The
        Psychology
        of Web Design
        and putting it into practice…
        By Peter Prestipino




There a...
Those able to romanticize the
experience and create functionality
   in line with fundamental artistry
           achieve ...
The     Psychology                     of Web Design


   Continued from page 26
                                         ...
The Many Flavors of Site Search
People have different methods of                create site search engines that go beyond
...
The     Psychology                   of Web Design


   Continued from page 28



    CrazyEgg.com (commercial) and ClickH...
Life With (and Beyond) jQuery
     If you’re a subscriber to Website Magazine’s                     to major functions for...
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Psychologyofwebdesign

  1. 1. The Psychology of Web Design and putting it into practice… By Peter Prestipino There are few things more important to a successful website than its design. In many respects, it’s the window to the soul of an Internet business as well as the people behind it. Portals busy with too many elements fail, in that they attempt to express too much, confuse visitors and make interaction stressful. On the other hand, those which are too barren or sparse fail to build trust or convey purpose with users clearly. Is for it), but are users’ needs supersed- ed in doing so? If the answer to that there a successful middle ground? A virtual place where question is yes, are we risking the satisfying end-user needs and designer creativity meet to ful- loyalty of existing clients or even worse, prospects? And how do our fill the objectives of those running a website? That balance is choices affect revenue? certainly the goal, but how do we (the collective of Web pro- In a perfect world, there would be a balance between properly satis- fessionals) get there without alienating either essential group? fying the needs of the brand and cre- ating an appealing Web presence that drives users to take specific actions, feel certain emotions, and There are, or perhaps should be, two schools of thought in the create certain thoughts. Successful designers achieve this symbio- psychology of Web design; should our experiences influence sis. But there are many challenges — cost, purpose, guidelines, design choices or should end-users (and their demographics, psy- and environment, not to mention the many platform limitations. chographics and needs) determine how websites and applications Web designers express the objective of a website (without are designed and developed? The difference might be arbitrary to copy) through layout, form, color and theme. To provide design- some, but they can have a profound effect on how your site per- ers with the best possible canvas to help achieve the objectives forms. Do you listen to the actions of your users as they interact and goals set forth, it is essential to address the psychology of with your site or do you, as a designer (or as the one responsible design from the perspectives of purpose, balance and branding — for its success), dictate best practices? Clearly, this can be a chal- often where genuine psychology comes into play Those able to . lenging choice for a designer. Yes, a designer’s job is to build a romanticize the experience while remaining in line with funda- Web page or website to fulfill the objective of the client which mental artistry achieve a certain mastery of design psychology meets or parallels the existing brand (and its customers affinity and provide a website with dramatically better odds of success. Continued on page 28 26 | WEBSITE MAGAZINE.com | FEBRUARY 2009
  2. 2. Those able to romanticize the experience and create functionality in line with fundamental artistry achieve a certain mastery of design psychology and provide a website with dramatically better odds of success. FEBRUARY 2009 | WEBSITE MAGAZINE.COM | 27
  3. 3. The Psychology of Web Design Continued from page 26 Live By the Tagline: A tagline is a statement or a motto that represents a company’s, or in our case a website’s, philosophy and mission. It should be the most No Page Is an Island Giving Genuine obvious element on a website’s Meaning to front page and clearly describe It used to be that the index, or home page of a website was the Whitespace the website in one phrase. most important piece of your entire Internet property. But thanks Statistics show that a website has to the increased sophistication of search engines and their broad- White space, often referred to just eight seconds to capture a ening indices (as well as the popular rise and use of landing pages as negative space in design visitor’s attention and cue them in all things Internet marketing) this is no longer a hard and fast circles, is the portion of a page to browse the site further. Without rule. In fact, since search engines, social networks and individu- left empty or unmarked — a clear tagline a website will als can send Web users to virtually any area of a website (prede- essentially, just unused space. have a hard time keeping visitors fined or not), it is more essential than ever before to make strong There is a purpose for white long enough to browse the first impressions, regardless of the drop-off point for visitors. space, however, and many inner pages. The questions designers must ask themselves, considering the consider it a vital graphic ele- fact that “no page is an island,” is: How do individual pages relate ment in Web page design. White space is not about increasing to the overall purpose of the site itself and, in turn, how do these margins, paragraph spacing and the space between sections. pages relate to the user? Expert use of white space helps a designer achieve balance, pro- If our aim is to sell merchandise, secondary and even tertiary vides a sense of elegance through simplicity and focuses the read- , pages must meet our underlying purpose in some capacity — er’s eye on a desired part of the page. Most of all, white space pro- perhaps by giving the “add to cart” button a location high on the vides a sense of breathing room for the viewer. page. If the business objective is to sell exclusive (not found else- The concept of whitespace, however, can seem counterintu- where) content, featuring multiple advertising units runs count- itive to many website managers or inexperienced designers. er to the concept of conveying credibility and makes the princi- Wouldn’t it simply be better to include more content to tell the pal focus of a design unclear for users. This ultimately decreases story promote a product and feed search engine spiders? More , the chances that end-users will make a purchase. In any context, content is usually better, but the presentation of your content has straying too far from the core mission of the website (no matter a major impact on how it is consumed, if at all. When the spac- how good of an idea it may seem) can be detrimental. To achieve ing of characters is small, margins are wide and paragraphs run consistency and saliency of purpose, the rule should always be to together, copy becomes a much less effective tool to convey the analyze each element appearing on each page to determine its intended purpose of the page to end users. People don’t typical- likelihood of distracting visitors. Do you really need another ly react well to rooms full of clutter, so why would they with a third-party widget? Which elements of our CMS’ force users to Web page? Part of this sort of response has to do with how we take an action that is counter to the action we really want them associate open space with emotional or physical comfort, and to take? Asking these questions might reveal deeper site issues our basic human survival instincts — when we feel spatially con- than you previously thought. stricted our primary concern is finding a way out. Often referred Once the site visitor has seen the main/index page of the site to as fight-or-flight, this response comes down to one result on and is interested enough to venture deeper, presenting naviga- the Web — leaving the website. And once a user feels threatened tional cues (textual and graphical) should become a primary pur- and leaves with a bad impression, they won’t likely return. But pose of pages. After all, the visitor is coming to the site in search when spaces are comfortable, users feel safe and more open to of something to see, read, hear or purchase — or all of these the power of suggestion. things combined. Getting users to this content as quickly as pos- Designers can influence decisions by discovering which sible is a priority and there are several different ways to do this , areas of a website are of the most importance, and which are depending on your visitors’ preferences. For example, popular better left to secondary pages, or not included at all. The easi- blogging and CMS system WordPress (wordpress.org) features est way to uncover this essential information (though there is many plugins to help users find the most popular content, recent an investment of time) is through the implementation of heat content and even content related to the page the end-user is cur- maps — a graphical representation of where clicks occur on a rently viewing. The result is more interaction. two-dimensional map of a website. Popular services include Continued on page 30 28 | WEBSITE MAGAZINE.com | FEBRUARY 2009
  4. 4. The Many Flavors of Site Search People have different methods of create site search engines that go beyond finding content on a website. Some Google’s plug-and-play offering. Among the scour HTML sitemaps, others scan features are real-time indexing of proprietary content, customized ranking (Vertical Lens the home page, while still others allows sites to fine-tune the algorithm to fit pound away at their keyboards their audience and user experience), and through the site search box. Site structured search, supporting faceted refine- search engines provide users with a ment of searches. For example, the Vertical simple and convenient way to locate Lens offering can blend standard Web products using the terms with which results with proprietary content in a single they are most familiar When users . search display. Should Yahoo! refine the can easily find what they want, offering to make it accessible to a greater they are more likely to buy — and in number of Web professionals, the power the end, that is what all Internet of Vertical Lens could make it a viable retailers want. contender in the world of site search. EveryZing’s ezSearch is a universal site Site Search Recommendations search solution that indexes and searches When users conduct a search on a web- multimedia content. Features of the hosted site, they typically look for a text field software-as-a-service solution include full where they can enter their term(s). customization of search results, multiple According to Jacob Nielsen’s Web usability content format and ingestion capabilities tips, this search box (or field) should be no (including crawling, feed-based and less than 27 characters wide in order for stream-capture), time-stamping of the text to be clearly visible and easy to every word in the index, blended use. Another recommendation is to place results, faceted navigation the search text field on the top of the page, based on custom attributes because users tend to search a website and keyword merchandising according to the “F” pattern, (from top left capabilities. Ideal for Web to the bottom right). Include a button clear- properties with lots of video, ly labeled “Search” and not text such as EveryZing could well become “Go” or “Submit,” as these expressions the standard in site search for tend to mislead website visitors. multimedia content. Site Search Tools & Resources Omniture’s SiteSearch is another There are a variety of site search tools and product that puts the world of resources available to Web professionals; on-site search into the hands some come standard with existing content of those in constant pursuit of management systems, others are stand- ensuring the right information alone scripts and some are robust solutions is presented to website visitors. with customization features galore. Which More importantly, it tracks the is right for your enterprise? experience for merchants on a Google Site Search is easy to plug in, and granular level. Users of Omniture the resulting user experience is so familiar can promote top-performing prod- to end-users that it has fast become a ucts and content in results using mainstay on many sites around the Web. pre-defined business rules and PIt also has the advantage of an additional analytics-based performance revenue stream for publishers through PPC metrics such as conversion, advertising. But there are many — some revenue and page views, would argue better — site search products resulting in a more dynamic available, all aiming to take a bite out of search experience while provid- Google’s market share. ing merchants with detailed intel- ligence on visitor behavior. For the Yahoo! Vertical Lens is part of the new and analytics-conscious Web profes- highly-touted Build Your Own Search Service sional, there is no better site (BOSS) platform, and allows developers to search solution on the market. FEBRUARY 2009 | WEBSITE MAGAZINE.COM | 29
  5. 5. The Psychology of Web Design Continued from page 28 CrazyEgg.com (commercial) and ClickHeat (open-source) reminded of how the layout of the structure and content from LabsMedia (labsmedia.com/clickheat/), although most de should address the specifics of influencing how viewers facto analytics solutions feature this capability out of the box. approach, consume, and act on the page. In other words, With a graphical representation of viewer clicks, underper- remind the client that their page should be designed to produce forming areas can be replaced with white space to direct users one primary action. If a client has trouble understanding the to focus on the desired portion of the page. Of course, testing value of certain design elements like white space, the designer different elements is always suggested before making a sweep- should make every effort to demonstrate its value through ing change to a website. tools like heat maps, case studies, testimonials or simply For designers, convincing a client to leave a portion of their presenting different versions of the page to several decision site unused can be a struggle. The client may need to be makers at one time. Trust and the Theory Behind Color Trust is defined* as, “the reliance on the Yellow produces a integrity, strength, ability, surety, etc. of a warming effect, person or thing.” In relation to Web design, it arouses cheerfulness, involves honesty and competence, and a sub- stimulates mental tle, yet powerful way to achieve that elusive activity, and generates trust factor is through the use of color. muscle energy. Use Color theory is a set of principles used to yellow to evoke pleasant, uplifting feelings. create harmonious color combinations, or You can choose yellow to promote chil- color schemes. When determining which color dren’s products and items related to leisure. is right for a website, you are not just choos- Use yellow carefully however, as a dul ing one color (e.g. make it blue). Your designer yellow represents caution. will actually be choosing and applying an Green is the color of nature — symbolizing entire color scheme to a website. Knowing growth, harmony, and fertility. Green has a the types of classic color schemes is essential strong emotional link with safety and is when influencing an end-product. considered to be the most restful color for Monochromatic color schemes use variations the human eye. Green suggests stability in lightness and saturation of a single color, and endurance, making it a perfect fit for whereas analogous color schemes use colors finance-related design, but is also used to that are adjacent to each other on the “color indicate safety, making it a viable choice for wheel.” There are many types of classic color medical-related design. schemes (complimentary and split-complimen- Blue, often associated with stability, sym- tary, triadic and tetradic) so let’s instead look at bolizes trust, wisdom and confidence. Blue the basics of the colors themselves and how has been shown to produce a calming effect they are perceived by end-users. and is often used to promote products and Red is considered to be an emotionally services related to cleanliness. More accepted intense color. While red is commonly associat- by males than females, it is a preferred color ed with danger, it is also used to stimulate for corporate America. people to make quick decisions. Red is highly Black typically carries a negative connota- visible, so using it to bring text and images tion but carries with it a feeling of perspective to the forefront makes it a perfect color for and depth. Strength and authority are also "buy now" or “add-to-cart” buttons. attributed to black. Although black back- While not as aggressive as red, orange is grounds diminish readability, combined with also a highly visible color, ideal for calling other intense colors such as red, they remain attention to or highlighting the most important aggressive and unique, good for attracting a elements of a design, without causing stress. risk-taking mindset. * Dictionary.com 30 | WEBSITE MAGAZINE.com | FEBRUARY 2009
  6. 6. Life With (and Beyond) jQuery If you’re a subscriber to Website Magazine’s to major functions for dealing with bi-weekly Design and Development Digest, XMLHttpRequest. you are familiar with jQuery (and its many The Yahoo! UI Library (YUI) is an plugins), a lightweight JavaScript library that open-source JavaScript library for building emphasizes interaction between JavaScript rich, interactive Web applications using and HTML. While it’s one of our favorite techniques such as Ajax, DHTML and DOM ways to add some real punch to your scripting. YUI includes several core CSS website and make the on-site experience for resources and is actively developed by a users that much richer (search ’jQuery’ at team of Yahoo! engineers. The YUI WebsiteMagazine.com), there are many project (developer.yahoo.com/yui/) includes solid alternatives in use by designers and the YUI Library and two build-time tools: developers worldwide. Let’s look at three, in YUI Compressor (minification) and YUI MooTools, YUI and the Prototype Javascript Doc (documentation engine for Framework. JavaScript code.) The Prototype JavaScript Framework pro- MooTools (mootools.net) is another open- vides an Ajax framework (and other utilities) source jQuery alternative. The compact implemented as a single file of JavaScript JavaScript framework is designed for the code, usually named prototype.js. Prototype intermediate to advanced JavaScript devel- is distributed standalone (prototypejs.org), oper and is both extensive and modular, but also as part of larger projects such as giving developers the ability to choose Ruby on Rails, script.aculo.us and Rico. components appropriate to the project. It Prototype provides various functions for allows you to write powerful, flexible, and developing JavaScript applications, and cross-browser code with its elegant, well features range from programming shortcuts documented, and coherent API. On the Importance of Image and Branding for branding colors (Coca-Cola red, for example) and design elements consistent throughout the brand (Coca-Cola’s cursive Brands play a major role in the success of all organizations, both lettering.) On an even smaller scale, a website’s favicon (the tiny online and in the brick-and-mortar world. But too often, the image in a browser bar) can instantly add credibility to a web- branding of a Web businesses falls by the virtual wayside. While site before the user even becomes familiar with the brand. it’s smart to focus on the value proposition of the actual service, Clients’ aims and desires are always relevant to a site design image is everything. You might initially struggle to explain the project, but hopefully the preceding information helps show essence of your own brand, but its worth every effort. The most that individual client preferences should often take a back seat notable brands convey a certain cultural significance, a shared to proven design principles and user expectations of websites. lifestyle and, most importantly, an attitude. Coca-Cola, one of The client’s investment of trust in the designer can pay high div- the most identifiable brands on the planet, has branded to the idends when it comes to design and branding issues. So, rather point where it is much more of a culture than a product. than merely being the production of online decoration, Web If exceptional businesses are supported by great brands, design is an effort of direction and communication. then bad businesses fail because of poorly conceived brands. In Web design is not something that should be engaged in light- hyper-competitive markets where “getting online” takes little ly. The goal is to strike a balance between client preferences, money and even less time, those with the ability to differentiate design principles, and trial-and-error tests based on end-user ana- themselves can rise above the noise and create an enterprise of lytics data. Perhaps it is best not to view Web design as a one time, significant consequence. beginning-to-end project but rather as a continual work in Branding is, of course, a lifetime pursuit but it begins on a progress. At no point will the preferences of the client, the design- small scale. Those most successful in design branding under- er, and the end-user all coalesce perfectly But that’s fine as long as . stand that logos communicate the essence of an organization they can come close enough to guide visitors to established objec- and invest heavily in their development. The same holds true tives — a goal common to all parties involved. FEBRUARY 2009 | WEBSITE MAGAZINE.COM | 31

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