Introduction to FEMA Quanan Zheng Ph. D., Senior Research Scientist Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 USA COAA ITEC Emergency Response and Management Training Program for Suzhou Delegation, China Nov. 28, 2010
美国国土安全部 联邦应急管理局 Federal Emergency Management AgencyU.S. Department of Homeland Security 500 C Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20472(202) 646-2500
FEMA Mission FEMA’s mission is to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain, and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards. FEMA的使命是支持我们的公民和第一线人员，确保全国协调一致，为建设、支持和改善我们应对所有灾害的预防能力、防护能力、响应能力、重建能力和救灾能力。
DISASTER It strikes anytime, anywhere. It takes many forms – a hurricane, an earthquake, a tornado, a flood, a fire or a hazardous spill, an act of nature or an act of terrorism. It builds over days or weeks, or hits suddenly, without warning. Every year, millions of Americans face disaster, and its terrifying consequences. 任何时间、任何地点都可能发生灾害。灾害有众多形式—飓风、地震、龙卷风、洪水、火灾或者灾害性泄漏、自然发生或恐怖行为。灾害可持续几天或数周、或者毫无预警而突然袭来。每年均有数以百万计美国人面临灾害及其可怕后果。
Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials in various forms can cause death, serious injury, long-lasting health effects, and damage to buildings, homes, and other property. Many products containing hazardous chemicals are used and stored in homes routinely. These products are also shipped daily on the nation's highways, railroads, waterways, and pipelines. Chemical manufacturers are one source of hazardous materials, but there are many others, including service stations, hospitals, and hazardous materials waste sites.
The disaster life cycle describes the process through which emergency managers prepare for emergencies and disasters, respond to them when they occur, help people and institutions recover from them, mitigate their effects, reduce the risk of loss, and prevent disasters such as fires from occurring. And at every stage of this cycle you see FEMA -- the federal agency charged with building and supporting the nation's emergency management system.
FEMA History FEMA has more than 3,700 full time employees. They work at FEMA headquarters in Washington D.C., at regional and area offices across the country, the Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center, and the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. FEMA also has nearly 4,000 standby disaster assistance employees who are available for deployment after disasters. Often FEMA works in partnership with other organizations that are part of the nation's emergency management system. These partners include state and local emergency management agencies, 27 federal agencies and the American Red Cross.
FEMA’s mission is to reduce the loss of life and property and protect communities nationwide from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters. FEMA leads and supports the nation in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery and mitigation. Disaster victim hugs FEMA employee after receiving direct Housing Assistance for temporary housing.
Members of the FEMA Urban Search and Rescue, Colorado Task Force 1, receive instructions before entering Ground Zero at the World Trade Center. Michael Rieger/FEMA
A History of Care The Congressional Act of 1803 was the earliest effort to provide disaster relief on a federal level. In 1979, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was established by an executive order, which merged many of the separate disaster-related responsibilities into a single agency. Since then, FEMA has dedicated itself to the mission of helping communities nationwide prepare for, respond to and recover from natural and manmade disasters . In 2003, the agency became part of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). As of November 2007, FEMA has responded to more than 2,700 presidentially declared disasters.
Top Ten Natural Disasters Ranked By FEMA Relief Costs
• Service to Disaster Victims Responsive and compassionate care for disaster victims is FEMA’s top priority. FEMA provides rapid, ready, clear and consistent access to disaster assistance to all eligible individuals and communities. The agency also is able to assist individuals with multilingual or special needs requirements.
• Integrated Preparedness FEMA works closely with federal, tribal, state and local governments, voluntary agencies, private sector partners, and the American public to ensure the nation is secured and prepared to respond to and recover from terror attacks, major disasters and other emergencies.
• Operational Planning and Preparedness Working closely with federal, tribal, state and local partners, FEMA’s Operational Planners assist jurisdictions to develop planning capabilities and write area- and incident-specific operational plans that will guide local response activities.
• Incident Management With a forward leaning posture, FEMA can respond more swiftly and decisively to all hazards with around-the-clock support. The agency continues to professionalize its workforce by training and certifying staff members of the FEMA in emergency management skills and techniques. FEMA also works closely with external partners to improve and update standards, and support the enduring efforts of America’s first responders.
• Disaster Logistics FEMA implements 21st century logistics and procurement systems to help efficiently and effectively plan, identify, track and distribute supplies needed by disaster victims, emergency responders and other users on the ground. Working with an array of public and private strategic partners, donors and pre-arranged contractors, a businesslike FEMA provides improved logistics integration and customer support. Supplies being loaded at one of eight FEMA logistics centers, which support FEMA disaster responders with critical equipment and supplies and also provide resources to states during disaster operations. Liz Roll/FEMA
• Hazard Mitigation FEMA works proactively to reduce the physical and financial impact of future disasters through improved risk analysis and hazard mitigation planning, risk reduction and flood insurance. FEMA helps implement effective hazard mitigation practices in order to create safer communities, promote rapid recovery from floods and other disasters, and reduce the financial impact at the federal, tribal, state and local levels. FEMA Mitigation staff gives flood repair and prevention information to a shopper at a local home building store. John Ficara/FEMA
• Public Disaster Communications FEMA coordinates all hazards messaging before, during and after national emergencies using three strategies: public risk communications, partnership management and employee communications. By successfully managing these elements, FEMA supports operational efforts and ensures clear, consistent and effective information for disaster victims and emergency management partners and stakeholders.
A FEMA Community Relations employee talks with a victim, providing pamphlets and brochures with vital information about FEMA programs and steps to take to apply for assistance. Andrea Booher/ FEMA
• Continuity Programs FEMA supports upgrades to and implementation of the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System. It is the lead agent for the Nation’s programs in ensuring the continuity of government operations and essential functions and the endurance of our constitutional form of government in a catastrophic event.
FEMA Community Relations employees assist residents at a grass-roots level by going neighborhood by neighborhood in hard hit disaster areas ensuring everyone who needs help is getting it. Andrea Booher/FEMA
Emergency responders in Level B Personal Protective Equipment conduct decontamination training at FEMA’s Center for Domestic Preparedness. The center’s performance-based instruction features the only toxic chemical agent training for civilian responders. CDP/FEMA