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02 Chapter Notes

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter: Rocks and Minerals Table of Contents Section 3: Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Section 1: Minerals—Earth’s Jewels Section 2: Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks
  • 3.
    • Minerals are inorganic, solid materials found in nature. Inorganic means they usually are not formed by plants or animals.
    • X-ray patterns of a mineral show an orderly arrangement of atoms that looks something like a garden trellis.
    What is a mineral?— Minerals Defined Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 4.
    • The particular chemical makeup and arrangement of the atoms in the crystal is unique to each mineral.
    • Rocks usually are made of two or more minerals.
    What is a mineral?— Minerals Defined Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Each mineral has unique characteristics you can use to identify it.
  • 5.
    • Minerals form in several ways. One way is from melted rock material inside Earth called magma.
    • As magma cools, atoms combine in orderly patterns to form minerals.
    How do minerals form? Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 6.
    • Evaporation can form minerals.
    • Just as salt crystals appear when seawater evaporates, other dissolved minerals, such as gypsum, can crystallize.
    How do minerals form? Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 7.
    • A process called precipitation (prih sih puh TAY shun) can form minerals, too.
    • Water can hold only so much dissolved material. Any extra separates and falls out as a solid.
    How do minerals form? Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 8.
    • Large mineral grains that fit together like a puzzle seem to show up in rocks formed from slow-cooling magma.
    Formation Clues Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 9.
    • If you see large, perfectly formed crystals, it means the mineral had plenty of space in which to grow.
    Formation Clues Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • This is a sign they may have formed in open pockets within the rock.
  • 10.
    • Each mineral has a set of physical properties that can be used to identify it.
    • Most common minerals can be identified with items you have around the house and can carry in your pocket, such as a penny or a steel file.
    Properties of Minerals Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 11.
    • All minerals have an orderly pattern of atoms.
    • The atoms making up the mineral are arranged in a repeating pattern.
    Crystals Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Solid materials that have such a pattern of atoms are called crystals .
  • 12.
    • Minerals that split into pieces with smooth, regular planes that reflect light are said to have cleavage (KLEE vihj).
    Cleavage and Fracture Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Cleavage is caused by weaknesses within the arrangement of atoms that make up the mineral.
  • 13.
    • Not all minerals have cleavage. Some break into pieces with jagged or rough edges.
    Cleavage and Fracture Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Materials that break this way, such as quartz, have what is called fracture (FRAK chur).
  • 14.
    • Sometimes a mineral’s color can help you figure out what it is. But color also can fool you.
    Color Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • The common mineral pyrite (PI rite) has a shiny, gold color similar to real gold.
    • Because of this, pyrite also is called fool’s gold.
  • 15.
    • Scraping a mineral sample across an unglazed, white tile, called a streak plate, produces a streak of color.
    Streak and Luster Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
  • 16. Streak and Luster Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • The streak is not necessarily the same color as the mineral itself. This streak of powdered mineral is more useful for identification than the mineral’s color.
  • 17.
    • Luster describes how light reflects from a mineral’s surface.
    Streak and Luster Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • If it shines like a metal, the mineral has metallic (muh TA lihk) luster.
    • Nonmetallic minerals can be described as having pearly, glassy, dull, or earthy luster.
  • 18.
    • Friedrich Mohs developed a way to classify minerals by their hardness.
    Hardness Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • The Mohs scale classifies minerals from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest).
  • 19. Hardness Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • You can determine hardness by trying to scratch one mineral with another to see which is harder.
  • 20.
    • Specific gravity compares the weight of a mineral with the weight of an equal volume of water.
    Specific Gravity Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Pyrite—or fool’s gold—is about five times heavier than water. Pure gold is more than 19 times heavier than water.
    • Measuring specific gravity is another way you can identify minerals.
  • 21.
    • The mineral magnetite will attract a magnet.
    Other Properties Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • The mineral calcite has two unusual properties. It will fizz when it comes into contact with an acid like dilute HCl.
    • Also, if you look through a clear calcite crystal, you will see a double image.
  • 22.
    • Only a small number of the more than 4,000 minerals make up most rocks.
    Common Minerals Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Most of the rock-forming minerals
    are silicates (SIH luh kaytz), which contain the elements silicon and oxygen.
  • 23. Common Minerals Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • More than half of the minerals in Earth’s crust are types of a silicate mineral called feldspar.
  • 24.
    • Other important rock-forming minerals are carbonates.
    Common Minerals Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • The carbonate mineral calcite makes up most of the common rock limestone.
  • 25.
    • Gems are minerals that are rare and can be cut and polished, giving them a beautiful appearance.
    Gems Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • To be gem quality, most minerals must be clear with few or no blemishes or cracks.
    • A gem also must have a beautiful luster or color.
  • 26.
    • One reason why gems are so rare is that they are formed under special conditions.
    The Making of a Gem Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Diamond, for instance, is a form of the element carbon.
    • Scientists suggest that diamond forms deep in Earth’s mantle. It takes a certain kind of volcanic eruption to bring a diamond close to Earth’s surface, where miners can find it.
  • 27.
    • A mineral is called an ore if it contains enough of a useful substance that it can be sold for a profit.
    Ores Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • The iron used to make steel comes from the mineral hematite, lead for batteries is produced from galena, and the magnesium used in vitamins comes from dolomite.
    • Ores of these useful metals must be extracted from Earth in a process called mining.
  • 28.
    • After an ore has been mined, it must be processed to extract the desired mineral or element.
    Ore Processing Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • Smelting melts the ore and then
    separates and removes most of the unwanted materials.
  • 29. Ore Processing Minerals—Earth’s Jewels 1
    • After this smelting process, it can be refined, which means that it is purified.
  • 30. Section Check 1 Question 1 What does inorganic mean? Answer Inorganic means not formed by plants or animals. NC: 3.04
  • 31. Section Check 1 Question 2 List some places you might find minerals in your home. Answer You can find minerals in salt shakers, pencils, glasses, and ceramic dishes. NC: 3.04
  • 32. Section Check 1 Question 3 Explain the difference between a rock and a gem. Answer Gems are rare minerals that can be cut and polished. They have a beautiful color and lack cracks or blemishes. Rocks are often cloudy and when they are cut, they crack. NC: 3.04
  • 33. Igneous Rock
    • Igneous (IHG nee us) rocks form when melted rock material from inside Earth cools.
    • When melted rock material cools on Earth’s surface, it makes an extrusive (ehk STREW sihv) igneous rock.
    • When the melt cools below Earth’s surface, intrusive (ihn TREW sihv) igneous rock forms.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 34. Chemical Composition
    • The chemicals in the melted rock material determine the color of the resulting rock.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • If it contains a high percentage
    of silica and little iron, magnesium, or calcium, the rock generally will be light in color.
  • 35. Chemical Composition
    • Light-colored igneous rocks are called granitic (gra NIH tihk) rocks.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 36. Chemical Composition
    • If the silica content is far less, but it contains more iron, magnesium, or calcium, a dark-colored or basaltic (buh SAWL tihk) rock will result.
    • Intrusive igneous rocks often are granitic, and extrusive igneous rocks often are basaltic.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 37. Rocks from Lava
    • Extrusive igneous rocks form when melted rock material cools on Earth’s surface.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 38. Rocks from Lava
    • When the melt reaches Earth’s surface, it is called lava.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 39. Rocks from Lava Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Lava cools quickly before large mineral crystals have time to form.
  • 40. Rocks from Lava
    • Extrusive igneous rocks can form in two ways.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 41. Rocks from Lava
    • In one way, volcanoes erupt and shoot out lava and ash.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 42. Rocks from Lava Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Also, large cracks in Earth’s crust, called fissures (FIH shurz), can open up.
  • 43. Rocks from Lava
    • Oozing lava from a fissure or a volcano is called a lava flow.
    • The fastest cooling lava forms no grains at all. This is how obsidian, a type of volcanic glass, forms.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 44. Rocks from Magma
    • Intrusive igneous rocks are produced when magma cools below the surface of Earth.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 45. Rocks from Magma
    • Intrusive igneous rocks form when a huge glob of magma from inside Earth is forced upward toward the surface but never reaches it.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 46. Rocks from Magma
    • Intrusive igneous rocks generally have large crystals that are easy to see.
    • Some extrusive igneous rocks do not have large crystals that you can see easily.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Others are a mixture of small crystals and larger, visible crystals.
  • 47. Sedimentary Rocks
    • Pieces of broken rock, shells, mineral grains, and other materials make up what is called sediment (SE duh munt).
    • Sediment can collect in layers to form rocks. These are called sedimentary (sed uh MEN tuh ree) rocks .
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 48. Sedimentary Rocks
    • When sediment is dropped, or deposited, by wind, ice, gravity, or water, it collects in layers.
    • After sediment is deposited, it begins the long process of becoming rock.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Most sedimentary rocks take thousands to millions of years to form.
  • 49. Detrital Rocks
    • Detrital rocks are made of grains of minerals or other rocks that have moved and been deposited in layers by water, ice, gravity, or wind.
    • Other minerals dissolved in water act to cement these particles together.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 50. Identifying Detrital Rocks
    • To identify a detrital sedimentary rock, you use the size of the grains that make up the rock.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 51. Identifying Detrital Rocks
    • The smallest, clay-sized grains feel slippery when wet and make up a rock called shale.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Silt-sized grains make up the rougher-feeling siltstone.
  • 52. Identifying Detrital Rocks
    • Sandstone is made of yet larger, sand-sized grains.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2 sandstone
    • Pebbles mixed and cemented together with other sediment
    up rocks called make conglomerates (kun GLAHM ruts).
  • 53. Chemical Rocks
    • Chemical sedimentary rock forms when mineral-rich water from geysers, hot springs, or salty lakes evaporates.
    • As the water evaporates, layers of the minerals are left behind.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Chemical rocks form from evaporation or other chemical processes.
  • 54. Organic Rocks
    • Chalk and coal are examples of the group of sedimentary rocks called organic rocks.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • Living matter
    dies, piles up, and then is compressed into rock.
  • 55. Organic Rocks Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
    • If the rock is produced from layers of plants piled on top of one another, it is called coal.
  • 56. Fossils
    • Chalk and other types of fossiliferous limestone are made from the fossils of millions of tiny organisms.
    • A fossil is the remains or trace of a once-living plant or animal.
    Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks 2
  • 57. Section Check 2 Question 1 What type of rock forms when melted rock material from inside Earth cools? A. igneous B. lava C. ore D. sedimentary NC: 3.04
  • 58. Section Check 2 Answer The correct answer is A. Igneous rock forms when melted rock, called magma, cools. NC: 3.04
  • 59. Section Check 2 Question 2 What determines the color of igneous rock? Answer The chemicals in the melted rock determine the color of igneous rock. NC: 3.04
  • 60. Section Check 2 Question 3 The photo shows _______ rock. A. igneous B. metamorphic C. sedimentary D. volcanic NC: 3.04
  • 61. Section Check 2 Answer The answer is C. Sedimentary rocks are formed by layers of different sediments over time. NC: 3.04
  • 62. New Rock from Old Rock
    • Many physical changes on and within Earth are at work, constantly changing rocks.
    • It can take millions of years for rock to change.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • Sometimes existing rocks are cooked when magma is forced upward into Earth’s crust, changing their mineral crystals.
    • All these events can make new rocks out of old rocks.
  • 63. Metamorphic Rocks
    • New rocks that form when existing rocks are heated or squeezed but are not melted are called metamorphic (me tuh MOR fihk) rocks .
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
  • 64. Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • Granite can change to gneiss.
    • The sedimentary rock sandstone can become quartzite, and limestone can change to marble.
  • 65. Types of Changed Rocks
    • A physical characteristic helpful for classifying all rocks is the texture of the rocks.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • Texture differences in metamorphic rocks divide them into two main groups— foliated (FOH lee ay tud) and nonfoliated.
  • 66. Types of Changed Rocks
    • Foliated rocks have visible layers or elongated grains of minerals.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • These minerals have been heated and squeezed into parallel layers, or leaves.
    • Many foliated rocks have bands of different-colored minerals.
  • 67. Types of Changed Rocks
    • Nonfoliated rocks do not have distinct layers or bands.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • These rocks, such as quartzite, marble, and soapstone, often are more even in color than foliated rocks.
  • 68. The Rock Cycle
    • Scientists have created a model called the rock cycle to describe how different kinds of rock are related to one another and how rocks change from one type to another.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3 Click image to view movie.
  • 69. The Journey of a Rock
    • A blob of lava that oozes to the surface and cools forms an igneous rock.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • Wind, rain, and ice wear away at the rock, breaking off small pieces. These pieces are called sediment.
  • 70. The Journey of a Rock
    • Mineral-rich water seeps through the sediment and glues, or cements, it together. It becomes a sedimentary rock.
    Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle 3
    • Pressure and heat inside Earth can change it into a metamorphic rock.
    • Metamorphic rock deep inside Earth can melt and begin the cycle again.
  • 71. Section Check 3 Question 1 What type of rock results when an existing rock changes form? A. igneous rock B. metamorphic rock C. a mineral D. sedimentary rock NC: 3.04
  • 72. Section Check 3 Answer The answer is B. A metamorphic rock is formed when an existing rock is heated by Earth’s temperature or squeezed by intense pressure. NC: 3.04
  • 73. Section Check 3 Question 2 Compare and contrast the two groups of metamorphic rocks. Answer Foliated rocks have many layers. Nonfoliated rocks do not have layers and the individual mineral grains can be difficult to see. NC: 3.04
  • 74. Section Check 3 Question 3 Would you expect to find a well-preserved artifact in a metamorphic rock such as quartzite? Explain. NC: 3.04
  • 75. Section Check 3 Answer No; quartzite is an example of a nonfoliated metamorphic rock. These rocks do not have distinct layers. Quartzite forms when quartz sand grains recrystallize during intense heating and pressure. An artifact would get destroyed during this process. NC: 3.04
  • 76. To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Help Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.
  • 77. End of Chapter Summary File

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