Transportation for the Future of New England Cities and Towns Presented by  Norman Washington Garrick
The Demise of City Life in Connecticut <ul><li>In 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 70 % of Connecticut residents lived in cit...
What is Transportation For? Lewis Mumford (The Highway and the City, 1964)
Pharmacies in Washington, DC ½  Mile
Pharmacies in Hartford ½  Mile
Vehicle Miles Traveled Ref for Vehicle Data ---- http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2007_fcvt_fotw474.html...
Vehicle Miles Traveled Ref for Vehicle Data ---- http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2007_fcvt_fotw474.html...
Vehicle Miles Traveled Ref for Vehicle Data ---- http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2007_fcvt_fotw474.html...
Driving to Exhaustion <ul><li>1946 </li></ul><ul><li>The average American drove  6  miles every day </li></ul><ul><li>2004...
Cities will be part of the country;  I shall live 30 miles from my office in one direction, under a pine tree;  my secreta...
 
 
 
 
 
Hartford 1930s
Hartford 1960s
 
 
Conventional Transportation Planning  More Highways More Parking Prediction  of  More Driving Less Walking/Transit Plans f...
Conventional Transportation Planning  and the Spiral of Decay  More Highways More Parking More Driving Less Walking/Transi...
Land Consumption for Transportation in American Cities 1960 to 2000 <ul><li>Cambridge, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Somerville, MA...
<ul><li>Cambridge, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Somerville, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Evanston, IL </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Spring, MD ...
The Fate of Hartford 1960 to 2000 More Highways More Parking More Driving Less Walking/Transit Fewer Jobs Fewer Residents ...
Spiral of Decay in Hartford 1960 to 2000 More Highways More Parking More Driving Less Walking/Transit Fewer Jobs Fewer Res...
Cambridge versus Hartford 1960 to 2000 Hartford Cambridge Driving No Change Parking Up 104 %  Transit Down 20 %  Walking U...
Why the Spiral of Decay? Rate of Driving Parking per Activity Cities with high driving rates require up to  5 to 6 times m...
Why the Spiral of Decay? Cities with more parking end up accommodating  many fewer jobs and residents per square mile  Par...
City Friendly Transportation Planning What is the vision for the city? Create a transportation system  that supports this ...
City Friendly Transportation Planning Creating a transportation system for the city we want Parking Caps No highways No st...
Los Angeles, California  Tuesday March 15 1800 Hours
Los Angeles, California  Wednesday March 16 0730 Hours
Excessive Street Capacity is Everywhere Not Just in the Heart of America’s 2 nd  City at Rush Hour
 
Remember, Zürich was not built in a day!
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CNUNE Summit Norman Garrick

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CNUNE Summit Norman Garrick

  1. 1. Transportation for the Future of New England Cities and Towns Presented by Norman Washington Garrick
  2. 2. The Demise of City Life in Connecticut <ul><li>In 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 70 % of Connecticut residents lived in cities </li></ul><ul><li>By 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Only 50 % of Connecticut residents lived in Cities </li></ul><ul><li>By some measures, Connecticut is sprawling at a faster rate than Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>How did this massive re-orientation occur? </li></ul><ul><li>We now know that transportation policies played a huge role </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Transportation For? Lewis Mumford (The Highway and the City, 1964)
  4. 4. Pharmacies in Washington, DC ½ Mile
  5. 5. Pharmacies in Hartford ½ Mile
  6. 6. Vehicle Miles Traveled Ref for Vehicle Data ---- http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2007_fcvt_fotw474.html Ref for VMT ---- http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2007/vmt421.cfm 1908 The Model T 1930s The Depression 1940-45 World War II 1956 Highway Bill 1973 First Oil Crisis 1979 Second Oil Crisis 2004 ??? 1949 Housing Act
  7. 7. Vehicle Miles Traveled Ref for Vehicle Data ---- http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2007_fcvt_fotw474.html Ref for VMT ---- http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2007/vmt421.cfm US Canada Germany Japan
  8. 8. Vehicle Miles Traveled Ref for Vehicle Data ---- http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2007_fcvt_fotw474.html Ref for VMT ---- http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2007/vmt421.cfm
  9. 9. Driving to Exhaustion <ul><li>1946 </li></ul><ul><li>The average American drove 6 miles every day </li></ul><ul><li>2004 </li></ul><ul><li>The average American drove 30 miles per day </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cities will be part of the country; I shall live 30 miles from my office in one direction, under a pine tree; my secretary will live 30 miles away from it too, in the other direction, under another pine tree. We shall both have our own car. We shall use up tires, wear out road surfaces and gears, consume oil and gasoline. All of which will necessitate a great deal of work … enough for all. Le Corbusier, 1935
  11. 16. Hartford 1930s
  12. 17. Hartford 1960s
  13. 20. Conventional Transportation Planning More Highways More Parking Prediction of More Driving Less Walking/Transit Plans for Development Conventional transportation planning assumes the following linear relationship This approach to planning is often referred to as ‘predict and provide’ There are a number of flaws in this model - including the assumption of a linear relationship
  14. 21. Conventional Transportation Planning and the Spiral of Decay More Highways More Parking More Driving Less Walking/Transit Fewer Jobs Fewer Residents = New Urbanists and others have long argued that conventional transportation planning behaves more like the model shown below Recently we started a research project which is investigating this model
  15. 22. Land Consumption for Transportation in American Cities 1960 to 2000 <ul><li>Cambridge, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Somerville, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Evanston, IL </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Spring, MD </li></ul><ul><li>New Haven, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Hartford, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Alameda, CA </li></ul><ul><li>San Mateo, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Lowell, MA </li></ul>
  16. 23. <ul><li>Cambridge, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Somerville, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Evanston, IL </li></ul><ul><li>Silver Spring, MD </li></ul><ul><li>New Haven, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Hartford, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Alameda, CA </li></ul><ul><li>San Mateo, CA </li></ul><ul><li>Lowell, MA </li></ul>Land Consumption for Transportation in American Cities 1960 to 2000 Low Auto Use Cites High Auto Use Cites
  17. 24. The Fate of Hartford 1960 to 2000 More Highways More Parking More Driving Less Walking/Transit Fewer Jobs Fewer Residents = The evidence so far from our study seems to strongly support this ‘spiral of decay’ model
  18. 25. Spiral of Decay in Hartford 1960 to 2000 More Highways More Parking More Driving Less Walking/Transit Fewer Jobs Fewer Residents = Driving Up 39 % Parking Up 180 % Transit Down 45 % Walking Down 56 % Jobs Down 7 % Residents Down 25 %
  19. 26. Cambridge versus Hartford 1960 to 2000 Hartford Cambridge Driving No Change Parking Up 104 % Transit Down 20 % Walking Up 32 % Jobs Up 73 % Residents Down 7 % Driving Up 39 % Parking Up 180 % Transit Down 45 % Walking Down 56 % Jobs Down 7 % Residents Down 25 %
  20. 27. Why the Spiral of Decay? Rate of Driving Parking per Activity Cities with high driving rates require up to 5 to 6 times more parking for each new job or resident Very costly, uses lots of land and creates a horrible walking environment Hartford Cambridge
  21. 28. Why the Spiral of Decay? Cities with more parking end up accommodating many fewer jobs and residents per square mile Parking per Activity Activities per Sq. Mile Hartford Cambridge
  22. 29. City Friendly Transportation Planning What is the vision for the city? Create a transportation system that supports this vision
  23. 30. City Friendly Transportation Planning Creating a transportation system for the city we want Parking Caps No highways No street widening No street retirement Freeway removal Road Diet Eliminate one-way streets Restore on-street parking
  24. 31. Los Angeles, California Tuesday March 15 1800 Hours
  25. 32. Los Angeles, California Wednesday March 16 0730 Hours
  26. 33. Excessive Street Capacity is Everywhere Not Just in the Heart of America’s 2 nd City at Rush Hour
  27. 35. Remember, Zürich was not built in a day!

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