Genetically Modified Organism<br />Are you Anti or Pro?<br />
Difference between Natural and GMO(Genetically Modified Organism)<br />Commercial Rice<br />Golden Rice<br />
What is GMO?<br />Genetically Modified Organisms are those organisms which are genetically engineered to satisfy the needs of the People around the Globe. It is a technology designed to augment the food shortage.<br />Organisms whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering and has two subsets namely: 1)Transgenic-its DNA originated from different species; 2).Cisgenic-contain no DNA from other species.<br />
Some of the Uses of GMO<br /><ul><li>GMO have widespread applications. They are used in Biological and Medical research, production of pharmaceutical drug, experimental medicine(e.g. gene therapy), and agriculture(e.g. Golden rice).
Patent-Protected Food Crops—the broadest and most controversial application of GMO, wherein the crops are resistant to commercial herbicides or able to produce pesticidal proteins from within the plant, or stacked trait seeds, which do both. </li></li></ul><li>Production…<br />Genetic modification involves the insertion or deletion of genes. When genetic genes are inserted, they usually come from different species, which is a form of Horizontal Gene Transfer. In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. <br />To do this artificially, may require attaching the genes to the virus or just physically inserting the DNA into the nucleus of the intended host with a very small syringe. <br />
Genetic Engineering<br /><ul><li>Several sectors in the scientific community, evaluated and reevaluated the application of genetic engineering in humans. It is now nearly possible to reimplant genes into the cells of patients who have inherited deleterious genes.
Human Genome analysis can be applied to detect genes associated with diseases or sensitivity to certain environmental factors such as drugs and toxins. The gene is replaced with the mutant gene sequence without any additional changes in the genome. </li></li></ul><li>The Human Genome Project<br /><ul><li>Under an international team of researchers, Human Genome Project has identified the genetic defect linked with myotonic dystrophy, the most common form of muscular dystrophy.
The principal investigators, mostly geneticists and molecular biologists, found that individuals with Myotonic Dystrophy have a longer-than-usual sequence of repeating base pairs at a specific site on chromosome 19.
The length of the sequence appears to be directly related with the severity of the disease. </li></li></ul><li>Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering (as well as GMO)<br />Some important terms <br /><ul><li>Gene therapy or correction of genetic disorder was first conceived for sickle-cell anemia patients but might also prove possible for other dysfunctions. If gene therapy is applied in the germinal line, correction of the information is passed on to the next generation.
Somatic gene therapy is specific for the patient and is not transferred to the offspring, unlike gene therapy where progenies are the beneficiaries of the technology.
Gene augmentation is a technique to restore a genetic function without resorting to removal or correction of a defective gene. Since this is non-targeted, the result could affect the whole or any body function.</li></li></ul><li>The Benefits and Perils of Genetic Engineering<br />This are presented by Stine(1997) and other authors quite comprehensively from the ethical and moral points of view. There are specific questions that cannot be answered at present. The objectives of genetic control, whether general or specific, need further examination because of their complexity. These are some of the questions presented:<br /><ul><li>Shall we breed in positive eugenics or breed out negative eugenics?
How many scientist have far greater moral sensitivity to their responsibilities to the future generation of mankind?
Among the affected people, how many are concerned about their responsibilities to society? </li></ul>There are those who know they are carriers and the risk is high but choose to bear a child rather than remain childless. <br /><ul><li>Decisions on genetic engineering are most of the time put into effect by moral means. The perils and dangers as well as benefits are before us.</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li> This genome project can create an enhanced output, for it helps us aid our problems in relation with the food shortage climate change and etcetera.
But the success of the results could also lie in our hands. In real life, things aren’t always good or progressive for there are two sides in the coin. Sometimes there are irregularities which leads to some undesirable results.
That’s why some people are against this Project-wherein some organisms are engineered to form another kind of organism having characteristics which differ from the first one, that can harm other organisms which are not yet discovered until now. </li></li></ul><li>Thanks for viewing …<br />GOD BLESS<br />Rhode Faith M. Berja<br />BSED I-C<br />
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