Chapter 9.3: Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

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Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

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Chapter 9.3: Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

  1. 1. Section 3 Matter and Energy in Ecosystems
  2. 2. Energy Flow Through Ecosystems <ul><li>Food contains nutrients and energy needed for survival. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3 <ul><li>When one organism is food for another </li></ul>organism, some of the energy in the first organism (the food) is transferred to the second organism (the eater).
  3. 3. Energy Flow Through Ecosystems <ul><li>Producers are organisms that take in and use energy from the Sun or some other source to produce food. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers are organisms that take in energy when they feed on producers or other consumers. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3 <ul><li>When organisms die, other organisms called decomposers take in energy as they break down the remains of organisms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Food Chains <ul><li>A food chain is a model, a simple way of showing how energy, in the form of food, passes from one organism to another. </li></ul><ul><li>When drawing a food chain, arrows between organisms indicate the direction of energy transfer. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3
  5. 5. Food Chains <ul><li>Food chains usually have only three or four links. This is because the available energy decreases from one link to the next link. </li></ul><ul><li>In a food chain, the amount of energy left for the last link is only a small portion of the energy in the first link. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3
  6. 6. Food Webs <ul><li>A food web is a series of overlapping food chains that exist in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>A food web provides a more complete model of the way energy moves through an ecosystem. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3
  7. 7. Food Webs Matter and Energy 3
  8. 8. Topic: Energy Transfer <ul><li>Food chains are models that represent energy moving through an environment. </li></ul><ul><li>As food moves through a food chain very little energy is passed from one level to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Food webs are models of several overlapping food chains. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Most of the energy in the biosphere comes from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Producers take in and transform only a small part of the energy that reaches Earth’s surface. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3
  10. 10. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>An ecological pyramid models the number of organisms at each level of a food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom of an ecological pyramid represents the producers of an ecosystem. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3 <ul><li>The rest of the levels represent successive consumers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>An energy pyramid compares the energy available at each level of the food chain in an ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>A pyramid of energy usually has three or four levels. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3 <ul><li>Only about ten percent of the energy at each level of the pyramid is available to the next level. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Topic: Energy Pyramids <ul><li>Most of the energy in an environment comes from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>An ecological pyramid models the number of organisms at each level of a food chain </li></ul><ul><li>Only about ten percent of the energy at each level of the pyramid is available to the next level </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Cycles of Matter <ul><li>The law of conservation of mass states that matter on Earth is never lost or gained. It is used over and over again. </li></ul><ul><li>The carbon atoms in your body might have been on Earth since the planet formed billions of years ago. They have been recycled billions of times. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3
  14. 14. Other Cycles in Nature Matter and Energy 3 <ul><li>The movement of carbon through Earth’s </li></ul>biosphere is called the carbon cycle.
  15. 15. Other Cycles in Nature <ul><li>The nitrogen cycle begins with the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to producers then to consumers. </li></ul>Matter and Energy 3 <ul><li>The nitrogen then moves back to the atmosphere or directly into producers again. </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus, sulfur, and other elements needed by living organisms also are used and returned to the environment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Topic: Matter and Cycles <ul><li>Matter cannot be created or destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>The three main cycles that affect living things are the water cycle, the carbon cycle, and the nitrogen cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon is cycled through photosynthesis and respiration. (pg. 216, 275) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is mainly cycled from producers to consumers and back to the atmosphere. (pg. 216) </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Have You Learned? <ul><li>Why will most habitats never reach biotic potential? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference in food chains and food webs? </li></ul><ul><li>What does an energy pyramid show? </li></ul><ul><li>What cycles mainly effect living things? </li></ul>

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