Trabajo de tecnologia construction materials


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Trabajo de tecnologia construction materials

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Historically, builders have used a wide variety of materials for construction. f.e. Mud, stone Each part of a house has different properties: ● Stone, ceramics and concrete are good for making columns and walls because they are resistant to compression and they are cheap. ● Wood and metal are good for making beams because they are reistant to tension and compression and light weight. ● Ceramics are good for making roof tiles because clay is easily moulded and they are water proof.
  3. 3. STONE It is a natural material that we extract from quarries. Types of stone: ● Granite: gray, black, browns, etc. They are very hard and igneous stone. ● Limestone: gray, buff, etc. They are sotf and sedimentary. ● Marble: White, grays, greens, etc. They are medium and metamorphic.
  4. 4. CEMENT A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. Cement used in construction is characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic.
  5. 5. Production of cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general used because it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco and most non-specialty grout. Contains: ● Clay, chalk, gypsum, limestone, tricalcium, calcium ferrites, metal oxides. It is a fine powder produced by grinding Portland cement clinker.
  6. 6. MORTAR Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water. It can be used as plastering over bricks or other forms of masonry. Before laying bricks with mortar, we dip the bricks in water. Because if there isn't enough water in the chemical reaction, the resulting mortar doesn't bond well to the bricks.
  7. 7. CONCRETE It is a composite construction material composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate, water and chemical admixtures. Concrete is used more than any other man- made material in the world.
  8. 8. Reinforced concrete It is a concrete in which reinforcement bars, reinforcement grids, plates or fibres have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforment shall have the following properties: ● High strength, high tensile strain, good bond to the concrete, thermal compatibility and durability in the concrete environment.
  9. 9. PLASTER It is a mixture of lime or gypsum, sand, and water, sometimes with fiber added, that hardens to a smooth solid and is used for coating walls and ceilings. ● Advantages: it gives a smooth surface and has a nice finish, it is easy to work with, good sound and thermal insulator, resistant to fire within a room, reducing or eliminating structural damage. ● Disadvantages: it is weak, it absorbs water.
  10. 10. CERAMICS It is an inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. ● The history of ceramics The history of ceramics dates back to about 10,000 BC. The products, were mold based and featured only simulated basket texture for surface decoration. The mixture of copper, was commonly referred to as 'high temperature ceramic' around 5000 BC. The chinese brought porcelain and unique glazes.
  11. 11. ● What is clay? It is a mass of very small particles of rock, which is formed by a long process of natural erosion from the rock. Clay is a natural material, but ceramic is an artificial material. However, they are different materials: - If we add water to dry clay, it becomes soft again. Then we can dry it, and becomes hard again. - If we add water to ceramic, it stays hard.
  12. 12. ● Ceramic products The most common ceramic product is bricks. Other ceramic materials are tiles, such as roofing tiles, wall tiles and floor tiles. The hard and soft surface makes tiles easier to clean.
  13. 13. ● How do we manufacture ceramics? 1. Moulding The first step in making ceramics is to give the clay the required shape. We make a mould with the negative shape and then we fill the mould with clay. The mould goes through a kiln on a conveyor belt.
  14. 14. 2. Drying When water is evaporated, the clay becomes hard, but if water is added, it becomes soft again. Drying the clay can be done under the sun or with fans.
  15. 15. 3. Firing To remove the chemically bound water we need a process called “banking” or “firing” the clay. Firing is done in a kiln at temperatures between 1000ºC and 1600ºC. When the chemically bound in water disappears, the clay hardens irreversibly. The moulds are re-used. When the ceramic brick is taken out of the mould, it is re-filled with clay and put back in the kiln.
  16. 16. ● Use of bricks Bricks are used for building and pavement. They are also used as a method of traffic calming or as a decorative surface in pedestrian precincts. Bricks are also used in the metallurgy and glass industries for lining furnaces. They have various uses, especially refractory bricks such as silica, magnesia, chamotte and neutral refractory bricks. Bricks are stronger than mortar.
  17. 17. DIFFERENT PHASES TO CONSTRUCT A BUILDING ● The Paperwork It can be very time consuming and taxing, it is a necessary evil. The following are your main paperwork check off list: - Contract with the required deposit. - Builder package goes to the lender. - Blue prints for your project from the architect. - All application and fees paid. - Submit plans for review. ● The Paperwork
  18. 18. ● Taking shape Before any building can take place, the lot must be prepared. Having a firm foundation is the key to building a solid structure. This requires: - Dirt work and lot leveling. - Footing and foundation complete, Trusses & Lumber delivered to the job site, and Framing. - Windows, garage and exterior doors in place - Wrap & scratch, brown coat - Roof tile stacked & Exterior trim painted
  19. 19. ● Interior selections During this phase, all of the small interior details and personal touches get set into motion. - Appliances - Tile - Granite - Faucets - Sinks - Carpet - Hardware
  20. 20. ● Nearly complete As your house becomes a home, there are a few more major projects that must be completed: - Insulating your walls followed by drywall - Texture spray and interior paint - Cabinets installed and stained - Tile work
  21. 21. ● Finishing Touches All of the pieces of the puzzle are almost together and yet there is still more to do: - Concrete flat work - Driveway - Stucco - Finalizing electrical and plumbing - Carpet installation - Then there is a Good Old Fashioned Cleaning, removal of all signs of construction so that all you are left with, is your perfect vision of your new Home. - Final Inspection ●