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Ch 13
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Ch 13

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  • 1. ! Understanding Cancer and Diabetes ! Chapter 13
  • 2. CANCER • Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled, disorderly cell growth • Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the U.S. and the leading cause for young adults and children • Lifetime risk for men getting cancer is 1 in 2 while the lifetime risk for women is 1 in 3. • Cured means there is no evidence of disease and the patient has the same life expectancy of a person who never had cancer.
  • 3. CANCER FACTS • Sometimes the nucleus of a cell looses the ability to regulate cell growth, producing a mutant cell • A mass of mutant cells is called a neoplasm (tumor) • A neoplasm can be malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous) • Malignant tumors can spread and crowd out normal tissue
  • 4. CAUSES AND PREVENTION • Metastasis is the process by which cancer cells spread from their primary site to a secondary site • Cancer is caused by both external and internal factors • Ten or more years often elapses from the time of cell mutation until actual detection of the cancer
  • 5. CAUSES AND PREVENTION • Carcinogens are any cancer-causing agents • Proto-oncogenes regulatory genes found in all cells • Disruptions in proto-oncogenes caused by environmental factors or replication errors can result in a cancer-producing gene (oncogene) • Suppressor genes control cell growth
  • 6. CAUSES AND PREVENTION • Evidence suggests that many cancers related to nutrition, inactivity and obesity • Almost two-thirds of cancers are related to diet and smoking • 170,000 cancer deaths caused by tobacco use. • Many cancers caused by ultra-violet (UV) light (sunlight) • Viruses also associated with cancers • ALL PREVENTABLE CAUSES
  • 7. CANCER SITES
  • 8. CANCER STAGING • Cancer staging is the process of determining how far cancer has spread • Important: • Helps determine what types of treatment • Helps provide prognosis of the cancer • Several systems for staging –TNM procedure most commonly used • T – describes the size of the tumor and if spreading of the cancer has occurred • N – Describes how far the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes • M – Determines if cancer has metastasized to other organs of the body
  • 9. CANCERS OF CONCERNTO EVERYONE • Lung cancer • The leading cause of cancer death around the world • Early diagnosis is rare • Two main types • Small cell lung cancer • Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) • Tobacco products cause more than 80% of lung cancers • Many cancer causing substances found in tobacco are also found in marijuana • Colorectal cancer • Ranks third in cancer deaths for men and women In the U.S. • 90% cure rate is found early • The cure rate for colorectal cancer is only 10% once is has spread • Diet is considered the primary cause of colorectal cancer development. Smoker 30-49% greater probability of developing • Identification of polyps is a primary screening method
  • 10. • Stomach cancer • Steadily declining in the U.S., probably because of refrigeration and decreased use of salt as a preservative • Liver cancer • Very deadly; in the U.S. it is most closely linked to hepatitis and cirrhosis • Pancreatic cancer • One of the five leading causes of cancer death, but relatively little is known about it • 5 year survival rate is only 4%
  • 11. • Leukemia • The causes are largely unidentified; in adults, progression of the disease is slow and produces few symptoms • Four main types • Acute (AML), Chronic myeloid (LMC), acute lymphocytic (ALL), chronic myeloid (CCC) • Lymphoma • Cancer of lymphoid tissue • Hodgkin’s disease rates have declined, especially among the elderly • Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma rates have nearly doubled since the 1970s
  • 12. SKIN CANCER 
 *MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURRINGTYPES OF CANCERS • Basal cell carcinoma • The most common skin cancer • Grows slowly and rarely spreads • Squamous cell carcinoma • The second most common skin cancer • Grows slowly • Does metastasize • Malignant melanoma • The least common skin cancer • Causes of 75% of skin cancer deaths
  • 13. SKIN CANCER: MELANOMA • Incidence of melanoma seems to be related to intermittent sun exposure and blistering sunburns early in life ! • Melanoma often appears on parts of the body rarely exposed to the sun; use of sunscreen does not seem to decrease risk ! • Melanoma incidence has increased dramatically in the last few decades
  • 14. SKIN CANCER Knowing the ABCDs of skin cancer can help you detect melanoma in the early, treatable stages A = Asymmetry (halves are shaped differently) B = Border irregularity (may have scalloped or uneven edges) C = Color (color is not uniform) D = Diameter (larger than 6 mm)
  • 15. ORAL CANCER • Occurs more than twice as often in males than females • Cigar and pipe smoking as well as use of smokeless tobacco are primary causes
  • 16. BREAST CANCER • One in nine women who live to age 85 will develop breast cancer • The 5-year survival rate for localized breast cancer is 96% • Distant metastasis has only a 21% 5-year survival rate • Monthly breast self-exams remain the primary way to detect breast cancer when small and localized • One in nine women who live to age 85 will develop breast cancer • Being over 60 automatically places a women in high-risk category • Mutation of two genes BRCA1 & BRCA2 account for development of some breast cancer in some women • Other causes unknown – smoking does seem to increase risk • Symptoms – tumor that feels like a hard nodule • Other symptoms –thickening, swelling, dimpling, scaling, pain, tenderness of nipple, or discharge from nipple
  • 17. OTHER CANCERS AFFECTING WOMEN • Uterine cancer • Occurs in either the cervix or the endometrium • Cervical cancer • One of the most treatable forms of cancer • Ovarian cancer • Often deadly because it is rarely found in the early stages
  • 18. CANCERS AFFECTING MEN • Testicular Cancer • Almost 8400 15- to 34-year-old men are diagnosed every year • Young men should perform a monthly testicular self-exam • Prostate cancer • Rarely strikes young men • Although it is the second leading cause of cancer death in men • Early diagnosis has a 100 percent cure rate
  • 19. TREATMENT • Surgery • Removal of malignant tissue • Chemotherapy • Combination of drugs and hormones • Destroy cancer cells’ ability to divide and replicate; also affects health cells • AntiangiogenesisTherapy • Stops cancerous growths from developing new blood vessels • Only mild side effects • Note very effective as the sole treatment
  • 20. OTHERTREATMENTS • Radiotherapy • Bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplants • Immunotherapy • Gene therapy • Complementary therapies
  • 21. DIABETES MELLITUS • A group of diseases characterized by the body’s inability to make insulin, insufficient insulin production, or the inability to properly use insulin • Due to unavailability of insulin, the body’s glucose (blood sugar) is unavailable for use and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) results
  • 22. DIABETES MELLITUS • When sugar is not available for energy, fat must be used • Fat as an energy source without glucose causes an excess of chemicals called ketone bodies to build up in the body • Ketone bodies increase the acid level of the blood, leading to many physical problems, including ketoacidosis and death
  • 23. HOW DIABETES AFFECTSTHE BODY
  • 24. TYPE 1 DIABETES • An autoimmune disease that occurs most frequently in children and young adults • In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce any insulin because of autoimmune damage • Insulin injections of daily monitoring of blood sugar levels are necessary
  • 25. TYPE II DIABETES • The most common and is found primarily in people over 40 years old • Type 2 diabetes is strongly linked to heredity and obesity • Condition can often be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight management
  • 26. OTHER COMPLICATIONS • Pre-Diabetes • At risk for developing type 2 diabetes • Blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes • Gestational Diabetes (type 2) • Occurs in some women during pregnancy • Must be managed to avoid further complications
  • 27. TREATMENT • There is no cure for diabetes • 50% to 85% of all complications are preventable or treatable • negligence can result in early death ! • Type II can often be controlled with weight loss, exercise and adequate nutrition • emphasis on carbohydrate consumption • exercise linked to decreased incidence • for each 500 calorie increment in exercise-risk for type II decreases 6%
  • 28. TREATMENT • There have been many advancements in treating diabetes • new medications that increase insulin, slows absorption of blood sugar; makes the body more receptive to insulin • new types of insulin • new methods of delivering insulin to the body • better methods of monitoring glucose • Islet cell transplants • pancreas transplants
  • 29. MAJOR COMPLICATIONS • Coronary heart disease (CHD) • Dental disease • Foot problems • Kidney disease • Nerve damage • Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) • Skin problems

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