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This presentation goes into detail about James Joyce novel Ulysses-with chapter summary, parallels with Homer's Odyssey, and a episode anlysis.

This presentation goes into detail about James Joyce novel Ulysses-with chapter summary, parallels with Homer's Odyssey, and a episode anlysis.

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Ulysses presentation for ENG 4853  #GREAT BKS WSTRN WLD Ulysses presentation for ENG 4853 #GREAT BKS WSTRN WLD Presentation Transcript

  • Biography, Significance, and Trial “I've put in so many enigmas and puzzles that it will keep the professors busy for centuries arguing over what I meant, and that's the only way of insuring one's immortality.” James Joyce James Joyce was born Rathgar, Dublin on February 2, 1882. He attended the prestigious Clongowes Wood College in County Kildare, and, from 1893 to 1898, he attended the reputable Belvedre College, a Catholic day school in Dublin. Joyce eloped with Nora Barnacle on October 1904, they had two children together Giorgio and Lucia. Joyce originally fled his home of Ireland, and Joyce and his family lived in Paris, Zurich, and Trieste. Joyce died in 1941 of undiagnosed duodenal ulcer. James Joyce’s Ulysses #thebullockbefriendingbard Genius or Peddler of Obscenity - 06 16, 1904
  • Biography, Significance, and Trial Cont… •“The artist, like the God of the creation, remains within or behind or beyond or above his handiwork, invisible, refined out of existence, indifferent, paring his fingernails.” •James Joyce Ulysses was first serialized in the American journal The Little Review, but in 1921 a court banned it as obscene. On December 6, 1933 Judge John M. Woolsey lifted the ban on Ulysses.- Ulysses is one of the most vitally human books every written, one of flesh and blood, pain, passion, music, laughter, a great symphony of human voices. All activities in Ulysses happen in a single day! James Joyce’s Ulysses #Ifearthosebigwordswhichmakeussounhappy Genius or Peddler of Obscenity - 06 16, 1904
  • Introduction: Structure, and Main Characters Structure: Ulysses is divided into 3 parts: Part 1: Telemachiad Ch. 1-3 Part 2: The Wanderings of Ulysses Ch. 4-15 Part 3: The Homecoming Ch. 16-18 Ulysses is a Epic Narrative: Episodic Ulysses utilizes a literary device called Stream of Consciousness or interior monologue: An exact, verbatim transcript of what a character is thinking. 3 Main Characters: Leopold Bloom: Joyce’s 20th century Odysseus-Ulysses figure. Descended from Hungarian Jew but does not practice Judaism. Loves to eat and satisfy his bodily needs. Haunted by the memory of his Suicide father and deceased son. Intellectually curious. Stephen Dedalus: Joyce’s fictional younger self. Brilliant, witty, brooding, bibulous, and complicated to the point of self-contradiction. He yearns to make his name as a writer Molly Bloom: Wife of Leopold- uninhibited monologue at the end proves her contradictory. Hours after her adulterous tryst, she rapturously recalls her first lovemaking with Bloom.
  • Telemachus Martello Tower: 8AM Theology, White, gold, Heir, Narrative (Young) In Homer’s Odyssey: Telemachus is moved to seek news for his long- absent father. Suitors have occupied his father’s house and are pressing his mother to marry. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Stephen Dedalus (Telemachus) a fictionalized version of Joyce’s younger self, a 22-year old schoolteacher of Roman Catholic background, lofty intellect, and brooding, brilliant wit, Buck Mulligan (Antinous), an Irish medical student of mocking wit and rollicking sensuality and Haines (Eurymachos), a condescending Englishman, all are having breakfast at the Martello Tower A year has passed since the death of Stephen’s mother. Mulligan goes swimming, Stephen leaves for the school where he teaches. web Stephen and Telemachus share a sense of usurpation in this chapter. Buck Mulligan mockingly Usurps the role to priest and father and threatens to kill Stephens literary ambitions, confirms his servitude to the Roman Catholic church and British Imperialism. Haines embodies England’s usurpation of Ireland, he is studying Ireland as an anthropologist might study a tribe of aborigines. In expecting bacon for his breakfast, he recalls the ravenous suitors of Homer’s Epic. The image of Ireland as a desiccated wasteland, seen in the visit of the old milk women, is a developing motif in Ulysses. Stephen is like Telemachus living amongst enemies that are trying to undermine him.
  • Nestor Dalkey School: 10AM In Homer’s Odyssey: Nestor is the wise old king of Pylos who fought beside Ulysses in the Trojan War and whom Telemachus visits in quest for news of his father. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Stephen teaches history (death of Pyrrhus another victim of usurpation) and literature, helps a boy named Sargent with his work; gets his pay from the Schoolmaster, Mr. Deasy (who like Nestor, a tamer of horses, Deasy is an old man with a special interest in racehorses. Mr. Deasy- militant anti-Semitic, and blind to his own hypocrisy ask Stephen to deliver a letter about hoof-and- mouth disease to be publish in the newspaper. Deasy’s review of Irish history is vitiated by his ignorance and staunchly pro-British sympathies. Deasy blames women for the evils of history, and his views are specious as those of Haines, who, in “Telemachus”, maintained timidly that history, not the English, was to blame for Ireland’s troubles. Homer often would satirize Nestor’s character through his ponderous verbiage, similar to Mr. Deasy’s nonsensical and irreconcilable talk. In ignorantly asserting that Ireland never persecuted the Jews because “she never let them in,” Deasy unwittingly anticipates the appearance of Leopold Bloom. History, Brown, Horse, Narrative Catechism (personal) “I Paid My Way” Ulysses
  • NEWS Proteus Sanydymount Strand 11AM: In Homer’s Odyssey: •Menelaus tells Telemachus how he ambushed Proteus, catching the god by surprise, and then hung on to him as Proteus rapidly transformed himself into a series of different creatures and objects. By retaining his hold throughout these metamorphoses, Menelaus was able to compel Proteus, as a condition of release, to reveal how Menelaus should placate the gods so they would allow him to return home. The theme of this chapter is metamorphosis: transformation, shape-shifting, scene changing. As Stephen walks along the beach, he watches a dog behaving like a succession of various animals, and he thinks about other shifts in form and place: about his own doglike face, about the radical transformation we undergo in passing from birth through life to death, about his father’s gift of mimicry, and about the multiple personalities of the sea—a mighty mother fully capable of drowning her children . JH Stephens thoughts occasionally turn back to his mother and the remorse he feels for not praying over her. In James Joyce’s Ulysses Stephen walks in solitude along Sandymount strand, SE of Dublin. Almost the entire episode is his reverie- stream of consciousness as he walks. He thinks of an imaginary visit to his uncle’s house, some events from his days in Paris. Stephen’s initial problems in the chapter are philosophical: because all things are bound in inescapable change (“ineluctable modality”) Philology, Green, Tide, Monologue (Male) “INELUCTABLE MODALITY OF THE VISIBLE: AT LEAST THAT IF NO more, thought through my eyes.”
  • Calypso Bloom’s House (7 Eccles Street): 8AM In Homer’s Odyssey: Calypso is the goddess who held Odysseus captive on her island of Ogygia for more than seven years. At the intercession of Athena, Zeus compels Calypso to allow Odysseus to depart the island and to resume his journey to Ithaca. In Joyce’s Ulysses: “Mr. Leopold Bloom ate with relish the inner organs of beasts and fowls.” So begins the chapter introducing the hero of the story Leopold Bloom. The Setting is Bloom’s house and neighborhood. Bloom arises, goes out and prepares breakfast for Molly and himself (Molly is still in bed), and later goes to the privy behind the house and defecates. Molly receives a letter from Blazes Boylan. Blooms short trip to the Pork butcher becomes something like a Ulyssian adventure when he ogles a sexy girl at the butcher shop and when an ad for a model farm in Palestine makes him mentally travel to the Middle East and ultimately to the Dead Sea, “a barren land.” Joyce stresses Bloom’s acute awareness of the sensations of taste and touch. “Those girls, those girls, Those lovely seaside girls.” James Joyce’s Ulysses Kidney, Economics, Orange, Nymph, Narrative (Mature) JUNE 16, 1904
  • The Lotus-Eaters SE Dublin: 10am The bath, genitals, botany, chemistry, Eucharist, narcissism In Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus and his men encounter the Lotus-Eaters, people who live in a somnambulant state of forgetfulness as a result of eating the narcotic lotus flower. Odysseus shipmates eat the flower and become lethargic and Odysseus has to compel them back to their ships by force. Determined. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Bloom walks along the street, picks up a general delivery letter for him (under the name Henry Flower) from a women named Martha Clifford, meets Bantam Lyons, stops in All Hallows church, stops at the pharma- Cist’s shop to buy soap and order some cream for Molly, and then heads toward the Turkish baths, near Trinity College. Like Ulysses men Bloom is tempted in various ways to forget his devotion to his wife and home. He thinks about “Flowers and idleness” and fantasizes about the laziness of life in the Far East. He forgets his house key and several other things. He imagines that gelded horses might be happily free of worries. He sees Roman Catholic communicants “safe in the arms of kingdom come.” “ A flower. I think it’s a. A yellow with flattened petals.”
  • Hades Outside Paddy Dignam house in Sandymount: 11am In Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus is instructed by Circe to seek counsel from the seer Tiresias, in Hades. Tiresias tells Odysseus the Poseidon is preventing him from returning immediately to Ithaca. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Bloom and others attend the funeral of Paddy Dignam. The funeral carriage travels from Dignam’s home in Sandymount, south of Dublin, to Glasnevin Cemetery in north Dublin. The occupants of Bloom’s carriage are Bloom, Simon Dedalus, Martin Cunningham, and Mr. Power. At the Cemetery Bloom and the others see Parnell’s grave and observe the interment of Paddy Dignam. In the carriage the men converse abut Jews and suicide; after arriving, Bloom hears the service read over Paddy, then walks about the cemetery thinking about death and those who have died. Various characters in this chapter correspond to figures in the Hades episode of the Odyssey. Paddy Dignam, who drank himself to death, is the counterpart of Homer’s Elpenor. The shade of Agamemnon, the Greek king killed by his wife and her lover, is recalled by the grave of Charles Stewart Parnell, Ireland’s uncrowned king, who was politically destroyed by the revelation of his affair with a married women. Additionally, this chapter re- creates the action of the Homeric episode. E.g. Ulysses sails northwest to reach the land of Cimmerians, so do the mourners travel by carriage to a cemetery northwest of central Dublin. Ulysses returns to the world of the living , so does Bloom walk back out through the cemetery gates. The Graveyard, Heart, Religion, White, Black, Caretaker, Incubism “How life Begins” Ulysses
  • NEWS Aeolus The Newspaper: 12pm In Homer’s Odyssey: Aeolus, the god of the winds, attempting to help Odysseus reach his homeland, Ithaca, by confining all adverse winds in a bag. Odysseus’s crew, seeking booty that they assume Odysseus has hidden from them, open the bag and release the winds, causing their ship to be blown back to the island of Aeolia. When Odysseus returns a second time to ask for assistance, he is rebuffed and sent away by Aeolus. In Joyce’s Ulysses: The scene is the office of the Freeman’s Journal In downtown Dublin near the General Post Office Most of the conversation is among Ned Lambert, Myles Crawford (editor of the paper), professor MacHugh, Bloom, and Stephen. Early in the episode Bloom comes into the office making arrangements for an ad for a client, Alexander Keyes; later Stephen comes in to give them the letter about hoof-and-mouth disease which Deasy gave him earlier. As they adjourn to a pub, Stephen tells a story about two old Dublin women who climb to the top of Nelson’s Pillar, a Dubln landmark (the brief, sketchy story seems similar in subject and tone to some in Dubliners). In Joyce’s Ulysses: The imagery of windiness embodied in the garrulous dialogue of these loafers is enhanced by such seemingly mundane actions as the opening and closing of doors. The counterpart of Aeolus in this chapter is Myles Crawford. Crawford at first sends Bloom off to secure the renewal of an ad for a pub. When Bloom returns to ask Crawford’s help in closing the deal for a renewal, Crawford blows him away. Like Ulysses, Bloom is blown off course just as he's about to reach his goal. The winds are also compared to rhetoric of the journalism world: speech just being blown this way and that without really being controlled or carefully crafted. “That mantles the vista to irradiate her silver effulgence.” Lungs, Rhetoric, Red, Editor, Enthymemic -”Will you tell him he can kiss my arse? Myles Crawford said, throwing out his arms for emphasis. Tell him that straight from the stable.”
  • Lestrygonians The Lunch (Davy Byrne’s pub: 1pm In Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus describes a frightening encounter with the cannibalistic Lestrygonians. With the exception of the ship commanded by Odysseus, the entire fleet is trapped in a bay by Antiphates, the king of the Lestrygonians. The ships are destroyed, and the men are devoured. Only Odysseus and his crew escape. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Bloom walks along the streets south of the river, deciding where to eat lunch. In the course of his walk he meets and talk with Mrs. Breen, sees constables walking Indian file, goes into the Burton restaurant but doesn’t like the look of it, and finally goes on to Davy Byrne’s pub where he has a cheese sandwich and a glass of burgundy. While in Byrne’s pub he talks with Nosy Flynn. After his meal Bloom walks toward the National Library, sees Boylan, and ducks into the National Museum. Cannibalism takes the form of animalistic voracity: men wolfing their food at the Burton restaurant. Repelled by this Lestrygonian savagery, Bloom goes instead to a “moral pub,” while eating it evokes vivid memories of his first lovemaking with Molly. Talking with other men leads him back to the painful subject of Blazes Boylan, who recalls Antiphates. Along with thoughts of God the devour, Bloom feels almost eaten alive by his anxiety. “Men, men, men. “Perched on high stools by the bar, hats shoved back, at the tables calling for more bread no charge, swilling, wolfing gobfuls of sloppy food, their eyes bulging, wiping wetted moustaches. James Joyce’s Ulysses Esophagus, architecture, constables, peristaltic JUNE 16, 1904
  • Scylla and Charybdis The National Library of Ireland: 2pm In Homer’s Odyssey: The six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis. In choosing to avoid the more unpredictable and far more dangerous hazard, the Wandering Rocks, Odysseus confronts instead the twin challenges of Scylla and Charybdis between which Odysseus must navigate after leaving Circe’s island. Rather than risk the possible loss of the entire ship by sailing near the whirlpool, Charybdis, he elects to sail close to the lair of the ferocious Scylla, although in doing so Odysseus intentionally sacrifices six of his crew whom the sic-headed monster will seize and devour. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Stephen presents his theory of Hamlet and Shakespeare to several people gathered in the National Library. The main characters Are Stephen, John Eglinton, AE, Lyster (a librarian, a Quaker), and Richard Best. During the episode Bloom comes in looking for back files of a newspaper to get a design for the ad he is working on, and Buck Mulligan comes in and listens to part of Stephen’s presentation. At one point Bloom catches the eye of Mulligan, who scornfully points him out to Stephen as a wandering Jew with sexual designs on Stephen. But insofar as Bloom steers a middle way between sensuality and intellectualism, he reenacts Ulysses’s passage between Scylla and Charybdis—and offers Stephen a model to follow The motifs of the sheer, steadfast rock of Scylla and the restless whirlpool of Charybdis , a sea of troubles, are utilized in a symbolic sense in this episode. The stability of Dogma, of Aristotle and of Shakespeare’s Stratford is contrasted with the whirlpool of Mysticism, Platonism, the London of Elizabethan times. Shakespeare, Jesus and Socrates, like Ulysses, the man of balanced genius, pass bravely out, though not unscathed, from between these Ulysses Brain, literature, Stratford, London, dialectic - Since 1904
  • Wandering Rocks The Streets: 3pm In Homer’s Odyssey: The group of drifting boulders that Odysseus avoids when after leaving the island of the enchantress Circe, he chooses instead to sail his ship in the direction of the monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis. In Joyce’s Ulysses: This episode consists of nineteen short section (18 plus a coda) showing brief scenes of Dublin streets and houses. Threading through most of these scenes is the vice-regal procession. Several of the scenes depict major characters, but many depict minor ones. There is much intersection of the scenes with each other. The scenes include Bloom at a bookseller’s stand; Molly throwing money to a one-legged sailor; Stephen talking to his sister, Dilly; and a scene at the Dedalus’ home. The most probable explanation of this legend is that which explains the “wandering” or clashing of the rocks as an optical illusion. Joyce, however, is having fun at the reader’s expense in this chapter because, to read Ulysses, the reader must pass through both the treacherous rocks and the labyrinth of the National Library, with Stephen’s complex intellectual expositions at it center. Mr. Bloom excels his great precursor, for he accepts a supplementary adventure which the latter declined. The personages who figure in this episode are themselves victims of illusion, and many forms of mistake are illustrated, arising out of inattention, false inference, optical illusion, malidentification, etc. “From its sluice in Wood quay wall under Tom Devan’s office Poddle river hung out in fealty a tongue of liquid sewage” Blood, mechanics, conglomeration of the citizens, labyrinth June 16, 1904 Ulysses
  • NEWS Sirens The Concert in the Ormond Hotel: 4pm In Homer’s Odyssey: A man-eating creatures, half women and half fish, recline upon rocks and sing to Odysseus and his crew, tempting them toward shipwreck and death. Having been warned of this danger by the enchantress Circe, Odysseus has plugged the ears of his crewmen with wax so that they will not hear the Siren’s song; but, curious about he nature of their voices, Odysseus has had himself tied securely to the mast of the ship and has ordered his men not to release him under any conditions until the ships have passed the Sirens’ rocks. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Bloom stops by the restaurant of the Ormond Hotel for a snack; in the bar of the Hotel two barmaids flirt with several men, including Ben Dollard, Simon Dedalus, and Father Cowley. Bloom sits with Richie Goulding, Stephen’s uncle (his mother’s brother). The men in the bar sing songs from popular operas while Bloom eats liver. During his stay at the Ormond restaurant he answers the letter from Martha and thinks about Molly’s adultery with Blazes Boylan, which he knows is taking place. (this complex episode in which music plays so important a role is structured somewhat like a fugue, in the opening 1 ½ pages Joyce presents motifs that reappear throughout the episode. In James Joyce Ulysses: In this chapter the Sirens are a pair of sexy barmaids at the bar of the Ormond Hotel, Like Ulysses, Bloom is tempted by the seductive power of music, in particular by songs of love and sentimental nationalism, but he resists its enchanting power and critically observes its narcotic effect on those around him. Just as Ulysses enlist the help of sailors, whose ears are stuffed with wax, Bloom asks a deaf waiter to open the door between the restaurant and the bar so that he can hear the music. Bloom shares Ulysses’s determination to see and hear everything in the course of his travels. E.g. he enjoys the “glorious tone” of Simon Dedalus’s voice. He can recognize a minuet when he hears it on the piano. Ear, music, barmaids, fuga per canonem “Miss Kennedy sauntered sadly from bright light, twining a loose hair behind an ear. Sauntering sadly, gold no more, she twisted twined a hair. Sadly she twined in sauntering gold hair behind a curving ear”
  • Cyclops The Tavern: 5pm In Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus and his men land in Sicily and begin to explore the island. When they arrive at the cave of Polyphemus, the Cyclops (one-eyed monster), they are taken prisoner, and the Cyclops eats six of the men. Odysseus tricks the Cyclops into getting drunk, puts out his eye with the sharpened end of a stake, and escapes to sea with the remainder of his men. From the apparent safety of his boat Odysseus smugly mocks the blinded Cyclops, who hurls a boulder at them as their ship sails away. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Setting is Barney Kiernan’s pub, near the Four Courts, the legal center of Dublin. Most of this episode is told by an unnamed narrator, but the episode is interrupted frequently by long paragraphs in the epic style, or long catalogues, or by long detailed descriptions of such simple objects as a handkerchief. The topic of conversation is Ireland and the Irish, and the main speakers, in addition to the narrator, are the Citizen, Lenehan, Alf Bergan, O’Molloy, and Ned Lambert. Because some of the men believe Bloom gave a racing tip to Bantam Lyons in the “Lotus-eaters” episode (Throwaway), the men in the pub mistakenly think Bloom has won money on a long shot. Bloom comes to words with them, so that the Citizen chases Bloom out and throws at him biscuit can, from Irish biscuits, of course. In this chapter, the counterpart of the Cyclops is a myopic, rabidly nationalistic, virulently anti-Semitic drunkard known simply as the citizen. Caught in a pub, which takes the place of Homer’s cave, Bloom is scorned for his Jewishness by the citizen and the narrator, but in a rare moment of self- assertion, he denounces the persecution of his race. Just as Ulysses makes his escape while taunting the Cyclops, so does Bloom get away in the very act of infuriating the citizen by defiantly proclaiming that even Christ was a Jew. “Your God was a jew. Christ was a jew like James Joyce’s Ulysses Muscle, Politics, Fenian, Gigantism JUNE 16, 1904
  • Nausicaa The Rocks (Sandymount Stand): 8pm In Homer’s Odyssey: Nausicaa and her handmaids have gone to the beach with laundry from the palace. There she comes across the exhausted Odysseus, who, after leaving Calyps’s island on his way back to Ithaca, has been shipwrecked and washed ashore on a beach in the land of the Phaeacians. Nausikaa promises to give Odysseus her protection, and she brings him to the court of her father, the king. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Two or Three hours have passed. Setting is the same beach where Stephen walked in “Proteus.” The first half of this episode is in the style of the nineteenth century popular romance. The main characters are Gertie Macdowell, Edy Boardman, Cissy Caffrey, and Cissy’s two little brothers, Tommy and Jacky. While the children play ball and squabble, Gerty daydreams about the romantic life she might lead. She sees a dark gentleman close by and exhibitionistcally exposes her underclothes to him. About mid-way through the episode, the perspective shifts to Bloom’s point-of-view for bloom is the dark gentlemen. Bloom voyeuristically observes Gerty and masturbates. After thinking on Gerty for a while, Bloom falls asleep. Gerty (Joyce’s Nausicaa) aids Bloom by enticing him into the sexual respite provided by auto-eroticism, an act which he has been postponing until now. She also parallels the unmarried Nausicaa of Homer because marriage is much on Gerty’s mind, especially after her breakup with her steady boyfriend, Reggie Wylie ( a parallel here with Bloom’s “loss” of Molly). “And then a rocket sprang and bang shot blind blank and O! then the Roman candle burst and it was like a sigh of O! and everyone cried O!” Joyce’s Ulysses Eye, Nose, Painting, Grey, Blue, Virgin, Tumescence, Detumescence - Since 1904
  • Oxen of The Sun The Holles Street Maternity Hospital: 10pm In Homer’s Odyssey: After leaving Circe’s island and passing by first the Sirens and then Scylla and Charybdis, Odysseus and his shipmates land on the island of the sun god, Helios, to spend the night. Knowing well the potential for retribution they could face for annoying Helios, Odysseus makes the crew swear that they will not harm the god’s cattle grazing there. Unfortunately, adverse weather strands the men on the island and eventually their supplies run low. When Odysseus goes off to pray, his crew takes advantage of their leader’s absence, slaughters the animals, and feasts upon them. As punishment for this sacrilege, when the ship leaves the island, Zeus hurls a lighting bolt killing all of the crew save Odysseus. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Setting is the Holles Street maternity hospital. The style of this episode apparently traces the development of English writing from Anglo- Saxon to the contemporary revival sermon and also the development of a fetus. The episode is at times obscure and hard to follow, but the scene is the maternity hospital where Mrs. Purefoy is about to give birth. Bloom goes to see how she is doing and there meets Lenehan, a drunken Stephen, and a group of riotous medical students. Bloom joins them at the invitation of Dr. Dixon, who recently treated Bloom for a bee sting, but Bloom does not join in their drinking and mockery. After the announcement that Mrs. Purefoy’s baby has been born, the group adjourns to Burke’s for more drinks, at Stephen’s suggestion. Bloom, fearing that Stephen may get into trouble, follows along to oversee. Taking the killing of the oxen as a crime against fecundity, Joyce constructs a chapter about childbearing. Bloom sits with a group of men talking about lechery and contraception-crimes against fecundity. Womb, medicine, white, mothers, embryonic development June 16, 1904 Ulysses
  • June 16, 1904 Circe The Brothel: Midnight In Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus gives an account of his adventure with Circe, the witch who through magic transforms Odysseus's crew into swine. Her magic fails to effect a change in Odysseus because of the protective herb (identified by the Greek word moly, Odysseus was given by the god Hermes. Eventually, Odysseus triumphs over Circe and forces her to restore his men to their human forms. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Setting is the brothel district of Dublin. This, by far the longest episode in the novel and clearly the climactic one, takes place mainly in the brothel run by Bella Cohen. The main characters are Bloom, Stephen, Lynch, the three prostitutes Zoe, Florry, and Kitty, and the “whoremistress,” Bella Cohen. For many pages of the episode we move into subconscious mind of Stephen and Bloom. Hallucinations that must take place almost instantaneously are developed for 12-15 pages. As the episode opens, Bloom is searching for Stephen in the Dublin brothel district. He finds him at Bella Cohen’s. During their flirtations with the girls, Bloom’s and Stephen’s hallucinations bring back many of the characters and incidents of earlier in the day. Stephen finally breaks the chimney of a gas lamp and runs out. Bloom pays for it and follows him. Out in the street Stephen very passively becomes involved in an argument with two British soldiers and one of them hits him and knocks him down. Bloom comes up and ask the aid of the undertaker, Corny Kelleher, to disperse the crowd and satisfy the police. Bloom helps Stephen away. In Joyce’s Ulysses: The counterpart of Circe in this chapter is Bella Cohen,. When Stephen goes there with a friend named Lynch, Bloom follows them in hopes of rescuing Stephen from further dissipation. But when a whore named Zoe takes Bloom’s potato (his moly) as he enters the brothel, he becomes helpless against all the fantasies that swarm through his mind—including the hallucinated experience of being turned into a pig. We realize anew that Bloom is a marvelous composite of all the elements that make up mankind. His capacity for wonder and beauty is dramatically revealed here in the harrowing apparition of little Rudy, the Lamb of the World. Locomotor Apparatus, Magic, Whore, Hallucination “Time’s livid final flame leaps and, in the following darkness, ruin of all space, shattered glass and toppling masonry.”
  • Eumaeus The Cab Shelter: 1am In Homer’s Odyssey: Odysseus, disguised as an old beggar, arrives at the hut of his faithful servant Eumaus, a swineherd, whose hospitality provides emotional as well as physical comfort to the weary traveler. Odysseus made up as the old beggar, spins yarns about his travels and about associations with Odysseus that delight the old servant. It is only his son, Telemachus, that the putative beggar reveals his true identity, and together Odysseus and the young man plot revenge against the suitors who are importuning Penelope and despoiling their property. In Joyce’s Ulysses: Setting is a cabman’s shelter (a pub kept open late for cabmen) near Butt Bridge. The proprietor of the pub is a man the customers believe to be Skin-the-Goat, who was accused of being part of an Irish nationalist group that murdered two high-ranking English officials in Phoenix Park in Dublin in 1882. Bloom takes the boozy, befuddled Stephen there and tries to buy him coffee and a bun. They sit and listen to the talk of an old sailor who has travelled the world. The style of this episode is lethargic; it uses almost every trite expression, cliché, periphrasis, and verbosity imaginable. Deception plays a prominent role in Ulysses, for in each instance the narrative underscores how easily both language and appearances can conceal, as well as reveal, true identity. Eumaeus appears as the keeper of a cabman’s shelter where Bloom and Stephen go to talk and refresh themselves after Bloom guides Stephen out of Nighttown. Many scholars thought that the Eumaeus episode, with its emphasis on clichés and exhausted language, reflect the fatigue that Joyce must have felt after the enormous effort of composing the Circe episode. Now scholars have come to see that the trite and hackneyed dialogue is yet another instance of Joyce’s virtuosity as a writer. Joyce’s Ulysses Nerves, Navigation, Sailors, Narrative (old) - Since 1904
  • Ithaca The House: 2am In Homer’s Odyssey: Joyce took the title of the Ithaca episode from the name of the native land of Odysseus. This choice underscores the theme of homecoming that dominates this chapter. For the Greek hero, returning to Ithaca means both the successful completion of his 20-year odyssey and the restoration of his authority at home, which was threatened by the suitors for his wife, Penelope. Odysseus reaffirmation of authority, reunion with his wife and son, and repossession of his lands. In Joyce’s Ulysses: This episode is presented in the form of long, meticulously detailed and technically phrased questions and answers. Bloom takes Stephen home to 7 Eccles Street, where the two men have cocoa, talk, and urinate together outside. Bloom offers to let Stephen stay the night , but he declines. In form, this a chapter of scientifically detached inquisition, made of nothing but questions and answers. Rigorously didactic, it recalls the format of the Roman Catholic catechism or of nineteenth-century scientific textbooks. It speaks with authority, exhaustively answering almost every question you might have about the characters in this book, especially Stephen and Bloom. It offers a historical record of facts that neither a journalist nor historian would think worthy of recording but that are nonetheless significant in this novel. The simple act of turning a faucet prompts two enormous passages on the topic of water as a global phenomenon. We are reminded that in this novel, the implications of any one character or action can be made to spread out almost infinitely in space and time. “He thought that he thought he was a jew whereas he knew that he knew that he knew he was not” Joyce’s Ulysses Skeleton, Science, Comets, Catechism (impersonal) - Since 1904
  • Penelope Molly and Leopold Bloom’s Bed: 2AM In Homer’s Odyssey: The Penelope episode takes its name from the wife of Odysseus who waited 20 years for her husband’s return from the Trojan War. More specifically, the chapter’s title calls to mind book 23 of The Odyssey, in which Penelope is awakened and told that her husband has returned and killed all of the suitors who. were occupying her house. Penelope takes a cautious approach to this strange man who has suddenly appeared in her home. She demands that he verify his identity by answering a question about the position of their bed known only to her husband. When he replies correctly, they are finally reunited. In Joyce’s Ulysses: All of this forty-five page episode is Molly Bloom’s stream of consciousness as she lies awake after Bloom comes to bed. The episode is presented in eight unpunctuated sentences. As she lies in bed Molly thinks of her singing engagement, wonders what Bloom has been doing, thinks about her lovers and especially about Boylan’s visit that afternoon, remembers her first meeting with Bloom, and drifts toward sleep. But Joyce has an aim here. If you take a look at the 1909 letters, you'll see that in the blink of an eye Joyce will go from talking about Nora as if she were the Virgin Mary to telling her in graphic detail what he wants to do to her in bed. What he is trying to do is to explode a common preconception about what women have to be. Part of the typical feminist critique of masculine culture is that it is founded on the division of "woman/ mother/ prostitute" (Froula, Modernism's Body, 88). Meaning that the only way women could attain respectable social status was by marrying a man or by being pure. Joyce is here trying to lasso this prejudice against women, to reveal Molly as a virgin (in the sense that Bloom worships her as if she were a goddess), a mother, and a "prostitute." As with Bloom, you can't come to an easy judgment about Molly. You have to accept all of her, good and bad, attractive and ugly, saintly and debased. “I put my arms around him yes and drew him down on me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes. Flesh, Earth, Monologue (female) June 17, 1904 Ulysses
  • Bibliography Fargnoli, N. A. (2006). James Joyce A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc. Gilbert, S. (1955). James Joyce's Ulysses: A Study . New York: Random House, Inc. Heffernan, A. (2001). Joyce's Ulysses. Chantilly, Virginia: The Teaching Company. Hillegass, C. (1981). Cliffs Notes on Joyce's Ulysses. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliffs Notes, Inc.