!
!
Health Care
!
Chapter 14
HEALTH CARE
•The traditional American attitude towards health care has been
passive
•People now realize that they must ass...
UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INFORMATION
•First challenge is to make sense of the health information explosion
•Popular magazines ...
UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INFORMATION
•Medicine is still as much art as science
•Helpful to remember journalists and editors of...
GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING HEALTH INFORMATION
!
•Following guidelines should help search for correct
health information
•Av...
GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATIVE HEALTH INFORMATION
•Beware of headline reading, which may present a partial truth that leads to ...
KNOWING THE TERMS
• A statistical relationship indicates the degree of association between two or
more variables; it does ...
QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT INFORMATION
•What type of study was used?
•Where they scientifically controlled studies?
•What was t...
CONSIDER THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION
•Respected journals, magazines and newsletters
•Internet
•Anywhere between 20-90% of h...
MANAGING HEALTH CARE
•Armed with correct information many aspects of health
care can be managed
•Questions for use in seek...
WHEN TO SEEK HEALTH CARE
•Signs and symptoms that warrant immediate medical
attention are:
• * Signs of internal bleeding
...
ENTERING A HOSPITAL
•When entering a hospital
• know the hospital’s accreditation status
•Decide on accommodations before ...
AVERAGE LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY 

(IN DAYS)
MANAGING HEALTH CARE
•Selecting a Healthcare Professional
•The primary care physician manages the general care of patients...
MANAGING HEALTH CARE
The best way to communicate with a physician about
health problems is to:
* Be specific about conditio...
MAKING CHOICES
• A second opinion is appropriate for chronic pain, recurring illnesses, and
elective surgery
•Alternative,...
ASSESSING YOUR HEALTH -PHYSICAL EXAMS
•People between the ages of 18 and 39 should have two complete
physical exams in the...
PHYSICAL EXAM COMPONENTS
• Medical history is the most important part of the physical exam
•Hands-on examination consists ...
HEALTH CARE – IMMUNIZATIONS FOR ADULTS
• Immunizations – administrations of preparations or vaccines for providing immunit...
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Ch 14

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Ch 14

  1. 1. ! ! Health Care ! Chapter 14
  2. 2. HEALTH CARE •The traditional American attitude towards health care has been passive •People now realize that they must assume more responsibility for safeguarding their health •Asking questions, placing demands on health care providers •Health fatalism is the attitude that no information can be trusted
  3. 3. UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INFORMATION •First challenge is to make sense of the health information explosion •Popular magazines regularly print health articles •Newspapers have entire section on medicine •Newsletters devote entire sections to health •Television programs feature health segments •Thousands of scientific health related studies published daily •Interest in health information is at an all time high •Much information is confusing and even contradictory •Medical flip-flops •Fact from fiction •Claims of risk/benefits of eggs, coffee, and countless other food and health products
  4. 4. UNDERSTANDING HEALTH INFORMATION •Medicine is still as much art as science •Helpful to remember journalists and editors often highlight unusual finding in headlines to grab attention •Researcher typically view each new study as one piece of a large puzzle that may or may not stand the test of time •What seems as reversal of thinking may be the need to refine the message or requiring additional study
  5. 5. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING HEALTH INFORMATION ! •Following guidelines should help search for correct health information •Avoid jumping to conclusions because of oversimplification or generalization •Remember that health discoveries take time
  6. 6. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATIVE HEALTH INFORMATION •Beware of headline reading, which may present a partial truth that leads to a wrong conclusion •Health information that can be trusted is based on scientifically controlled studies that yield consistent results over time •A study should be: •Valid (truthful) • Reliable •Statistically significant •Statistical Relationship
  7. 7. KNOWING THE TERMS • A statistical relationship indicates the degree of association between two or more variables; it does not mean there is a cause and effect relationship • The provocative Effect is the “power of suggestion” •People tended to exercise more after been asked about their exercise habits • Risk factors are health habits or practices that increase the risk of getting certain diseases • Epidemiological studies are population studies in which the health habits and lifestyles of many people are observed over time • A study should have a sufficient number of people in it to make the information applicable
  8. 8. QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT INFORMATION •What type of study was used? •Where they scientifically controlled studies? •What was the funding source of the study? •What were the characteristics of the people in the study? •How many people were in the study? •Who funded the study?
  9. 9. CONSIDER THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION •Respected journals, magazines and newsletters •Internet •Anywhere between 20-90% of health information on the internet is incomplete and/or inaccurate •Are dates provided? •Who is the source or owner of the website? •Are any products/procedures being promoted?
  10. 10. MANAGING HEALTH CARE •Armed with correct information many aspects of health care can be managed •Questions for use in seeking health care services and products • When should you seek health care? • What can you expect from a stay in the hospital? • How can you select a health care professional?
  11. 11. WHEN TO SEEK HEALTH CARE •Signs and symptoms that warrant immediate medical attention are: • * Signs of internal bleeding • * Abdominal pain with nausea • * A stiff neck accompanied by fever • * Serious first aid emergencies and injuries •Trust your instincts; you know best about your health •Seek help for a fever when it is greater than 102°F and has shown no improvement for 72 hours
  12. 12. ENTERING A HOSPITAL •When entering a hospital • know the hospital’s accreditation status •Decide on accommodations before admission •Know your rights as a patient •Discuss all treatments and procedures, and ask questions if you do not understand something •Informed consent is your agreement to a procedure after having been informed about it and the risks involved •Implied consent is nonverbal authorization for a medical procedure
  13. 13. AVERAGE LENGTH OF HOSPITAL STAY 
 (IN DAYS)
  14. 14. MANAGING HEALTH CARE •Selecting a Healthcare Professional •The primary care physician manages the general care of patients and directs them to specialized services as needed •Patient-Physician Communication •Patients who do not insist on being heard may get plenty of advice and medications, but they may not get the best results
  15. 15. MANAGING HEALTH CARE The best way to communicate with a physician about health problems is to: * Be specific about conditions * State the most important problem first * Know your family medical history * Know the names of medicines you are taking (including herbal and vitamin supplements) * Know your diagnosis * Know how to follow recommended treatments
  16. 16. MAKING CHOICES • A second opinion is appropriate for chronic pain, recurring illnesses, and elective surgery •Alternative, Complementary, Integrative Medicine • Allopathic medicine - medical practice based on science and treats disease by using remedies that produce effects different from those caused by the disease under treatment • Alternative (complementary - medicine is the use of therapies not taught in U.S. medical schools • it is generally unavailable from doctors or hospitals • Complementary Medicine - Used in addition to treatments by medical doctor • Integrative Medicine - Sometimes used in place of traditional medicine
  17. 17. ASSESSING YOUR HEALTH -PHYSICAL EXAMS •People between the ages of 18 and 39 should have two complete physical exams in their twenties •Those between ages of 40 and 65 should see their physician at least every 1 to 5 years •People over age 65 can benefit from a physical exam every year •The medical history is the most important part of the physical exam •The hands-on examination consists of touching, looking, and listening •Diagnostic laboratory tests for specific symptoms may be invaluable; a periodic exam includes laboratory tests as needed
  18. 18. PHYSICAL EXAM COMPONENTS • Medical history is the most important part of the physical exam •Hands-on examination consists of touching, looking, and listening •Diagnostic laboratory tests for specific symptoms may be invaluable; a periodic exam includes laboratory tests as needed •Direct- Access Testing (DAT) •Trend in medical testing that offers patients convenience, privacy, and a sense of control •Patient goes to commercial or hospital lab affiliated with DAT vendor •Results mailed to patient in a few day •Done without physician orders and convenient •Not available in all states •Physician must be in loop to interpret test results and plan follow-up care •Should not be used as a substitute for physical from physician
  19. 19. HEALTH CARE – IMMUNIZATIONS FOR ADULTS • Immunizations – administrations of preparations or vaccines for providing immunity or preventing a disease •Not just for children •Adults should be immunized against influenza, pneumonia, hepatitis, measles, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, and chicken pox, and shingles •Booster shots for tetanus and diphtheria every 10 years •Girls and women ages 11-26 should be vaccinated against human papillomavirus (HPV •Hepatitis A and B vaccinations protect against liver disease and are recommended for adults
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