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Matter: Physical Properties and Change
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Matter: Physical Properties and Change

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Matter can be described by physical and chemical properties. Matter is capable of undergoing physical and chemical changes based on these properties. ...

Matter can be described by physical and chemical properties. Matter is capable of undergoing physical and chemical changes based on these properties.
Chapter 15:1, 10:1

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  • 1. Chapter 15 & 10 Chemistry, Technology, Materials Science
  • 2. Chapters 15 & 10: Chemistry and Technology Table of Contents Section 3: Using Science to Solve Problems Section 1 : Introduction to M aterials Science Section 2: Science, Technology, and Engineering   Section A: Physical Properties and Changes Section B: Chemical Properties and Changes
  • 3.
    • The first step in learning how information is used is to learn about materials.
    • Scientists refer to a specific type of matter as a material .
    • The branch of science that studies the properties and uses for materials is called materials science .
    What is Materials Science? Introduction to Materials Science 1
  • 4.
    • Chemists may be interested in a new material to use as the outer-skin of an airplane.
    • Physicists may be interested in a material for a telescope that will be used to collect gamma rays in space.
    What is Materials Science? Introduction to Materials Science 1
    • Scientists in all branches of science are concerned with the properties
    and uses of materials.
  • 5.
    • An evaluation of the properties of a material determines its usefulness.
    • A material has both chemical and physical properties that are determined by its atomic structure.
    • The properties of the material are the most important feature of a material to consider when selecting materials.
    Finding the Right Materials Introduction to Materials Science 1
  • 6. Chapter 10 Chapter 10 : Matter and Its Changes Table of Contents Section A: Physical Properties and Changes Section B: Chemical Properties and Changes
  • 7.
    • Observing involves seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling.
    • Any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the material is a physical property .
    Using Your Senses Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 8.
    • It is important to never taste, touch, or smell any of the materials being used in the lab without guidance.
    • For safety reasons you will rely mostly on other observations.
    Using Your Senses Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 9.
    • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
    • In a physical change , the physical properties of a substance change, but the identity of the substance does not change.
    Physical Properties and Changes 1 Physical Properties— Color and Shape
  • 10.
    • The detergent bottles shown are made of high-density polyethylene regardless of the differences in the physical properties of color or shape.
    Physical Properties— Color and Shape Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 11.
    • One useful and measurable physical property is length.
    Length and Mass Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Length is measured using a ruler, meterstick, or tape measure.
    • Objects can be classified by their length.
  • 12.
    • Mass is a physical property that describes the amount of material in an object.
    Length and Mass Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • For example, two boxes of the same detergent may have different masses. One box may be heavier than the other but the formula of the detergent in each box is the same.
  • 13.
    • Volume measures the amount of space an object takes up.
    Volume and Density Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Liquids usually are measured by volume.
  • 14.
    • Another measurable physical property related to mass and volume is density —the amount of mass a material has in a given volume.
    Volume and Density Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Density is found by dividing the mass of an object by its volume.
    • density = mass/volume, or D = m / V
  • 15.
    • These balls take up about the same space, but the bowling ball has more mass than the other ball.
    Same Volume, Different Mass Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Therefore, the bowling ball is more dense.
  • 16.
    • The density of a material stays the same as long as pressure and temperature stay the same.
    Same Volume, Different Mass Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Water at room temperature has a density of 1.00 g/cm 3 . However, when you do change the temperature or pressure, the density of a material can change.
  • 17.
    • The four states of matter are solid, liquid, gas and plasma (PLAZ muh).
    States of Matter Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • The state of matter of a substance depends on its temperature and pressure.
    Click image to view movie.
  • 18.
    • The plasma state occurs at very high temperatures and is found in fluorescent lightbulbs , the atmosphere, in lightning strikes , and in plasma tv’s .
    States of Matter Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • The state of matter of a material is another physical property.
  • 19.
    • Matter is made up of moving particles.
    Moving Particles Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • The particles of a solid vibrate in a fixed position.
    • They remain close together and give the solid a definite shape and volume.
  • 20.
    • The particles of a liquid are moving much faster and have enough energy to slide past on another .
    Moving Particles Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • This allows a liquid to take the shape of its container.
  • 21.
    • The particles of a gas are moving so quickly that they have enough energy to move freely away from other particles and will spread out to fill any container .
    Moving Particles Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 22.
    • You witness a change of state when you place ice cubes in a cup and they melt.
    Changes of State Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • You still have water but in another form.
    • The opposite physical change happens when you put liquid water in ice-cube trays and pop them in your freezer.
  • 23.
    • The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid is its melting point .
    Melting and Boiling Points Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • The melting point of a pure substance does not change with the amount of the substance.
  • 24.
    • When a substance melts , it changes from a solid to a liquid.
    Melting and Boiling Points Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • This is a physical change , and the melting point is a physical property .
  • 25.
    • The boiling point is the temperature at which a substance in the liquid state becomes a gas.
    Melting and Boiling Points Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 26. Melting and Boiling Points Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Each pure substance has a unique boiling point at atmospheric pressure.
    • The boiling point of water is 100 ° C (? ° F) at atmospheric pressure.
  • 27.
    • The boiling and melting point can help to identify a substance.
    Melting and Boiling Points Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • If you know the boiling points and melting points of substances, you can classify substances based on those properties.
  • 28.
    • You already have seen how you can classify things as solids, liquids or gases or according to color, shape, length, mass, volume or density. What properties do metals have?
    Metallic Properties Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 29.
    • Metals have a shiny appearance.
    How do metals look? Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • This shine is called luster .
    • Words to describe the appearance of nonmetallic objects are pearly, milky, or dull .
  • 30.
    • Many metals can be hammered, pressed or rolled into thin sheets.
    Uses of Metals Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • This property of metals is called malleability (mal lee uh BIH luh tee).
  • 31.
    • Many metals can be drawn into wires.
    Uses of Metals Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • This property is called ductility (duk TIH luh tee).
  • 32.
    • Some metals respond to magnets.
    Uses of Metals Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Some metals have groups of atoms that can be affected by the force of a magnet, and they are attracted to the magnet because of that force.
  • 33.
    • Physical properties—such as appearance, state, shape, length, mass, volume, ability to attract a magnet, density, melting point, boiling point, malleability, and ductility—can be used to help you identify, separate, and classify substances.
    Using Physical Properties Physical Properties and Changes 1
  • 34.
    • When you do laundry , you sort according to physical properties. Perhaps you sort by color.
    Sorting and Separating Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • When miners during the Gold Rush panned for gold, they separated the dirt and rocks by the density of the particles.
  • 35.
    • Scientists who work with animals use physical properties or characteristics to determine the identity of a specimen.
    Sorting and Separating Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • They do this by using a tool called a dichotomous (di KAH tuh mus) key .
  • 36.
    • To begin the identification of you unknown animal, you are given two choices.
    Sorting and Separating Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Your animal will match only one of the choices.
    • Based on your answer, you are either directed to another set of choices or given the name of the specimen you are identifying.
  • 37.
    • Identification by physical properties is a subject in science that is easy to observe in the real world.
    Everyday Examples Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Suppose you volunteer to help your friend choose a family pet.
    • While visiting the local animal shelter, you spot a cute dog.
  • 38.
    • What kind of information do you and your friend need to figure out the dog’s breed?
    Everyday Examples Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • First, you need a thorough description of the physical properties of the dog.
    • What does the dog look like?
  • 39.
    • Second, you need to know the description of various breeds of dogs.
    Everyday Examples Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Then you can match up the description of the dog with the correct breed.
  • 40.
    • Often, determining the identity of something that is unknown is easiest by using the process of elimination.
    Narrowing the Options Physical Properties and Changes 1
    • Scientists use similar methods to determine the identities of living and nonliving things.
  • 41. 1 Section Check Section Check Question 1 What are the five ways of sensing objects? Seeing, hearing, tasting, touching and smelling are all ways that you observe the objects around you. Answer
  • 42. 1 Section Check Section Check Question 2 What is matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. This doesn’t include sunlight, for example, which is energy, not matter. Answer NC: 4.07
  • 43. 1 Section Check Section Check Question 3 In a physical change the _______ of a substance change, but its identity does not. A. chemical properties B. density properties C. physical properties D. state of matter NC: 4.05
  • 44. 1 Section Check Answer The correct answer is C. Crumple up a piece of paper and it does not cease to be a piece of paper. NC: 4.05
  • 45. Chapter 15 Continued
    • A physical property is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing identity of the material.
    • Physical properties include conductivity, density, magnetism, solubility, malleability, melting point, and boiling point.
    Physical Properties Introduction to Materials Science 1
  • 46.
    • Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity .
    • A measure of the ease with which electrons move through a material is conductivity .
    Conductivity Introduction to Materials Science 1
  • 47.
    • Metals also have the physical properties of magnetism and malleability.
    • Magnetism is the ability of a material to be attracted or repelled by another material due to a magnetic field.
    Magnetism and Malleability Introduction to Materials Science 1
    • Malleability is the ability of a material to be hammered or rolled into sheets.
  • 48.
    • Solubility is the measure of one substance’s ability to dissolve in a specific amount of another substance at a given temperature and pressure to form a solution.
    Solubility Introduction to Materials Science 1
    • The solubility of materials is important if you are mixing materials or if the material will be exposed to a substance in which it may form a solution.
  • 49.
    • Density is the amount of mass that is contained in a unit volume.
    Density Introduction to Materials Science 1
    • If the material must have light-weight or heavy-weight characteristics for a particular use, the densities of the available materials must be considered.
  • 50. Chapters 15 & 10: Chemistry and Technology Table of Contents Section 3: Using Science to Solve Problems Section 1: Introduction to M aterials Science Section 2: Science, Technology, and Engineering   Section A: Physical Properties and Changes Section B: Chemical Properties and Changes