danger exists when fibers become airborne. – To avoid danger: • Do not disturb old products that contain asbestos. • Hire only trained, certified professionals for asbestos removal.
  12. 12. Environmental Health in the Workplace Exposure to and Inhalation of Other Toxic Chemicals – Inhaling heavy metal dust or fumes can cause a variety of lung disorders, irritate the eyes and mouth, and damage the kidneys, brain and spinal cord. • Especially exposure to lead, mercury, and manganese • Exposure may cause cancer – OSHA regulates procedures in industries to protect the health of workers.
  13. 13. Environmental Health in the Outdoors • Water pollution • Air pollution • Noise pollution
  14. 14. Environmental Health in the Outdoors Water pollution – Water sources include aquifers, lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. – Can be contaminated with: • Pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, protozoans) • Chemical waste from industry • Fertilizers and pesticides from farm run-off • Heavy metals such as mercury and lead
  15. 15. Environmental Health in the Outdoors Water pollution – Monitoring of nation’s water supply is done by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). – To ensure its safety, 75% of American drinking water is chlorinated. – Tap water can be tested for safety and treated. – Bottled water is not necessarily healthier to drink than tap water.
  16. 16. Environmental Health in the Outdoors Air Pollution – Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and particulates in the air can threaten health. – Two main contributors to air pollution are automobiles and coal-fired power plants that burn fossil fuels. • Use of small gasoline-powered machines such as leaf blowers also contributes to air pollution.
  17. 17. Environmental Health in the Outdoors Noise Pollution – Sound intensity is expressed in decibels (dB). • Each 10 dB increase means a tenfold increase in intensity of the sound. • Sounds at 50 dB or less are considered quiet or soft. • Sounds at 80 dB or more are annoying and can be harmful over time. – 40% of the population is exposed to enough noise to cause permanent hearing loss.
  18. 18. Aging • Aging is the sum of all changes that occur in an organism during its life. • Life span is the maximum number of years that members of a species can expect to live when conditions are optimal. • Life expectancy is the average number of years that an individual who was born in a particular year can expect to live.
  19. 19. Aging Effects of Aging on Physical Health – People begin to experience gradual decline in functioning of the body at about age 30. – Signs of normal aging include: • Menopause (in women) • Delayed sexual responsiveness • Wrinkles • Graying and thinning hair • Loss of height • Presbyopia (the inability to see close objects clearly)
  20. 20. Aging Effects of Aging on Physical Health – Age-Related Macular Degeneration • Disorder of the eye resulting in distorted and blurry vision, often leading to irreversible blindness in older adults – Cataracts • Clouding of the lens of the eye which impair vision – Glaucoma • Abnormal fluid accumulation in the eyeball, causing vision loss
  21. 21. Aging Effects of Aging on Physical Health – Arthritis • Group of disease involving inflammation of the joints – Urinary Incontinence • The inability to control the flow of urine
  22. 22. Aging Effects of Aging on Physical Health – Alzheimer’s Disease • A common form of dementia –Characterized by memory loss, confusion, loss of control over behavior and body functions • Progressive condition that has no cure • Cause unclear, but some forms may be inherited • Brain imaging can now detect signs of shrinkage in the brain, a sign of Alzheimer’s
  23. 23. Aging Effects of Aging on Social Health – Ageism is a negative bias toward the elderly. • Results in mistrust and conflict between generations – Elderly Americans • Can be a valuable social asset • Experienced consultants or advisors
  24. 24. Aging Successful Aging – People who age successfully are independent, socially active, and in good health. • Maintain healthy body weight –Physically active people live longer than people who are sedentary. – Having a positive outlook, maintaining good spiritual health, and engaging in social activities may also enhance successful aging.
  25. 25. Dying Emotional Aspects of Dying • Elisabeth Kübler-Ross identified five emotional stages that terminally ill people experience while dying. This model may be useful for understanding the complex emotions of dying people. – Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance
  26. 26. Dying Terminal Care – Hospice is specialized care for patients with a few months to live. • It is health care designed to give emotional support and pain relief to terminally ill persons. • Care may be provided at home or in a special center. – Hospice staff also provides support for family members and grief counseling for survivors.
  27. 27. Death Euthanasia and the Right to Die – The practice of allowing permanently comatose or incurably ill persons to die – Active euthanasia • Physician hastens death by giving an overdose of pain-relieving drugs that depresses breathing. – Passive euthanasia • Physicians do not provide life-sustaining treatments or withdraw such care.