Projective Techniques And Other Personality Measures
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Projective Techniques And Other Personality Measures

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Assessment of the individual

Assessment of the individual

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Projective Techniques And Other Personality Measures Projective Techniques And Other Personality Measures Presentation Transcript

  • Personality Inventories Chapter 11 Assessment in Counseling
  • Personality Inventories
    • Instruments designed to assess personal, emotional, and social traits and behaviors
    • Self-report personality inventories
      • Respondents check or rate items they believe describe them best
    • We will discuss 11 personality inventories commonly used by counselors
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • Most widely used personality inventory in the world, >2 million administered each year
    • Self-scored or computer-scored
    • Briggs found similarities between her conclusions and Carl Jung’s
    • MBTI is based on Jung’s concepts of individual differences in perception & judgment
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • Extraversion vs. Introversion (E-I)
      • Focus energy on outer vs. inner world of people & things
    • Sensing vs. Intuition (S-I)
      • Rely on senses to perceive vs. relying on indirect perception
    • Thinking vs. Feeling (T-F)
      • Judge information with objective vs. subjective methods
    • Judging vs. Perceiving (J-P)
      • Orientation for dealing with external world
      • Anxious to use thinking or feeling mode to make decisions vs. more comfortable collecting information through a sensing or intuitive process
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • Personality type summarized in 4 letters indicating direction of preferences on each of 4 dimensions
    • Combinations yield 16 personality types
    • Norms change substantially between adolescence and adulthood
    • Internal consistencies of Form M yield correlation coefficients >.90
    • Test-retest reliability only 50-50 chance of being identical
    • One attraction of test is no good or bad combinations
    • Counseling uses include exploring couples relationships, work relationships, and vocational counseling
    • No specific guidelines for interpretation
  • California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
    • Developed for use with relatively well-adjusted individuals
    • Assesses individual’s strengths & positive personality attributes
    • MMPI was the basis for CPI’s development
    • Takes 45-60 minutes to complete
    • Pencil & paper or computer-based
    • Brief form used for organizational training & evaluation
    • CPI 260 specifically developed for managerial assessment & leadership training
  • California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
    • Items deal with typical behavior patterns & attitudes with less objectionable content than the MMPI
    • Scales designed to assess positive personality characteristics
    • Scales aid in understanding of interpersonal behavior of normal individuals
    • Termed “the sane person’s MMPI”
  • CPI: 20 Folk Scales Organized in 4 Clusters
    • Class I assesses interpersonal adequacy of poise, self-assurance, and ascendancy (7 scales)
      • Dominance, Capacity for status, Sociability, Social Presence, Self-Acceptance, Independence, and Empathy
    • Class II measures socialization, responsibility, and character (7 scales)
      • Responsibility, Socialization, Self-control, Good impression, Communality, Well-Being, and Tolerance
  • CPI: 20 Folk Scales Organized in 4 Clusters
    • Class III measures intellectual and academic themes useful in educational counseling (3 scales)
      • Achievement via Conformance, Achievement via Independence, and Intellectual Efficiency
    • Class IV is a mixed group unrelated to other clusters (3 scales)
      • Psychological-Mindedness, Flexibility, & Femininity-Masculinity
  • CPI: 3 Dimensions (Vectors) Facilitate Understanding and Interpretation
    • Vector 1 Measures Internality vs. Externality
    • Vector 2 Measures Norm Favoring vs. Norm Questioning
    • Vector 3 Measures Self-Doubting Vulnerability vs. Self-Actualization
      • Vectors 1 & 2 measure personality type
      • Vector 3 measures levels of personality adjustment
    • 4 Quadrants or Lifestyles:
      • Alphas are ambitious, productive, and socially competent
      • Betas are responsible, reserved, and conforming
      • Gammas are restless, rebellious, and pleasure seeking
      • Deltas are withdrawn, reflective, and detached
  • CPI Usefulness
    • Shown to predict success in educational & vocational areas
    • Shown to predict school & college performance beyond IQ & Scholastic Assessment alone
    • Not effective for clinical use, but it was not designed for that use
    • Validity scales should be inspected when interpreting CPI results
    • Pay attention to highest & lowest T scores
  • Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
    • Raymond Cattell listed adjectives to apply to human beings, 4,500 trait names – reduced list to 171 terms
    • Used 16 primary factors to develop 16 scales
      • High & low scores represent opposite characteristics
    • Additional scores on 5 global factors
      • Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-Mindedness, Independence, & Self-Control
    • 3 Validity scales detect random responding, detect faking-good responses, & predict attempts to give a bad impression
    • Norms available for adults, college students, & high school juniors & seniors
    • Adaptations for marriage, career, job proficiency, and managerial assessment counseling
  • NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R)
    • Developed to assess the Big Five personality factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, & Conscientiousness
    • Five 48 item scales on a 5-pt agree-disagree continuum, plus 30 subscales
    • Easy to administer & hand score, yet computer administration, scoring, & interpretation is available
    • Developed with adults – need different norms for teens and college students
    • NEO-4 developed for career counseling
    • Research favors NEO PI-R for assessment of normal adult personality
  • Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R)
    • Brief, broad, & well-researched measure of personality characteristics
    • 3 Personality Scales, 1 Addiction Scale, & 1 Validity Scale
    • Designed for use with nonpathological population, yet extreme scores usually indicate psychopathology
    • Satisfactory test-retest reliability
    • Separate age & sex norms needed
    • EPQ Junior for younger age groups
  • Personality Research Form (PRF)
    • 20 Scales assessing personality traits such as:
      • Affiliation (friendly & accepting of others)
      • Endurance (patient & persevering)
      • Nurturance (sympathetic & comforting)
    • 2 Validity Indices
      • Social Desirability Scale
      • Infrequency Scale
    • Manual contains norms for 6 th grade though college
  • Jackson Personality Inventory Revised (JPI-R)
    • Developed to assess normal personality characteristics
    • 300 True-False Items yield 15 scales
    • Scales organized in 5 clusters measuring traits like anxiety, tolerance, energy level, and responsibility
    • Easily & quickly scored in 10 minutes
    • Reasonable concurrent validity
    • Not well known & not often used in counseling & other applied settings
  • Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised (MIPS-R)
    • Assess personality styles for adults within normal range
    • Developed for counseling situations involving relationships, career placement, & problems in daily living
    • 180 true-false items yielding 24 scales & 4 validity indices
    • 3 Dimensions of normal personality:
      • Motivating Styles (emotional dealing with environment)
      • Thinking Styles (mode of cognitive processing)
      • Behaving Styles (interrelating with others)
    • Useful for counseling & helping professions, including family & career settings
  • Hogan Development Survey (HDS)
    • One of several instruments from Hogan Assessment Systems
    • Designed for normal clients
    • 168 items
    • Measure 11 dysfunctional dispositions that disrupt relations with others & hamper occupational, career, or marital success
    • Can use for selection for high-stress jobs, clients with interpersonal or situational adjustment problems, or for career development programs
  • Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventories (SEI)
    • Defined self-esteem as “the evaluation a person makes and customarily maintains with regard to him- or herself.”
    • Reasoned that people with confidence in their abilities will be more persistent and successful
    • School Form (Form A) designed for students 8-15yo
      • 6 scores – total self-esteem, subscores about peers, parents, school, & personal interest, & a lie scale to check for defensiveness
    • School Short Form (B) takes 10-15 minutes
    • Adult Form (C) 25 items adapted from School Form
    • Behavioral Academic Self-Esteem (BASE) developed for teachers to evaluate student’s performance
  • Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (2 nd Edition)
    • 90-item instrument yields 14 scales for counseling purposes
    • Scales assess self-concept in terms of identity, feelings, & behavior
    • Items on a 5-point scale, 9-measures of self-concept
    • Two summary scales & 4 validity scales
    • 2 nd edition was standardized on a nationwide sample
    • Child Form for ages 7 – 14
    • Young-Person Form for ages 13+
  • Chapter 11 Summary
    • To interpret results of a personality inventory completely, the counselor must understand both the personality characteristics being assessed & the approach used to develop the various inventory scales
    • The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has gained great popularity and is used in many settings in addition to its use by counselors and clinicians
    • California Psychological Inventory, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, & Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised are carefully developed inventories, with much research backing, that assess everyday personality traits
    • The NEO Personality Inventory-Revised provides measures of the Big Five Personality factors that account for most of the variance among personality measures
    • The Personality Research Form & the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised are two personality inventories that have capitalized on the capabilities of modern computers in their construction. Millon Index of Personality Styles-Revised and Hogan Development Survey are other potentially useful personality inventories
    • Two inventories useful in assessing self-concept are the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Tenness Self-Concept Scales (2 nd edition)
  • Projective Techniques and other Personality Measures Chapter 12
  • Projective Techniques Unstructured tasks are presented to the examinee who is expected to reflect their needs, experiences, inner states, and thought processes. This process is know as projective hypothesis – responses to ambiguous stimuli reflect a person’s basic personality
  • Rorschach Ink Blot Test
    • Developed by Herman Rorschach in 1921 by putting ink on a piece of paper and folding it in half.
    • A series of 10 ink blots are given; some are gray and others are color.
    • Scored using the Exner’s Comprehensive System which looks at:
      • Location (which part or whole of blot)
      • Determinant (which feature or color)
      • Content
      • Popularity(common or original)
  • First image in the inkblot test. Popular responses are bat, badge, and coat of arms.
  • Thematic Apperception Test
    • Known as the picture interpretation technique
    • Consists of 30 black and white picture cards.
    • Most cards contain one or more human figures and one completely blank card.
    • Only 20 of the 30 cards are presented in an administration of 10 cards over two tests
    • Cards are chosen based on the age and sex of the examinee
    • Examinee makes up a story from each picture including what is happening in the picture, what led up to that situation, how the people in the story feel, and how the story ends
    • Examinee is expected to identify with the hero in their story and project their needs, attitudes, and feelings on the hero
  • House-Tree-Person
    • A drawing technique that is widely used because it yields a lot of clinical information and it is easy to use
    • Individual draws a house, a tree, and a person on three separate sheets of paper.
    • They must describe, define, and interpret each of the drawings
    • Characteristics of the drawings are scored and interpretive concepts are applied to the characteristics and the responses
  • Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank
    • Examinee is asked to complete 40 sentence fragments related to possible conflicts or emotions and is expected to express their attitudes, traits, and emotions in their responses
    • Most of the fragments are written in first person, such as “what bothers me most…”
    • There are three forms: one for high school, one for college, and one for adults
    • Responses are compared with sample answers and given a score of 6 to 0, with 6 being highly unhealthy and 0 being healthy
  • Early Recollections
    • Adler’s use of early recollections is described as the first truly projective test
    • Ask client to think back to one of their very first memories
    • Answers should be specific and can be analyzed for cognitive and behavioral patterns
    • The themes, outlooks, and attitudes revealed by the examinee are examined and interpreted rather than the behavior
  • Person-Environment Interaction
    • Based on Lewin’s formula B=f(P*E) which says behavior (B) is a function of the interaction of the person (P) and the environment (E)
    • Theory emphasizes the important role that environment plays in shaping behavior
    • Many tests have been formed from this theory
    • One test is the College Student Experiences Questionnaire which is used to assess the quality of students’ college experience
  • Health and Lifestyle Inventories
    • These inventories assess the biopsychosocial issues that encourage or inhibit the recovery of individuals from injury or illness.
    • Examples:
      • Battery for Health Improvement 2
      • Coping with Health Injuries and Problems
      • Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle
      • Lifestyle Assessment Questionnaire
  • Psychosocial Development
    • Look at the developmental changes that occur as an individual moves through various life stages
    • Instruments designed to assess the effect of these influences have been constructed but are not ready for use in individual counseling
    • Although not ready to be used, they do offer useful concepts for assessing individuals with particular concerns that occur at various points in the life cycle
  • Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships Chapter 13
    • Assessment of couples differ from individual
    • assessment in a number of ways:
    • Focuses on relationships & interactions between two or more persons
    • Can provide the opportunity to directly observe interpersonal communication
    • May involve attempting to maintain a supportive alliance while assessing antagonistic partners
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • Used to help couples understand their differences in the four dimensions measured by the MBTI and to help them use their differences constructively rather than destructively
    • Data suggests that people are only slightly more likely to marry individuals of similar than of opposite types
  • Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis
    • 180 items equally divided among 9 scales measuring the following traits: Nervous-Composed, Depressive-Lighthearted, Responsive-Inhibited, Dominant-Submissive, and Self-Discipline-Impulsive
    • Based on a set of norms but not necessarily from a representative sample
    • The “crisscross” procedure is done too where the person records their own traits and their impressions of another person which is useful in the family counseling
  • Marital Satisfaction Inventory, Revised
    • A self-report inventory used to assess marital interaction and the extent of marital distress
    • Intended to be used in couples counseling with both partners taking the scale and the results displayed on a single profile that indicates areas of agreement and disagreement
  • Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI)
    • Yields 12 scores & consists of 10 scales
    • Scales include Information, Experience, Psychological Symptoms, Gender Role Definition, and Sexual Satisfaction
    • Takes 45-60 minutes to complete
    • Designed to assess individual rather than couple sexual functioning
    • Primary measures current functioning, yet subscales include lifetime experiences
    • Range from low to adequate internal consistencies
    • Provides counselors with considerable information regarding sexual functioning
    • Computer version also available with extensive interpretive information
  • Couple’s Precounseling Inventory
    • For use in planning and evaluating relationship therapy based on a social learning model
    • Couples describe current interaction patterns rather than personality characteristics
    • Based on social learning theory and designed to examine relationship characteristics and motivations that can be useful in suggesting avenues of treatment if the relationship is to survive
  • Family Environment Scale
    • Social climate scale
    • One form assesses client’s perception of the family as it is (Real Form)
    • Second form assesses how the client would prefer the family to be (Ideal Form)
    • Third form assesses how the client would expect the family to react to new situations (Expectation Form)
    • Three 90-item inventories
    • Children’s Pictorial Version
    • Criticized for possessing a middle-class bias and for not considering today’s varying family patterns
  • Family Assessment Measure-III
    • Diagnostic tool for therapy that assesses
    • family structure, strengths, and weaknesses:
    • 5-item general scale that looks at general family functioning
    • 42-item dyadic scale that looks at how family members perceives his or her relationship with another family member
    • 42-item self-rating scales that looks at how each member rates their own functioning within the family
  • Sternberg’s Love Scales
    • Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale is a 45-item scale measuring 3 components of romantic relationships
      • Intimacy, Passion, & Commitment
    • Difficult to develop scales of measurement
    • Technique helps clients identify stories of what they perceive love to be
    • Helpful exploring couple’s relationships
    • Similar profiles of storied tend to be more satisfied with their relationships
  • NEO Couples Compatibility Report
    • Software program has been developed to identify aspects of each partner’s personality that may be affecting a couple’s compatibility
    • Report generated that indicates how well the partners’ personalities fit together
  • Summary – Chapter 13
    • Personality inventories such as the MMPI, CPI, and especially the MBTI, commonly used in other types of counseling, are most likely to be used by counselors with clients concerned with marriage or relationship issues
    • There are instruments specifically developed to assess marital satisfaction, communication issues, and family environments that counselors can use to assist clients to understand and deal with relationship problems
    • Interpersonal assessment instruments usually evaluate an individual’s interaction with others in terms of 2 dimensions: control and affiliation
    • Through the cooperative construction of a multigenerational graphic family structure – the genogram – insight into family constellations and interpersonal relationships within the family can be revealed to both the counselor and the client