Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados

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Presentación hecha por el profesro Marc Van Montagu, referida a la importancia de los GM-Croaps (Cultivos Geneticamente Modificados), en el marco del lanzamiento del nuevo Centro de Ciencia e Innovación en Biotecnología Vegetal ceCIBUC, de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

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Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados

  1. 1. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Santiago - May 28th 2009 Centro de Ciencia e Innovacion en Biotecnologia Vegetal UC ceCIBUC Prof. Em. Marc Van Montagu Chairman, IPBO Institute of Plant Biotechnology For Developing Countries Websites: http://www.ipbo.ugent.be http://www.psb.ugent.be http://www.efb-central.org http://www.pubresreg.org E-mail : marc.vanmontagu@ugent.be Santiago – May 28th 2009
  2. 2. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. How can Science & Technology help to overcome the global challenges of humanity? • The ever increasing environmental damage due to the ongoing population growth and the need for more social justice; • 1 billion people undernourished; • 3 billion people living on less than 2€ a day. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  3. 3. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. “World agriculture has entered a new, unsustainable, and politically risky period. Agriculture - and the natural resources it depends on - has been overexploited ecologically, has suffered from underinvestment, has recently been exposed to ill-designed bioenergy programs, and has been politically sidelined for too long. It is now at a critical point.” Joachim Von Braun, DG IFPRI, 2008 Santiago – May 28th 2009
  4. 4. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Developing country scientific institutions and international organisations that pioneered the Green Revolution such as the centres of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) must play a critical role in the design and execution of these programs. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  5. 5. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. The Green Revolution Santiago – May 28th 2009
  6. 6. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Green Revolution: Promises and Constraints • The Green Revolution demonstrated the power of Plant Breeding; • Tripling World Population created the need for intensive agriculture; • The extensive use of irrigation, soil fertilization and chemical pest control brought many sustainability problems. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  7. 7. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Environmental damage if Europe does not accept GM-crops: • Increased destruction of tropical rainforest for doubling of the soybean acrage; • Doubling of the traditional agriculture (corn, wheat, rice). Soy field with Brazil Nut tree, Amazon Santiago – May 28th 2009
  8. 8. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Intensive Agriculture Under Pressure • Agronomic techniques, drip irrigation, less polluting agrochemicals were a partial answer • Intensive breeding and high quality seed companies brought also important yield increase • But it remained difficult to limit the need for even more arable acreage • The use of plants for industrial production (rubber, oil palm ) brought a major destruction of tropical forest Oil palm plantation, Malaysia Santiago – May 28th 2009
  9. 9. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Contributions of GM-crops Tackle food security issues & environmental constraints on productivity. Reduce the environmental footprint of industry. Plants for fuels and the chemical industry. Biotechnology as a coherent answer to these challenges. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  10. 10. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. The Millenium Development Goals • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger • Achieve universal primary education • Promote gender equality & empower women • Reduce child mortality • Improve maternal health • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diesases • Ensure environmental sustainability • Develop a global partnership for development www.UN.org Santiago – May 28th 2009
  11. 11. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Challenge In 2015 the Millennium Goals will not be met if we stay with business as usual. We need GM agriculture to: Increase agricultural productivity Provide income for the rural poor Not extend the amount of arable land used We need substantial investment in international agriculture We need to assure that emerging and developing countries can create SMEs and a seed industry to bring GM crops to the market. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  12. 12. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. High Petroleum prices bring major damage to our economy • Increase biomass production for the chemical industry; • Obtain an affordable energy supply; • Build a less polluting manufacturing industry. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  13. 13. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. The Biorefinery platform using agricultural feedstocks Polyurethanes Polyester Nylon Lignin Polyols Polymers BioFuels Ethanol Green Solvents Organic Acids Monomers (ethyl lactate) Biorefining Specialty Fibres Chemicals Feed Additives Agriculture High Pharmaceutical Amino Performance Precursors Acids Materials Source: Bio 2005 Santiago – May 28th 2009
  14. 14. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. The emerging bio-economy is built on green and white biotechnology Green biotechnology White biotechnology Santiago – May 28th 2009
  15. 15. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Plant-based feedstocks in industry are not new Plants Petroleum 1% Coal 10% Plants 20% 30% Petroleum Coal 79% 60% 1930 1960 Source: UNIDO Santiago – May 28th 2009
  16. 16. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. …but production capacity of bio-chemicals is still rather low Santiago – May 28th 2009
  17. 17. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Other applications are emerging 1930s: soy-based car components (Ford) 21st Century: kenaf-based car components 21st Century: soy-based car components (Ford-Dupont) Santiago – May 28th 2009
  18. 18. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Necessities: Invest in non-food crop improvement – gene silencing approaches Jatropha curcas Ricinus communis Santiago – May 28th 2009
  19. 19. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Explore the potential of non-food crops Miscanthus Sweet sorghum Castor bean Santiago – May 28th 2009
  20. 20. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Short rotation plantations for fuel and fibre • Wood producing plants e.g. poplar • CO2 captation in cell walls Santiago – May 28th 2009
  21. 21. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Insect resistant poplars in China - arid land regeneration - Asian longhorn beetle resistance Santiago – May 28th 2009
  22. 22. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Mountain pine beetle – could Bt be the cure for this environmental disaster? British Columbia 2008 270 mega tonnes of carbon emission by 2020 Santiago – May 28th 2009
  23. 23. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  24. 24. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Metabolic engineering • Catharanthus roseus produces vinblastine & vinchristine • Use: Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia, breast cancer • Content in plants: In leaves ~ 0.0003 % (500 kg plant material is needed to obtain 1 g vincristine) • Price: ~13 000 € / g Rischer et al., PNAS (2006) Santiago – May 28th 2009
  25. 25. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Rice – weekly prices, Bangkok USD/mt 1200 1000 Ø Price 08: 736,2 Ø Price 07: 333,8 800 Ø Price 06: 311,4 Ø Price 05: 290,7 600 400 200 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2005 2006 2007 2008 Santiago – May 28th 2009
  26. 26. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Environmental degradation is a global problem Source: Diaz & Rosenberg (2008), Science; 321: 926-929 Santiago – May 28th 2009
  27. 27. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. 25 thousand years of genetically modified plants • Selection • Crossing • Genomic Fusion • Mutagenesis • Cloning The fertile crescent Santiago – May 28th 2009
  28. 28. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Scientists cannot prove that GM-crops are safe, they can only prove that perceived dangers are non-existent. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  29. 29. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. ‘Appropriate GM’ is entirely within our grasp Why then, are such life- saving technologies not reaching the farmers who desperately need them? Perhaps more importantly we should ask how many lives have been lost because of the delays? www.spec.bc.ca/project/ project.php?projectID=23 Santiago – May 28th 2009
  30. 30. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Priorities for the Pro-Poor GM Crop  Increased finance for programs in the public sector targeted towards the enhancement of yield, disease resistance, nutritional quality and drought tolerance;  International co-operations must be financed in such a way that the knowledge derived from these activities can be transferred to developing country scientists for the accomplishment of locally relevant crop improvement programs;  Mechanisms to empower developing country scientists, and enable them to participate in - and contribute to - the global knowledge-based bio-economy that is emerging. Santiago – May 28th 2009
  31. 31. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. Regulatory compliance and biosafety regulations must be brought into line with appropriate scientific evidence, regarding risk and benefit, and reduce the costs of these procedures Santiago – May 28th 2009
  32. 32. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. 21 st Century Plants will be GM-Plants Santiago – May 28th 2009
  33. 33. The Importance of GM Crops for Society, Industry and Environment. In a better Environment Santiago – May 28th 2009

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