Historically, builders have used a wide variety of
materials for construction. f.e. Mud, stone
Each part of a house has different properties:
● Stone, ceramics and concrete are good for making
columns and walls because they are resistant to
compression and they are cheap.
● Wood and metal are good for making beams because
they are reistant to tension and compression and light
● Ceramics are good for making roof tiles because clay
is easily moulded and they are water proof.
It is a natural material that we extract from
Types of stone:
● Granite: gray, black, browns, etc. They are very
hard and igneous stone.
● Limestone: gray, buff, etc. They are sotf and
● Marble: White, grays, greens, etc. They are
medium and metamorphic.
A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and
hardens independently, and can bind other
Cement used in construction is characterized
as hydraulic or non-hydraulic.
Production of cement
Portland cement is the most common type of
cement in general used because it is a basic
ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco and most
● Clay, chalk, gypsum, limestone, tricalcium,
calcium ferrites, metal oxides.
It is a fine powder produced by grinding
Portland cement clinker.
Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water.
It can be used as plastering over bricks or other
forms of masonry.
Before laying bricks with mortar, we dip the
bricks in water. Because if there isn't enough
water in the chemical reaction, the resulting
mortar doesn't bond well to the bricks.
It is a composite construction material
composed of cement and other cementitious
materials such as fly ash and slag cement,
aggregate, water and chemical admixtures.
Concrete is used more than any other man-
made material in the world.
It is a concrete in which reinforcement bars,
reinforcement grids, plates or fibres have been
incorporated to strengthen the concrete in
For a strong, ductile and durable construction
the reinforment shall have the following
● High strength, high tensile strain, good bond to
the concrete, thermal compatibility and
durability in the concrete environment.
It is a mixture of lime or gypsum, sand, and
water, sometimes with fiber added, that
hardens to a smooth solid and is used for
coating walls and ceilings.
● Advantages: it gives a smooth surface and has
a nice finish, it is easy to work with, good sound
and thermal insulator, resistant to fire within a
room, reducing or eliminating structural
● Disadvantages: it is weak, it absorbs water.
It is an inorganic, non-metallic solid prepared by the
action of heat and subsequent cooling.
● The history of ceramics
The history of ceramics dates back to about 10,000
BC. The products, were mold based and featured
only simulated basket texture for surface decoration.
The mixture of copper, was commonly referred to as
'high temperature ceramic' around 5000 BC. The
chinese brought porcelain and unique glazes.
● What is clay?
It is a mass of very small particles of rock,
which is formed by a long process of natural
erosion from the rock.
Clay is a natural material, but ceramic is an
artificial material. However, they are different
- If we add water to dry clay, it becomes soft
again. Then we can dry it, and becomes hard
- If we add water to ceramic, it stays hard.
● Ceramic products
The most common ceramic product is bricks.
Other ceramic materials are tiles, such as
roofing tiles, wall tiles and floor tiles.
The hard and soft surface makes tiles easier to
● How do we manufacture ceramics?
The first step in making ceramics is to give the
clay the required shape.
We make a mould with the negative shape and
then we fill the mould with clay.
The mould goes through a kiln on a conveyor
When water is evaporated, the clay becomes
hard, but if water is added, it becomes soft
Drying the clay can be done under the sun or
To remove the chemically bound water we need
a process called “banking” or “firing” the clay.
Firing is done in a kiln at temperatures between
1000ºC and 1600ºC.
When the chemically bound in water
disappears, the clay hardens irreversibly.
The moulds are re-used. When the ceramic
brick is taken out of the mould, it is re-filled with
clay and put back in the kiln.
● Use of bricks
Bricks are used for building and pavement.
They are also used as a method of traffic
calming or as a decorative surface in
Bricks are also used in the metallurgy and glass
industries for lining furnaces. They have various
uses, especially refractory bricks such as silica,
magnesia, chamotte and neutral refractory
Bricks are stronger than mortar.
DIFFERENT PHASES TO
CONSTRUCT A BUILDING
● The Paperwork
It can be very time consuming and taxing, it is a
necessary evil. The following are your main
paperwork check off list:
- Contract with the required deposit.
- Builder package goes to the lender.
- Blue prints for your project from the architect.
- All application and fees paid.
- Submit plans for review.
● The Paperwork
● Taking shape
Before any building can take place, the lot must
be prepared. Having a firm foundation is the
key to building a solid structure. This requires:
- Dirt work and lot leveling.
- Footing and foundation complete, Trusses &
Lumber delivered to the job site, and
- Windows, garage and exterior doors in place
- Wrap & scratch, brown coat
- Roof tile stacked & Exterior trim painted
● Interior selections
During this phase, all of the small interior details
and personal touches get set into motion.
● Nearly complete
As your house becomes a home, there are a
few more major projects that must be
- Insulating your walls followed by drywall
- Texture spray and interior paint
- Cabinets installed and stained
- Tile work
● Finishing Touches
All of the pieces of the puzzle are almost together
and yet there is still more to do:
- Concrete flat work
- Finalizing electrical and plumbing
- Carpet installation
- Then there is a Good Old Fashioned Cleaning,
removal of all signs of construction so that all you
are left with,
is your perfect vision of your new Home.
- Final Inspection
FÁTIMA LOBATO RETAMAR
CLARA NUEVO GALLARDO