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This is a basic introductory presentation on the state of GLBTQ youth issues and the work that the Center does

This is a basic introductory presentation on the state of GLBTQ youth issues and the work that the Center does

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  • What factors do you think might contribute to the difference between sexual orientation and sexual behavior?Braverman, P. K., & Strasburger, V. C. (1993). Adolescent sexual activity. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 658-668.Eliason, M. J. (1996). Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 12, 127-132.Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., & Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Sanders.Terminology related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Adapted with permission from T.E.A.C.H. Toronto (Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia). Reprinted in Michigan Department of Education. (2004). A silent crisis: Creating safe schools for sexual minority youth training and resource guide. This notebook can be purchased for about $30.00. See http://www.emc.cmich.edu/pdfs/SilentCrisisOrderform.pdf.
  • Braverman, P. K., & Strasburger, V. C. (1993). Adolescent sexual activity. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 658-668.Eliason, M. J. (1996). Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 12, 127-132.Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., & Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Sanders.Terminology related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Adapted with permission from T.E.A.C.H. Toronto (Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia). Reprinted in Michigan Department of Education. (2004). A silent crisis: Creating safe schools for sexual minority youth training and resource guide. This notebook can be purchased for about $30.00. See http://www.emc.cmich.edu/pdfs/SilentCrisisOrderform.pdf.
  • Homosexual is a term that has been linked with a great deal of negative medical and psychological information, including the listing of homosexuality as a mental illness until 1973, and is usually avoided in GLBTQ positive discussions.Braverman, P. K., & Strasburger, V. C. (1993). Adolescent sexual activity. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 658-668.Eliason, M. J. (1996). Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 12, 127-132.Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., & Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Sanders.Terminology related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Adapted with permission from T.E.A.C.H. Toronto (Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia). Reprinted in Michigan Department of Education. (2004). A silent crisis: Creating safe schools for sexual minority youth training and resource guide. This notebook can be purchased for about $30.00. See http://www.emc.cmich.edu/pdfs/SilentCrisisOrderform.pdf.
  • Some people believe that it is empowering to “reclaim” the word queer as a positive descriptor of GLBTQ people and the GLBTQ community, while others remain uncomfortable with the still-common slur. It is vital to remember that terminology is a sensitive subject and is usually best to ask how a person self-identifies, and only when appropriate. Gender and Sexuality are complex and controversial issues and the burden is on allies to be respectful and supportive, without pressuring GLBTQ people to act as representatives of the larger community.
  • Braverman, P. K., & Strasburger, V. C. (1993). Adolescent sexual activity. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 658-668.Eliason, M. J. (1996). Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 12, 127-132.Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., & Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Sanders.Terminology related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Adapted with permission from T.E.A.C.H. Toronto (Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia). Reprinted in Michigan Department of Education. (2004). A silent crisis: Creating safe schools for sexual minority youth training and resource guide. This notebook can be purchased for about $30.00. See http://www.emc.cmich.edu/pdfs/SilentCrisisOrderform.pdf.
  • Intersexuality is a biological condition, separate from one’s gender identity. People often confuse intersex with transgender, but these are different. Transgender people feel that their gender identity is opposite the gender associated with their biological sex. Gender identity issues are complex and, much like sexuality, can operate on a scale, rather two opposing ideas, so there are also androgynous appearing people who identify as transgendered. Braverman, P. K., & Strasburger, V. C. (1993). Adolescent sexual activity. Clinical Pediatrics, 32, 658-668.Eliason, M. J. (1996). Working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. Journal of Nursing Staff Development, 12, 127-132.Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., & Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Sanders.Terminology related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Adapted with permission from T.E.A.C.H. Toronto (Teens Educating and Confronting Homophobia). Reprinted in Michigan Department of Education. (2004). A silent crisis: Creating safe schools for sexual minority youth training and resource guide. This notebook can be purchased for about $30.00. See http://www.emc.cmich.edu/pdfs/SilentCrisisOrderform.pdf.
  • GLBTQ Youth Issues in current events: -February 12, 2008, killing of Lawrence "Larry" Fobes King, a 15-year-old student at E.O. Green Junior High School in Oxnard, California, United States. He was shot twice by fellow student, 14-year-old Brandon McInerney, and was kept on life support until he died two days later. King was out by age 10.-Two 11-year-old boys took their own lives April 2009. Carl Joseph Walker-Hoover of Massachusetts and Jaheem Herrera of Georgia both committed suicide by hanging themselves after enduring unbearable anti-gay bullying at their respective schools.- March, 2010 - Itawamba County in Mississippi School officials decidedto cancel the prom for all students.Constance McMillen just wanted to enjoy prom night like any other student. She wanted to get dressed up and take her girlfriend to the most important dance of the high school social season.  But school officials told her she could not escort her girlfriend to the prom, and that she would be thrown out of the dance if students complained.Frustrated with what she knew was blatant discrimination, McMillen sought the assistance of the ACLU of Mississippi. The ACLU wrote a letter to the school district on her behalf, explaining that by excluding Ms. McMillen and her date and informing her that only male students could wear tuxedos, it was violating her  First Amendment right to freedom of expression.Instead of taking the ACLU’s Constitutional argument seriously and doing the equitable thing, the school district cancelled the prom.- October, 2009 - Controversy has been stirring in Corunna, MI concerning a gay history month project displayed by the Corunna High School Diversity Club. In October, the Corunna Board of Education voted to remove the display, yet changed its mind several days later.[1]The display, which featured nine photographs of public figures who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT), was originally brought into question by a parent who filed a complaint with the board.  At a meeting following the complaint, the board, which had not yet seen the display, decided 5–2 to remove the project from its display case in the high school hallways for the remaining 10 days of October.[2] The school board felt that “the display case may confuse other kids” and that “high school kids can be very impressionable so [gay awareness] might be better dealt with in [human sexuality] classes.”[3] After its decision, the board planned to forward the issue on to the District Health Advisory Committee, comprised of teachers, parents, students, and clergy, to further review the issue. Before the issue made its way to the committee, however, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) contacted the board and informed its members that they had violated the club's First Amendment rights. After seeking legal consult, the President of the Corunna Board of Education stated that “[the board] violated the First Amendment rights of the students and the Diversity Club” and “limited their expression.”[4] With this, the board expressed its plan to meet and rescind the decision to take down the display.  The vote to rescind passed 6-1.
  • Black, D.. Gates, G., & Saunders, S. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. Demography, 37, 139-154.Ford, C. S., & Beach, F. A. (1951). Patterns of sexual behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers and Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Books. Massachusetts Department of Education. (2002a, September). 2001 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey results. Retrieved April 5, 2003, from: http//:www.doe.mass.ed/hsss/yrbs/01/results.pdf.Massachusetts Department of Education. (2002b, July 23). Sexual minority students data. Data presented to the GLBTQ Joint Working Group. Available from Massachusetts Department of Education.Savin-Williams, R. C. (2001). A critique of research on sexual-minority youths. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 5-13.
  • 10% is the most commonly accepted number when discussing the prevalence of GLB people, yet high school students only show a 5% prevalence. Why do you think there is a difference in these numbers?Black, D.. Gates, G., & Saunders, S. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. Demography, 37, 139-154.Ford, C. S., & Beach, F. A. (1951). Patterns of sexual behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers and Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Books. Massachusetts Department of Education. (2002a, September). 2001 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey results. Retrieved April 5, 2003, from: http//:www.doe.mass.ed/hsss/yrbs/01/results.pdf.Massachusetts Department of Education. (2002b, July 23). Sexual minority students data. Data presented to the GLBTQ Joint Working Group. Available from Massachusetts Department of Education.Savin-Williams, R. C. (2001). A critique of research on sexual-minority youths. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 5-13.
  • Floyd & Stein (2002) Herdt, G., & Boxer, A. (1996). Children of horizons (2nd. Ed.). Boston: Beacon Press.Rotherman-Borus, M. J., & Fernandez, M. I. (1995). Sexual orientation and developmental challenges experienced by gay and lesbian youths. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 25, Supplement, 26-34.Savin-Williams, R. C. (1998). . . And then I became gay: Young men’s stories. New York: Routledge.Troiden, R. R. (1998). Homosexual identity development. Journal of Adolescent Health, 9, 105-115.
  • Coming out happens in stages: first, to oneself; then, to one’s trusted confidant; then to family and friends. Coming out continues for a person’s entire life, as they meet new people. GLBTQ people who choose not to come out, or be “closeted,” often have higher risks and more negative outcomes. Rejection at any stage of coming out can be traumatic and may result in the person choosing to not come out to others.What do you think the pros and cons of coming out in high school would be? Why do you think that people who come out earlier and have more involvement in the GLB community are usually more comfortable with their sexual orientation?
  • Most states choose not to survey their students on GLBTQ issues and/or violence issues. Because of this, Massachusetts is the authority on GLBTQ youth risk behavior, and youth risk behavior in general.http://www.mass.gov/cgly/yrbs07.pdf
  • http://www.mass.gov/cgly/yrbs07.pdfMass DOE MYRBS 2003
  • http://www.mass.gov/cgly/yrbs07.pdf
  • This survey was specific to GLBT youth.http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2340.html?state=research&type=research
  • http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2340.html?state=research&type=research
  • http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2340.html?state=research&type=research
  • Do these statistics surprise you? Are some more or less surprising than others? What kinds of things do you think could be done to solve these problems?
  • http://www.glsen.org/binary-data/GLSEN_ATTACHMENTS/file/000/001/1306-1.pdf
  • http://www.glsen.org/binary-data/GLSEN_ATTACHMENTS/file/000/001/1306-1.pdf
  • http://www.glsen.org/binary-data/GLSEN_ATTACHMENTS/file/000/001/1306-1.pdf
  • http://www.glsen.org/binary-data/GLSEN_ATTACHMENTS/file/000/001/1306-1.pdf
  • http://www.glsen.org/binary-data/GLSEN_ATTACHMENTS/file/000/001/1306-1.pdf
  • http://www.glsen.org/binary-data/GLSEN_ATTACHMENTS/file/000/001/1306-1.pdf

Glbtq Youth Issues Glbtq Youth Issues Presentation Transcript

  • GLBTQ Youth Issues
    Rachel Prevatt, Coordinator
    Center for Research Training and Consultation on GLBTQ Youth Issues
    Central Michigan University
  • Terminology
    Sexual Orientation: A person’s physical or sexual attraction to someone of the same or opposite gender. (Use orientation rather than sexual preference).
    Sexual Behavior: What a person does sexually and with whom.
    Sexual behavior is not always an accurate indicator of sexual orientation. Some teenagers (18% boys, 6% girls) report experimenting with same-sex sexual acts, but do not self-identify as gay or lesbian. Similarly, some adults engage in same-sex sexual acts but do not self-identify as gay.
  • Terminology(continued)
    Alfred Kinsey, and further research, showed that Sexual Orientation is a Continuum Rather than a Dichotomy, Ranging from Exclusively Heterosexual, to Bisexual, to Exclusively Homosexual
  • Terminology(continued)
    Heterosexual: Someone who is physically or sexually attracted to partners of the opposite gender, also referred to as straight.
    Homosexual: Someone who is physically or sexually attracted to partners of the same gender. Homosexual has been used in marginalizing ways, so other terms are more appropriate.
    Lesbian: A woman who is physically or sexually attracted to other women.
    Gay: Commonly used to describe men who are physically or sexually attracted to other men. The term gay can be used to refer to both men and women or, more generally, to the gay community.
    Bisexual : Someone who is physically and sexually attracted to partners of the both genders.
  • Terminology(continued)
    Queer: An umbrella term seeks to encompass a broad range of sexual identities, behaviors, and expressions*
    GLBTQ = Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning
    SMY = sexual minority youth
    *When trying to refer appropriately to gay, lesbian, bisexual ,or transgender persons, remember that the way that certain words are used is fluid, evolving, and context-dependent.
  • Terminology(continued)
    Masculinity/ Femininity: Expectations for behavior and appearance based on gender. Gender role expectations vary across cultures.
    Gays and lesbians can not be identified by appearance. There are effeminate and masculine gay men, effeminate and masculine lesbians, and heterosexuals who defy gender stereotypes.
    Gender Identity: A person’s deepest, inner sense of being male or female.
    Most individuals, including gays and lesbians, have a gender identity consistent with their biological sex. Most gay men self-identify as men; most lesbians self-identify as female. Gays and lesbians typically do not wish to be members of the opposite sex.
  • Terminology(continued)
    Biological Sex: The sum of the biological (chromosomal, hormonal, and anatomical) factors that make one male, female, or intersex. Terms include male, female, and intersex.
    Intersex: Intersex refers to people who are born with atypical or ambiguous genitalia. An older term, “hermaphrodite,” is now considered inappropriate.
    Transgender : an umbrella term used for persons with gender non-conforming identities and persons who present themselves in gender non-conforming ways. (Transgender persons may be heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual.)
    Transsexual: Transgenderedpersonswho take actions to present themselves in ways consistent with their gender identity. (e.g. by having surgery, taking hormones, and/or living as the opposite gender)
  • TerminologyQuestions?
  • Why GLBTQ Youth Issues?
    Center for Research, Training, and Consultation for GLBTQ Youth Issues
    at Central Michigan University
    Vision:
    All GLBTQ youth and young adults can live, attend school, and develop their identity in safe and inclusive environments.
    Mission:
    It is our mission to promote resilience and healthy outcomes among GLBTQ youth and promote awareness through research, training, and consultation. 
  • Prevalence
    Same-sex sexual behaviors have been found in every human society studied.
    Various researchers have defined homosexuality in terms of same-sex sexual behavior or attraction and/or self-identification as gay or lesbian.
    Sexual behavior and self-identification may change across the lifespan.
  • Prevalence
    Results of data collected over a 4-year period indicated that 5.3% of high school students surveyed reported same-sex sexual contact, a gay or lesbian identity, or both.
    Estimates of the number of gay, lesbian, or bisexual adults range from about 3% to 10%.
  • Identity Formation
    Many sexual minority youth report “feeling different” from other children, often as early as the preschool years.
    First stage in sexual identity formation among SMY is confusion.
    Second stage is awareness.
    Boys: awareness of sexual orientation occurs around age 9 years; first experience age 13.
    Girls: awareness at about age 10, first experience age 16.
    Third stage is acceptance. Self-identification as gay or lesbian generally occurs at about age 16, with a wide range of individual variation.
  • “Coming Out”
    “Coming Out” is the on-going process of acknowledging one’s identity as lesbian, gay, or bisexual
    Research finds that GLB people who start the “coming out” process earlier show greater comfort with their sexual orientation, while people who start “coming out” later in life and have less involvement in GLB social groups show lower comfort with their sexual orientation.
    However, this does not mean GLB persons should be encouraged to “come out” early.
    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual students “come out” during high school and, in addition to environmental risks in their home and community, must contend with risks in the school environment
  • Risks for GLBTQ Youth
    The Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (MYRBS) is conducted every two years by the Massachusetts Department of Education with funding from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey monitors behaviors of high school students that are related to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States.
    The 2007 MYRBS was conducted in 59 randomly elected public high schools. In total, 3131 students in grades 9 - 12 participated in this voluntary and anonymous survey. Because of the high student and school response rates, the results of this survey can be generalized to apply to public high school students across Massachusetts.
  • Risks for GLBTQ Youth
    The 2007 MYRBS found:
    5.4 percent of students surveyed described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual.
    9.2 percent of all students described themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual and/or reported same-sex sexual contact.
    Students who described themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual were significantly more likely than their peers to report attacks, suicide attempts and drug and alcohol use. When compared to peers, this group was:
    over four times more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year
    over three times more likely to miss school in the past month because of feeling unsafe
    over four times more likely to have been injured or threatened with a weapon at school
    2 times more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs.
    At greater risk for pregnancy and contracting STDs or HIV/AIDS.
  • Risks for GLBTQ Youth
    2007 National School Climate Survey
    Gay, Lesbian, Straight Education Network (GLSEN) used two methods to locate survey participants in an effort to obtain a representative national sample of LGBT youth: outreach through community-based groups serving LGBT youth and outreach via the Internet. The sample consisted of a total of 6,209 LGBT K-12 students, from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, between the ages of 13 and 21. About two-thirds of the sample (64.4%) was white, over half (57.7%) was female and over half identified as gay or lesbian (53.6%). Students were in grades 6 to 12, with the largest numbers being in 10th or 11th grade.
  • Risks for GLBTQ Youth
    Key Findings of the 2007 National School Climate Survey include:
    86.2% of LGBT students reported being verbally harassed
    44.1% reported being physically harassed and 22.1% reported being physically assaulted at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation.
    73.6% heard derogatory remarks such as "faggot" or "dyke" frequently or often at school.
    More than half (60.8%) of students reported that they felt unsafe in school because of their sexual orientation, and more than a third (38.4%) felt unsafe because of their gender expression.
  • Risks for GLBTQ Youth
    Key Findings of the 2007 National School Climate Survey include (continued):
    31.7% of LGBT students missed a class and 32.7% missed a day of school in the past month because of feeling unsafe, compared to only 5.5% and 4.5%, respectively, of a national sample of secondary school students.
    The reported grade point average of students who were more frequently harassed because of their sexual orientation or gender expression was almost half a grade lower than for students who were less often harassed (2.8 versus 2.4).
    41.5% of students who experienced high frequencies of physical harassment did not plan to go to college, for example, compared to 30.1% of those who had not experienced high frequencies of physical harassment.
  • Risks Discussion
  • Solutions for Safer Schools
    GLSEN 2007 School Climate Survey:
    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) or similar student clubs can promote respect for all members of the school community and provide critical support to LGBT students and their allies. The existence of these clubs can make schools safer and more welcoming for LGBT students.
    Students in schools with a Gay-Straight Alliance:
    Reported hearing fewer homophobic remarks;
    Experienced less harassment and assault because of their sexual
    orientation and gender expression;
    Were more likely to report incidents of harassment and assault;
    Were less likely to feel unsafe because of their sexual orientation
    or gender expression;
    Were less likely to miss school because of safety concerns; and
    Reported a greater sense of belonging to their school community.
  • Solutions for Safer Schools
    97.4% of students in schools with a GSAsaid that they could identify one or more supportive staff, compared to only 73.8% of students in schools without a GSA
    only 36.3% of LGBT students reported having a GSA at school
    82.5% of students surveyed could identify at least one school staff member whom they believed was supportive of LGBT students, but only 36.3% said that they knew six or more supportive educators
  • Solutions for Safer Schools
    GLBT Students with supportive educators (six or more):
    Were less likely to miss at least one day of school in the past month because of safety reasons (20.4%) than students with no supportive educators (39.8%);
    Had higher grade point averages than students without supportive educators (2.9 versus 2.5);
    Reported higher educational aspirations than those without supportive educators; and
    Reported a greater sense of belonging to their school community than those without supportive educators.
  • Solutions for Safer Schools
    Compared to other students, students in schools with an GLBT inclusive curriculum:
    heard fewer homophobic remarks;
    were less likely to be victimized or feel unsafe at school because of their sexual orientation or gender identity/expression;
    had a greater sense of belonging to their school community; and
    talked about LGBT issues with their teachers more often and rated these conversations more positively.
    Only 10.5% of students were exposed to positive representations of LGBT people, history or events in their classes and only 14.5% reported that LGBT-related topics were included in their textbooks or other assigned readings.
  • Solutions for Safer Schools
    Students from schools with a comprehensive, enumerated anti-bullying policy reported a less hostile and more supportive school climate as well as:
    Heard fewer homophobic remarks (68.8% frequently or often) compared to students in schools with generic, non-enumerated policies (74.3%) or no policy (75.0%);
    Experienced lower levels of victimization related to their sexual orientation than students with generic policies or no policies at all;
    Were more likely to report that school staff intervened most of the time or always when hearing homophobic language in school (29.1%) compared to students in schools with generic policies (17.5%) or no policies (13.1%); and
    Were more likely to report incidents of harassment and assault to school staff (18.7% reported most of the time or always) compared to students in schools with generic policies (13.7%) or no policies at all (11.0%).
    Only 18.7% reported that their school had a comprehensive policy, whereas 37.6% reported that their school had a generic policy. 43.8% of all students reported that they attend schools without any type of safe school policy.
  • Why do you think these solutions work?
  • Solutions for Safer Schools
    GLSEN Recommends:
    Advocate for comprehensive safe school and anti-discrimination legislation at the state and federal level that specifically enumerates sexual orientation and gender identity/expression as protected categories;
    Implement comprehensive safe school policies in individual schools and districts, with clear and effective systems for reporting and addressing incidents that students experience;
    Support GSAs or similar student clubs that address LGBT issues and work to improve school climate;
    Provide training for school staff to improve rates of intervention and increase the number of supportive faculty and staff available to students; and
    Increase student access to appropriate and accurate information regarding LGBT people, history and events through inclusive curriculum, library resources and access to Internet resources through school computers.
  • Center for Research, Training, and Consultation on GLBTQ Youth Issues
    Research: Assess the needs of GLBTQ youth and develop best practices to improve school and community climates and influence educational and political policy
    Training: Train pre-professionals and in-service professionals who [will] work with youth in schools and in community agencies to promote greater understanding and healthy outcomes for GLBTQ youth.
    Consultation: Consult with schools and agencies to help evaluate programs for [GLBTQ] youth and put into place better policy and practices, particularly anti-bullying policy, and improved curriculum
    Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA/STRUTS): CMU campus based social support and peer advocacy group for central Michigan area GLBTQ and ally youth, 14-20
  • MPHS GSA/STRUTS
    Thursdays (during school year)
    3:30pm
    Sloan Hall 123
    Central Michigan University
  • Contact Us:
    Center for Research, training, and consultation on glbtq youth issues
    Rachel Prevatt, Coordinator
    Sloan 130
    Psychology Department
    Central Michigan University
    Mt Pleasant, MI, 48858
    Phone: 989-774-7270
    E-mail: struts@cmich.edu