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Flowers for Algernon: Pre-reading Power Point
 

Flowers for Algernon: Pre-reading Power Point

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    Flowers for Algernon: Pre-reading Power Point Flowers for Algernon: Pre-reading Power Point Presentation Transcript

    • Build Background “ Flowers for Algernon” is a science fiction story about an experiment a man undergoes to improve his intelligence. The characters and situations are fictional, but the tests the psychologists use are real tests.
    • Build Background
      • Psychologists study how people behave, think, learn, and feel.
      • There are many tests to measure human intelligence. The Intelligence Quotient, or IQ, is one measure.
    • IQ tests were first developed in France to differentiate between average and low intelligence. An IQ score of about 100 usually means average intelligence. Charlie’s IQ is 68, which means he has a low intelligence. IQ tests only give a rough measure of a person’s intelligence. They don’t measure talents in areas such as music, art, or athletics. Cultural History
    • Build Background
      • In recent years, scientists have come to think that people have “multiple intelligences”—special abilities in language, music, art, and physical coordination, for example.
    • Rorschach Test
      • Rorschach Test Hermann Rorschach, a Swiss psychiatrist, developed the Rorschach test in 1921. Ink was spilled on a piece of paper, and the paper was folded, making an inkblot. Patients were asked what they thought the inkblot looked like—a dress, a butterfly, etc. Their responses were used to create detailed psychological profiles of the patients. In the 1940s and 1950s, the Rorschach test was believed to be infallible, but the test’s results are no longer considered so important today.
      Build Background
    • Text Structure:
      • The way in which an author organizes a piece of text.
    • Set Purposes for Reading Using text structures, authors organize their writing in specific ways for specific purposes. Some text structures are cause and effect, problem and solution, and listing. Analyze Text Structure
    • Analyzing text structure is important because it helps you understand the organization of a text, making it easier to find and connect important ideas. Analyzing text structure helps you see the text’s unity and coherence. Set Purposes for Reading Analyze Text Structure
    • A text has unity when all the paragraphs work together to express one main idea. Coherence refers to the logical connections between those paragraphs. Set Purposes for Reading Analyze Text Structure
      • When you analyze text structure, you
      • look for signal words and phrases, such as first, then, as a result, and most importantly .
      Set Purposes for Reading Analyze Text Structure
      • determine what type of text structure the signal words indicate.
      • think about how text structure works to give meaning to the story.
      Set Purposes for Reading Analyze Text Structure
    • “ Flowers for Algernon” is written as a journal, which is typically in chronological order, or time order. As you read “Flowers for Algernon,” find clues to the chronological text structure. Open your packets to page 4 and complete the text structure chart as we read part one of the story. Use the blue highlighted sections of the story for help. Set Purposes for Reading Analyze Text Structure
    • Set Purposes for Reading Irony is the contrast between the way things seem and the way they really are. Irony
    • Irony continued….
      • In situational irony , a character expects one outcome but the opposite occurs.
      • In dramatic irony, the reader or audience has important information that the character does not have.
    • Set Purposes for Reading Irony is important part of an author’s style. Authors use irony to make important points about characters and situations and to make stories interesting, humorous, and dramatic. As you read part one, notice the situational and dramatic irony in the story. Complete the chart on page 5, using the pink highlighted sections for help. Irony
    • Build Background
      • In the second part of “Flowers for Algernon,” Charlie becomes a genius, or a person with a very high intelligence quotient.
      • Psychologists rate someone who scores 140 or above on an IQ test a genius.
      • Some geniuses can see connections between things that are not obvious to most people.
      • Scientists debate whether people are born geniuses, become geniuses because of their environment and experience, or both.
    • Foreshadowing
      • Foreshadowing is the use of clues by an author to prepare readers for events that will happen later in a narrative.
      • Foreshadowing creates feelings of suspense, dread, or anticipation that involve the reader more fully in a story. It’s important because it helps readers predict what will happen in a story . Authors use this technique so readers will be motivated to keep reading to see if their predictions are right.
      Foreshadowing continued…
    • Drawing Inferences
      • What are Inferences?
      • Inferences are educated guesses made when you put together information from the text with what you already know.
      • Inferences are important because they help a reader understand characters and situations within a story.
    • Character Inferencing
      • Authors rarely state directly why characters act the way they do. However, you can you use your reason and experience together with clues from a text to make inferences, or educated guesses.
      • Making inferences about characters is an important part of gaining understanding about the characters and the role that they play in the text. By making inferences, you look more deeply at characters.
    • Character Inferencing continued…
      • How do I make an inference about a character?
      • Focus on the following:
        • a. How a character acts and reacts.
        • b. How a character feels and thinks.
        • c. What a character says.
        • d. What others say about the character.
          • Take notes on what an author tells you directly in the story.
          • Think about people you know in real life that resemble the character and how they might react in different situations.
    • Try it! Mr. Tiptoe walked slowly along the sidewalk. He took care not to step on cracks, walk under ladders, or go near black cats. Make Inferences About Characters Read the following description and make an inference about why the character behaves in this manner:
    • As you read…
      • As you read the second part of “Flowers for Algernon,” look for details to help you make inferences about the characters. Hint: use the BLUE highlighted sections as you complete the chart on page 9.
    • Point of view is the relationship of the narrator to the story. In the first-person point of view, the narrator is a character in the story, referred to as “I,” who is telling the story. Point of View
    • Point of View
      • First Person Point of View continued…
        • The narrator is one of the characters in the story.
        • First person pronouns, such as I, me, my, and mine are used in telling the story.
        • Since the narrator is a character in the story, he/she may not be completely reliable.
        • We find out only what this character knows, thinks, and witnesses.
        • First-person point of view gives you excellent insight into the narrator’s thoughts and feelings.
    • In limited third-person point of view, the narrator is outside the story and reveals the thoughts of only one character. Point of View
    • Point of View
      • Third Person Limited continued…
        • The narrator is not a character in the story.
        • Third person pronouns, such as he, his, she, hers, it, its, they, and them are used in telling the story.
        • The narrator tells the story from the vantage point of one character.
        • The narrator can see into this character’s mind, but not any of the other characters.
        • We find out only what this character does, knows, thinks, and witnesses
      • In a story with omniscient third person point of view, the narrator can reveal events, thoughts, and actions of all the characters.
      Point of View
      • Third Person Omniscient continued…
        • The narrator is not a character in the story.
        • Third person pronouns, such as he, his, she, hers, it, its, they, and them are used in telling the story.
        • The narrator is all-knowing, and can see into the minds of all the characters. The narrator can also report what is said and done.
        • We find out what all the characters do, feel, think, and witness.
      Point of View
      • Second Point of View
        • Second person pronouns such as you, your, and yours are used.
        • Most stories are NOT told in second person. It is reserved for items of personal address, such as letters and editorials.
      • Stories are usually told from the first-person or third-person point of view.
      • Complete the activity on page 10 to apply your knowledge of point of view.
      Point of View