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Doing Science


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Chapter 1:2. Doing Science …

Chapter 1:2. Doing Science

2.1. Examine the steps used to solve a problem in a scientific way

2.2. Explain how a well designed investigation is developed

2.3. Differentiate between scientific theory and scientific law

2.4. Explain what scientific literacy is and why it is important.

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  • Cinda, these next two were supposed to be on one slide, but they obviously didn’t fit. I’m not sure where the picture should go.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter: The Nature of Science Section 3: Science and Technology Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Doing Science 2
    • 2. Solving Problems—Identify the Problem
      • Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations.
      • Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem.
      • Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved.
      Doing Science 2
    • 3. How can the problem be solved?
      • Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design.
      • Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation.
      • Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps.
      Doing Science 2
    • 4. How can the problem be solved?
      • Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems.
      Doing Science 2
    • 5. Descriptive Research
      • Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research.
      Doing Science 2
      • Descriptive research is based mostly on observations.
      • Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform.
      • Descriptive research usually involves the following steps.
    • 6. 1. State the Research Objective (on the right)
      • This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research.
      Doing Science 2
      • A research objective is what you want to find out , or what question you would like to answer.
    • 7. 2. Describe the Research Design
      • How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed?
      Doing Science 2
      • An important part of any research design is safety .
      • These are a few of the things scientists think about when they
      design an investigation using descriptive research.
    • 8. Describe the Research Design
      • While investigating a cholera outbreak in the 1800s, Dr. John Snow, included the map in his research design.
      Doing Science 2
    • 9. Describe the Research Design Doing Science 2
      • He used these data to predict that the water from the Broad Street pump was the source of the contamination.
      • The map showed where people with cholera had lived, and where they obtained their water.
    • 10. 3. Eliminate Bias
      • Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias .
      Doing Science 2
      • Good investigations avoid bias.
      • One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data.
      • Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations.
      • To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample.
    • 11. 4. Equipment, Materials, and Models
      • When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important.
      Doing Science 2
    • 12. 5. Selecting Your Materials
      • Scientists try to use the most up-to-date materials available to them.
      Doing Science 2
      • If possible, you should use scientific equipment such as balances, spring sales, microscopes, and metric measurements when performing investigations and gathering data.
    • 13. Selecting Your Materials Doing Science 2
      • Calculators and computers can be helpful in
      evaluating or displaying data.
    • 14. Selecting Your Materials
      • However, you don’t have to have the latest or most expensive materials and tools to conduct good scientific investigations.
      Doing Science 2
      • Your investigations can be completed successfully and the data displayed with materials found in your home or classroom.
      • An organized presentation of data is as effective as a computer graphic or an extravagant display.
    • 15. 6. Using Models
      • One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models.
      Doing Science 2
      • In math/science, models are used for things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly .
      • Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive .
    • 16. Using Models
      • Dr. John Snow’s map of the cholera epidemic was a model that allowed him to predict possible sources of the epidemic.
      Doing Science 2
      • Many kinds of models are made on computers.
      • Graphs, tables, and spreadsheets are models that display information.
    • 17. Scientific Methods Doing Science 2
      • This common language allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results.
      • Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International
      System of Units, or SI , to make observations.
    • 18. Scientific Methods
      • Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do.
      Doing Science 2
      • Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units.
      • K H D U D C M
    • 19. Data — Designing Your Data Tables
      • A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately.
      Doing Science 2
      • Data tables are one way to do this.
    • 20. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2
      • Most tables have a title that tells you at a glance what the table is about.
      • The table is divided into columns and rows. These are usually trials or characteristics to be compared.
    • 21. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2
      • The first row contains the titles of the columns.
      • The first column identifies what each row represents.
    • 22. Analyze Your Data
      • Your data must be organized to analyze them.
      Doing Science 2
      • Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data.
      • You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them.
    • 23. Draw Conclusions
      • After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion.
      Doing Science 2
      • Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work .
      • A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted.
    • 24. Communicating Your Results
      • Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved.
      Doing Science 2
      • Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation.
      • Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public.
      • Scientists usually publish their most important findings.
    • 25. Communicating Your Results
      • You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class.
      Doing Science 2
      • Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently.
      • Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research.
    • 26. Experimental Research Design
      • Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation.
      Doing Science 2
      • Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation .
      • Experimental research design includes several steps.
    • 27. 1. Form a Hypothesis (on the right)
      • A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested.
      Doing Science 2
      • You use your prior knowledge, new
      information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
    • 28. 2. Variables
      • In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time.
      Doing Science 2
      • This means that the variable is controlled.
      • The variable that is changed is called the independent variable .
      • A dependant variable is the factor being measured .
    • 29. Variables
      • To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic.
      Doing Science 2
      • The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria.
      • In this experiment, the independent variable is
      the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
    • 30. Variables
      • The variables that stay the same are called constants .
      Doing Science 2
      • You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics.
    • 31. 3. Identify Controls
      • Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used.
      Doing Science 2
      • A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it .
    • 32. Identify Controls Doing Science 2
      • In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic.
      • The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic.
    • 33. 4. Number of Trials
      • Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results.
      Doing Science 2
      • To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment.
      • Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result.
      • The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable.
    • 34. 5. Analyze Your Results
      • When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis.
      Doing Science 2
      • If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment.
      • Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information.
      • Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first.
    • 35. 2 Section Check Question 1 Which answers scientific questions through observation? A. descriptive research B. experimental research design C. educated guessing D. hypothesizing NC: 1.05
    • 36. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is A. Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observations while experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through a series a carefully controlled steps. NC: 1.05
    • 37. 2 Section Check Question 2 What is the first step in solving problems? A. analyze data B. draw conclusion C. form a hypothesis D. identify the problem NC: 1.01
    • 38. 2 Section Check Answer The answer is D. Having a clear understanding of the problem is the first step in problem solving. NC: 1.01
    • 39. 2 Section Check Question 3 A _______ is a prediction or statement that can be tested. Answer The answer is hypothesis. You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis. NC: 1.01