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This presentation is based on Zemelman, Daniels & Hyde (2005) book Best Practice: Today's Standards for Teaching and Learning in America's Schools, with the central focus on best practices in Science

This presentation is based on Zemelman, Daniels & Hyde (2005) book Best Practice: Today's Standards for Teaching and Learning in America's Schools, with the central focus on best practices in Science

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  • 1. July 6, 2009
    Chapter 5
    Best Practices in Science
    Best Practice: Today’s Standards for Teaching & Learning in America’s Schools
    (Zemelman, Daniels, & Hyde 2005)
    Christie L. Esparza
    Carmen Ortega
  • 2. Standard Documents
    American Association for Advancement of Science (AAAS) – 1985 initiative to reform K-12 science education
    - Project 2061
    - Science for All Americans: A Project 2061 Report on Literacy Goals in Science, Mathematics, and Technology (1989) .
    *”calling for students to experience science” (Zemelman, Daniels, & Hyde, 2005, p. 143)
  • 3. Two other documents created by AAAS
    • Benchmarks for Science Literacy (1993)
    - a list of ideas and skills
    • Atlas of Science Literacy (2001)
    - Interconnected ideas to be developed over time.
    • Doucments Created by the National Research Council (NRC)
    - National Science Education Standards (1996)
    - Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning (2000)
    Standard Documents Cont’d
  • 4. Qualities of Best Practice
    • Students must be immersed in doing science and conducting systemic inquiry
    -no more rote memorization
    -more hands on approach
    -Inquiry is key
    * Understand inquiry
    * Learner centered
    Learners attempt to answer questions, communicate and justify explanations, evaluate explanations, extend their own understanding, and review and assess what they have learned. (NRC 200) as cited by (Zemelman, Daniels, & Hyde, 2005, p. 146)
  • 5. Qualities Cont’d
    • True inquiry requires educators to ensure students answer scientific questions with good evidence
    - students must be able to evaluate evidence and data
    • There is more than just Scientific Method to answer inquiries
    * Trial and Error
    * Documenting
    * Prediction Testing
    * Product Testing
    * Experimenting
    * Reflecting
    * Generating Models
    * Inventing (Zemelman, Daniels, & Hyde 2005, p. 147)
  • 6. Qualities Cont’d
    • Scientific inquiry and Hands-On science are NOT identical.
    - Five different approaches to Hands-On
    1.) Demonstration – topic is taught and an activity is
    then carried out to demonstrate the topic.
    2.) Discovery – Students are given materials with little
    direction. Guided discovery is usually conducted with
    smaller Children.
    3.) Exploration – Goal is to make students comfortable with
    4.) Process Skills – attempts to teach individual processes
    5.) Inquiry – expects students to learn concepts and develop
    capacity to carry out inquires on their own.
  • 7. Qualities Cont’d
    • The focus for inquiry should be kept on understanding
    - Attainment of initial threshold of knowledge in necessary
    - Students need to continuously make connections
    • Conceptual Change is required
    - Teachers must work hard to battle students’ beliefs of
    - Students hold many misconceptions that need to be
    addressed so that learning may occur.
    - The best way to address these matters is to have them
    become dissatisfied with their own explanations having to
    adopt what is being taught.
    • Use Collaborative group work
    - “Research indicates that learners benefit from opportunities
    to express their ideas to others, challenge other’s ideas,
    and in doing so , reconstruct their own ideas” (Zemelman,
    Daniels, & Hyde 2005, p. 153).
  • 8. Qualities Cont’d
    • Self-directed Learning
    - Aid students to think for themselves and depend
    less on teacher explanations.
    - Recognize what they do not understand and seek
    - Student – self Assessment
    • Base content on Needs
    - must be appropriate for grade level
    • Guide with few fundamental concepts
    - Make it easy to follow
    - Give examples to broad concepts
    • Provide meaningful Assessments
    - Test the “doing” of science not just all the facts
    and details.
  • 9. Why Best Practice?
    Using these mentioned qualities mention in Zemelman et al. (2005) book Best Practices can contribute greatly to educator performance in teaching science as well as open up a world of exploration, providing a risk free learning environment for the most important stake holder, the student.
  • 10. Questions to Consider
    What is the difference between inquiry and hands-on science?
    Is direct instruction the best method for teaching science? Why or why not?
    Should schools cover many topics over a period of time or should they focus on the more broad and fundamental concepts to build on?
  • 11. Learning by Doing
    Music In Science
  • 12. More Links
    Virtual Labs (experimentation)