Doing Science

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Chapter 1:2. Doing Science …

Chapter 1:2. Doing Science

2.1. Examine the steps used to solve a problem in a scientific way


2.2. Explain how a well designed investigation is developed

2.3. Differentiate between scientific theory and scientific law

2.4. Explain what scientific literacy is and why it is important.

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  • Cinda, these next two were supposed to be on one slide, but they obviously didn’t fit. I’m not sure where the picture should go.

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter: The Nature of Science Section 3: Science and Technology Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Doing Science 2
  • 2. Solving Problems—Identify the Problem
    • Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations.
    • Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem.
    • Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved.
    Doing Science 2
  • 3. How can the problem be solved?
    • Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design.
    • Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation.
    • Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps.
    Doing Science 2
  • 4. How can the problem be solved?
    • Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems.
    Doing Science 2
  • 5. Descriptive Research
    • Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research.
    Doing Science 2
    • Descriptive research is based mostly on observations.
    • Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform.
    • Descriptive research usually involves the following steps.
  • 6. 1. State the Research Objective (on the right)
    • This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research.
    Doing Science 2
    • A research objective is what you want to find out , or what question you would like to answer.
  • 7. 2. Describe the Research Design
    • How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed?
    Doing Science 2
    • An important part of any research design is safety .
    • These are a few of the things scientists think about when they
    design an investigation using descriptive research.
  • 8. Describe the Research Design
    • While investigating a cholera outbreak in the 1800s, Dr. John Snow, included the map in his research design.
    Doing Science 2
  • 9. Describe the Research Design Doing Science 2
    • He used these data to predict that the water from the Broad Street pump was the source of the contamination.
    • The map showed where people with cholera had lived, and where they obtained their water.
  • 10. 3. Eliminate Bias
    • Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias .
    Doing Science 2
    • Good investigations avoid bias.
    • One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data.
    • Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations.
    • To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample.
  • 11. 4. Equipment, Materials, and Models
    • When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important.
    Doing Science 2
  • 12. 5. Selecting Your Materials
    • Scientists try to use the most up-to-date materials available to them.
    Doing Science 2
    • If possible, you should use scientific equipment such as balances, spring sales, microscopes, and metric measurements when performing investigations and gathering data.
  • 13. Selecting Your Materials Doing Science 2
    • Calculators and computers can be helpful in
    evaluating or displaying data.
  • 14. Selecting Your Materials
    • However, you don’t have to have the latest or most expensive materials and tools to conduct good scientific investigations.
    Doing Science 2
    • Your investigations can be completed successfully and the data displayed with materials found in your home or classroom.
    • An organized presentation of data is as effective as a computer graphic or an extravagant display.
  • 15. 6. Using Models
    • One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models.
    Doing Science 2
    • In math/science, models are used for things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly .
    • Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive .
  • 16. Using Models
    • Dr. John Snow’s map of the cholera epidemic was a model that allowed him to predict possible sources of the epidemic.
    Doing Science 2
    • Many kinds of models are made on computers.
    • Graphs, tables, and spreadsheets are models that display information.
  • 17. Scientific Methods Doing Science 2
    • This common language allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results.
    • Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International
    System of Units, or SI , to make observations.
  • 18. Scientific Methods
    • Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do.
    Doing Science 2
    • Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units.
    • K H D U D C M
  • 19. Data — Designing Your Data Tables
    • A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately.
    Doing Science 2
    • Data tables are one way to do this.
  • 20. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2
    • Most tables have a title that tells you at a glance what the table is about.
    • The table is divided into columns and rows. These are usually trials or characteristics to be compared.
  • 21. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2
    • The first row contains the titles of the columns.
    • The first column identifies what each row represents.
  • 22. Analyze Your Data
    • Your data must be organized to analyze them.
    Doing Science 2
    • Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data.
    • You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them.
  • 23. Draw Conclusions
    • After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion.
    Doing Science 2
    • Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work .
    • A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted.
  • 24. Communicating Your Results
    • Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved.
    Doing Science 2
    • Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation.
    • Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public.
    • Scientists usually publish their most important findings.
  • 25. Communicating Your Results
    • You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class.
    Doing Science 2
    • Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently.
    • Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research.
  • 26. Experimental Research Design
    • Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation.
    Doing Science 2
    • Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation .
    • Experimental research design includes several steps.
  • 27. 1. Form a Hypothesis (on the right)
    • A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested.
    Doing Science 2
    • You use your prior knowledge, new
    information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
  • 28. 2. Variables
    • In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time.
    Doing Science 2
    • This means that the variable is controlled.
    • The variable that is changed is called the independent variable .
    • A dependant variable is the factor being measured .
  • 29. Variables
    • To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic.
    Doing Science 2
    • The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria.
    • In this experiment, the independent variable is
    the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
  • 30. Variables
    • The variables that stay the same are called constants .
    Doing Science 2
    • You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics.
  • 31. 3. Identify Controls
    • Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used.
    Doing Science 2
    • A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it .
  • 32. Identify Controls Doing Science 2
    • In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic.
    • The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic.
  • 33. 4. Number of Trials
    • Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results.
    Doing Science 2
    • To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment.
    • Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result.
    • The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable.
  • 34. 5. Analyze Your Results
    • When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis.
    Doing Science 2
    • If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment.
    • Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information.
    • Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first.
  • 35. 2 Section Check Question 1 Which answers scientific questions through observation? A. descriptive research B. experimental research design C. educated guessing D. hypothesizing NC: 1.05
  • 36. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is A. Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observations while experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through a series a carefully controlled steps. NC: 1.05
  • 37. 2 Section Check Question 2 What is the first step in solving problems? A. analyze data B. draw conclusion C. form a hypothesis D. identify the problem NC: 1.01
  • 38. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is D. Having a clear understanding of the problem is the first step in problem solving. NC: 1.01
  • 39. 2 Section Check Question 3 A _______ is a prediction or statement that can be tested. Answer The answer is hypothesis. You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis. NC: 1.01