CNUNE Summit George Proakis

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  • 03/21/11 Presenter: Please be patient. Many slides have animations that take a few seconds to complete.
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Overly wide streets Expensive to build and maintain Encourage speeding Dangerous for children and pedestrians
  • 03/21/11 Address different standards for different transect zones Design streets appropriate for pedestrians as well as vehicles Encourage traffic calming measures to keep traffic slow on subdivision streets Encourage stormwater management practices that are appropriate for the level of urban or suburban development
  • 03/21/11 Address different standards for different transect zones Design streets appropriate for pedestrians as well as vehicles Encourage traffic calming measures to keep traffic slow on subdivision streets Encourage stormwater management practices that are appropriate for the level of urban or suburban development
  • 03/21/11 Address different standards for different transect zones Design streets appropriate for pedestrians as well as vehicles Encourage traffic calming measures to keep traffic slow on subdivision streets Encourage stormwater management practices that are appropriate for the level of urban or suburban development
  • 03/21/11 Address different standards for different transect zones Design streets appropriate for pedestrians as well as vehicles Encourage traffic calming measures to keep traffic slow on subdivision streets Encourage stormwater management practices that are appropriate for the level of urban or suburban development
  • 03/21/11 Address different standards for different transect zones Design streets appropriate for pedestrians as well as vehicles Encourage traffic calming measures to keep traffic slow on subdivision streets Encourage stormwater management practices that are appropriate for the level of urban or suburban development
  • CNUNE Summit George Proakis

    1. 1. New England Rules: Strategies and Lessons for Implementing Form-Based Codes in New England Presented by: George J. Proakis, AICP Director of Planning City of Somerville, MA CNU New England March 18, 2011
    2. 2. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    3. 3. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    4. 4. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    5. 5. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    6. 6. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    7. 7. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    8. 8. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    9. 9. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development maps.live.com
    10. 10. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    11. 11. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    12. 12. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    13. 13. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    14. 14. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    15. 15. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development Local.live.com
    16. 16. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development maps.live.com
    17. 17. Form Follows Regulation: New England Towns
    18. 18. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    19. 19. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    20. 20. Form Follows Regulation: New England: Recent Development
    21. 21. The Appliance and The Grid “ We know what the appliance is . . . . - Christopher Alexander
    22. 22. The Appliance and The Grid “ We know what the appliance is . . . . Now we need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
    23. 23. The Appliance and The Grid <ul><li>Villages, towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Good designs </li></ul><ul><li>High quality mixed use projects </li></ul><ul><li>Transit-oriented development </li></ul><ul><li>Smart growth </li></ul><ul><li>New urbanism </li></ul><ul><li>Town meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning Board </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Board </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Town Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Chief </li></ul><ul><li>State Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>“ We know what the appliance is . . . . Now we need to find the plugs to connect it to the existing power grids.” - Christopher Alexander
    24. 24. Form Based Codes in New England
    25. 25. The Form Based Code: What Does It Do Differently? Ferrell Madden Associates
    26. 26. The Form Based Code What Does It Do Differently? <ul><li>Prescriptive not proscriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Public can see ‘what happens where’ </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate development on a lot by lot basis </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect a diversity of architecture within a community vision and legal framework </li></ul><ul><li>Define and codify a neighborhood ‘DNA’ </li></ul><ul><li>Concise, organized, and written for non-planners to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the need for ‘design guidelines’ and replace them with more enforceable regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Less oversight of individual projects by review bodies </li></ul>By Peter Katz: Form Based Codes Institute
    27. 27. Form Based Codes in New England Background <ul><li>Communities are often small </li></ul><ul><li>All zoning at municipal level (limited county gov’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning is often seen as a fiscal impact tool or sacred document </li></ul><ul><li>Many communities operate under local town meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Many communities do not have full-time planners </li></ul><ul><li>Great local urbanism but zoning does not reflect NE </li></ul><ul><li>Everything here takes longer to develop – even in good times </li></ul>
    28. 28. Form Based Codes in New England Background <ul><li>Significant recent interest in charrettes and form based codes </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted codes in all New England states </li></ul><ul><li>FBC plans in progress in many other communities </li></ul><ul><li>NE Form Based Codes Council, November 2009 in Lowell, MA </li></ul><ul><li>More of the barriers are falling, but there is more work to be done </li></ul>
    29. 29. Form Based Codes in New England <ul><li>Southfield, Weymouth / Abington / Rockland, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton Canal District, Lowell, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown RI </li></ul><ul><li>Hamden, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Dover, NH </li></ul><ul><li>Stratham, NH </li></ul><ul><li>Newport, VT </li></ul><ul><li>Standish, ME </li></ul><ul><li>I-93 Tri-town Development Area </li></ul><ul><li>Andover / Tewksbury / Wilmington, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Bridgeton, ME </li></ul><ul><li>Damariscotta, ME </li></ul><ul><li>Burlington, VT </li></ul><ul><li>Simsbury, CT </li></ul>
    30. 30. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    31. 31. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    32. 32. Form Based Codes in New England Newport
    33. 33. Form Based Codes in New England Newport <ul><ul><li>Site: Small downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: Town of 5,000 near Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.6 sq miles of land area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: Protection / infill downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by: Town planner w/ volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of code: Mandatory / Integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontage and Transect Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted: December 2010 </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Form Based Codes in New England Newport: Regulating Plan
    35. 35. Form Based Codes in New England Newport: Regulating Plan
    36. 36. Form Based Codes in New England Newport: Regulating Plan
    37. 37. Form Based Codes in New England Newport <ul><ul><li>Code Development Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2009 Rural Urban Design Assistance Team (RUDAT) from AIA led the initial community discussions about future of downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Town planner used local students to catalog existing conditions and draft information for standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting details: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local planner is seeking to complete the form based code on a $15,000 consulting budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vermont state government seeking to replicate the model if it is successful in Newport </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    39. 39. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal District
    40. 40. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal District <ul><ul><li>Site: Brownfield, TOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjacent to downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: Community of 100K, 16 sq miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: New district development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by: Master Developer & City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of code: Mandatory – Street Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project approval body: HCD Review Group for FBC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic Board for Arch. Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted: February 24, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build-out to date: First building under construction </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Charrette <ul><ul><li>Standard Charrette Phases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research, Education and Preparation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charrette </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal District Charrette <ul><li>NCI Charrette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least four consecutive days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing for at least three design feedback loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open process including all interested parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a feasible product with minimal work </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal District Charrette <ul><li>Lowell Charrette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same preparation and implementation steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four days of design and public participation spread over four months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback loops </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Form Based Codes in New England Hamilton Canal District Charrette <ul><li>Lowell Charrette </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Months of outreach before first session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early listening sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross functional collaborative team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible outcome that is embedded in the code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design as the basis for the shared vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No opposition to FBC and universal political support for the plan </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    46. 46. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury
    47. 47. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury Code
    48. 48. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury Code
    49. 49. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury <ul><ul><li>Site: Historic town center and adjacent land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: Community of 23,000, 34 sq miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: Town center and new development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by: Consulting team hired by town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of code: Mandatory – Street Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to traditional town code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project approval body: Zoning Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted: Draft complete, adoption forthcoming </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury Code
    51. 51. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury Code
    52. 52. Form Based Codes in New England Simsbury Code Team <ul><ul><li>Codestudio, Town Planning Austin, TX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Coast Design Studio, Urban Design Nashville, TN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter & Company, Preservation Boulder, CO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Advantage, Computer Visualization Berkeley, CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nelson / Nygaard, Transportation Boston, CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W-ZHA, Market Analysis Annapolis, MD </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    54. 54. Form Based Codes in New England <ul><li>Southfield, Weymouth / Abington / Rockland, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton Canal District, Lowell, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown RI </li></ul><ul><li>Hamden, CT </li></ul><ul><li>Dover, NH </li></ul><ul><li>Stratham, NH </li></ul><ul><li>Newport, VT </li></ul><ul><li>Standish, ME </li></ul><ul><li>I-93 Tri-town Development Area </li></ul><ul><li>Andover / Tewksbury / Wilmington, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Bridgeton, ME </li></ul><ul><li>Damariscotta, ME </li></ul><ul><li>Burlington, VT </li></ul><ul><li>Simsbury, CT </li></ul>
    55. 55. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    56. 56. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield
    57. 57. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield <ul><ul><li>Site: Brownfield, on Commuter Rail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former navy air station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: 1000+ acres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: Mixed use center / biotech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by: Towns, consultants, developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of code: Floating but Mandatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transect Based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval body: Tri-town Development Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted: June / July 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build-out to date: Construction begun in 2011 </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Master Plan
    59. 59. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Regulating Plan
    60. 60. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Street Standards
    61. 61. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Building Form Standards
    62. 62. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Building Form Standards
    63. 63. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Building Form Standards
    64. 64. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Building Form Standards
    65. 65. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Building Form Standards
    66. 66. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield: Use and Form Table
    67. 67. Form Based Codes in New England Southfield <ul><ul><li>Code Development Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code adapted from a zoning code originally developed for construction of a mega-mall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public outcry about the mall brought about the mixed-use alternative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code adopted with master developer’s assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Review Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning is applied to sites of 20+ acres as they are approved in Development Plans submitted to the Tri-Town Development Corporation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller developments subject to site plan review or Zoning Administrator review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimeter area project subject to local Planning Board review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting details: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tri-Town Development Corporation is not limited by Mass Zoning Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectural standards and guidelines adopted after the FBC passed, as a separate document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed to mix subdivision / zoning in the document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotech forms are actually suburban forms </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown
    69. 69. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown <ul><ul><li>Site: Small downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: Island Community of 5,600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 sq miles of land area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: Protection / infill downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by: Town planner w/ consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of code: Mandatory / Modified Smartcode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified Transect Based Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project approval body: Planner / Plan Review Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted: October 22, 2009 </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown: Regulating Plan
    71. 71. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown: Regulating Plan
    72. 72. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown: Building Placement
    73. 73. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown: Private Frontages
    74. 74. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown: Pattern Book
    75. 75. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown: Pattern Book
    76. 76. Form Based Codes in New England Jamestown <ul><ul><li>Code Development Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive charrette followed by code drafting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Review Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major development review by Plan Review Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All projects reviewed by Town Planner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting details: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zones and review system simplified between completion of consultant report and approval of zoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern book provides guidelines for project review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smartcode in Jamestown approved on the same day that Miami, FL approved their citywide smartcode. </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    78. 78. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden
    79. 79. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden <ul><ul><li>Site: Small downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: Suburban town 58,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 sq miles of land area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project: Protection / infill downtown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by: Town planner w/ consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of code: Mandatory / Integrated / Smartcode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified Transect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project approval body: Planning Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted: December 7, 2009 </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden: Zoning Map / Regulating Plan
    81. 81. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden: Transect Descriptions
    82. 82. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden: Building Form Standards
    83. 83. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden: Use Table
    84. 84. Form Based Codes in New England Hamden <ul><ul><li>Code Development Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charrette followed by extensive townwide review process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Review Process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential and very small projects by right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most development requires Planning Commission Special Permit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting details: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Town-wide rezoning included transect districts regulated by FBC and residential districts regulated by conventional zoning regulations </li></ul></ul>
    85. 85. New England Rules: The Challenges / Myths / Lessons <ul><li>New England towns can’t afford to do a Form-based code </li></ul><ul><li>New Englanders are too suspicious of a fast charrette </li></ul><ul><li>New England small towns won’t let outsiders lead their zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Form-based codes are not allowed under my state enabling laws </li></ul><ul><li>Form based codes work best in new developments and don’t work here </li></ul><ul><li>We can’t throw out our traditional zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Our current rules are fine . . . After all, we are getting good results </li></ul>
    86. 86. Form Based Codes in New England <ul><li>19. Baths, Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>Boxing arena </li></ul><ul><li>Chinchillas, retail sales </li></ul><ul><li>Eleemosynary institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Embalming business </li></ul><ul><li>Physical culture institution </li></ul><ul><li>109. Potato chip manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>127. Tombstones, retail sales </li></ul><ul><li>135. Turkish Baths </li></ul>Paul Crawford, AICP
    87. 87. Form Based Codes in New England Somerville: 291 use categories: 7.11.4.e Home Occupation (not including below) 7.11.4.f Office, within a primary residence, of an architect, attorney, physician or dentist 7.11.8.6 Photocopying or commercial printing 7.11.8.10 Newspaper distribution agency 7.11.9.5 Store selling or renting goods such as books, stationary, drugs, sporting goods including bicycles and accessories, jewelry, photographic equipment and supplies, flowers, novelties, cards, footwear, apparel, fabrics, accessories, and the like that are typically of a size a customer can carry by hand 7.11.9.6 Store selling or renting video tapes 7.11.8.8 Store selling hardware, paint, wallpaper, lawn and garden supplies 7.11.11.11 Limousine rental and minor servicing 7.11.11.12 Bus and taxi rental
    88. 88. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA <ul><ul><li>98% of residential lots are non-conforming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current system requires review for most projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few large-lot projects can be built by-right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent addition of TOD and Corridor districts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other code amendments are mixed into existing code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive city-wide planning in progress </li></ul></ul>
    89. 89. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    90. 90. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    91. 91. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    92. 92. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    93. 93. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    94. 94. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    95. 95. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    96. 96. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    97. 97. Form Based Codes in New England A bit about Somerville, MA
    98. 98. Form Based Codes in New England Conclusions <ul><ul><li>Many communities see problems with existing codes and are interested in Form-Based Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FBCs can help balance flexibility and certainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost and complexity limiting some applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But it can be done . . . </li></ul></ul>
    99. 99. Form Based Codes in New England
    100. 100. Questions?

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