Regarding all the three domains What is ICT facilitating today?
Doing the same BUT more efficiently
Integrating more partners, faster, Connectivity
Integrating more parameters - over time, horizontally, vertically (F2F), rural communities
Finds, evaluates, transfers, manages, integrates and defines data/information/knowledge from and to scientists and end users
Provides innovative technologies and methods
Automatic decision making ( are they better decisions? )
Establishes ( and eliminates ) “Digital Divides”
(ICT) innovation in rural areas is now not only a “computer issue” or a “farmer” and dairy/agricultural production concern .
A traditional milking unit
Earliest visible Mastitis detection
Afimilk ICT information system
Earlier Mastitis detection via E/C
ICT E/C Monitoring Benefits Significance Control Group (193 Cows) Afimilk Group (191 Cows) P<0.05 10317 10690 Milk Yield (Kg/lactation) (305 DIM) P<0.05 65.1 44.8 Avg. Loss in Milk production Per Infection (Kg) --- --- 383 Prevented Milk Loss (Kg) per Cow/Lactation
Questionnaire summary: Is ICT Innovation Adoption for Agriculture still an Important Issue? Montpellier 2001 Wageningen 2009 Is ICT Adoption still a problem? 53.2% 90.3% Factors Limiting ICT Adopti on Training Cost Unperceived benefit 20% 32.3% 27.6% 58% 29.0% 25.8% Should public funds help to finance Information Technology Services for farmers 67.8% 82.2%
All 3 : Where to put the Money easy to reach What do they need?
Are Dairy ICT Innovation Challenges Unique?
Is ICT adoption in Agriculture/Dairy Evolution or Intentional Design?
Are rural ICT agri-business issues special;
Is ICT Adoption different than adopting other Technologies and/or innovations;
Are both of public interest and/or funding;
Who are the “ agents of change” ;
See the roles of Community (village, farmer organization) , economic viability, agricultural production, gender, politics, entrepreneurship, etc
General Innovation Adoption Issues
Still learning some of the earlier lessons
Despite developments in technology the uptake of ICT has largely plateaued
Disparities within the digital divide is not going away
Access to ICT is not enough – e.g. a large proportion of non-users of the internet reside in connected households.
ICT innovations are a tool and not an end .
ICT is not just about technology it is about People
Listen, listen, listen and understand
Innovation adoption must have effective support of the rural and agricultural communities
ICTs will not necessarily change the lifestyles of the rural communities. They might introduce new methods of doing the established activities
Strong leadership from the village/community is essential for the success of any ICT innovation adoption project
People issues – Digital Exclusion
There is a demonstrable correlation between social and digital exclusion
A significant proportion of the digitally excluded are at risk of deepening exclusion
Digital exclusion is also unlikely to disappear over time through demographic developments
Need to start from understanding the case for digital inclusion – the link with social inclusion
Digital exclusion is unlikely to be adequately addressed in isolation from other policy areas.
Penetration by market forces is unlikely to eliminate digital exclusion.
ICT Reality Today: Top-down Outside-in “The fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid – . Eradicating poverty Through Profits” ( C.K.Prahalad – Wharton School Publishing, 2004 )
Measuring the benefit of a computer in the milking parlor: http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/gelb-measuring-7.pdf
NOA - A Management Information System for the National Dairy and Beef Herds http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/gelb-noa.pdf
ICT in the Dairy Farm system http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/gelb-farming-6.pdf
ICT in Agriculture: Perspectives of Technological Innovation http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/gelb-main.html
Gelb, E., Kislev, Y., 1982. “Farmers' Financing of Agricultural Research in Israel”. Research Policy, 11, 321.