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Chapter 2:3 Maps
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Chapter 2:3 Maps

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter: Views of Earth Table of Contents Section 3: Maps Section 1: Landforms Section 2: Viewpoints
  • 3. Map Projections
    • Maps are models of Earth’s surface.
    • Scientists use maps to locate various places and to show the distribution of various features or types of materials.
    Maps 3
    • For example, an Earth scientist might use a map to plot the distribution of a certain type of rock.
  • 4. Map Projections
    • A map projection is made when points and lines on a globe’s surface are transferred onto paper.
    • All types of projections distort the shape of landmasses or their areas.
    Maps 3
  • 5. Mercator Projection
    • Mercator (mer KAY ter) projections are used mainly on ships.
    • They project correct shapes of continents, but the areas are distorted .
    Maps 3
    • Lines of longitude are projected onto the map parallel to each other.
    • When longitude lines are projected as parallel, areas near the poles appear bigger than they are.
  • 6. Robinson Projection
    • A Robinson projection shows accurate continent shapes and more accurate land areas.
    Maps 3
  • 7. Conic Projection
    • Conic projections often are used to produce maps of small areas.
    • Half of the world at any one time.
    Maps 3
  • 8. Conic Projection
    • Conic projections are made by projecting points and lines from a globe onto a cone.
    Maps 3 Click image to view movie.
  • 9. Topographic Maps
    • A topographic map models the changes in elevation of Earth’s surface.
    Maps 3
    • With such a map, you can determine your location relative to identifiable natural features.
    • Topographic maps also indicate cultural features such as roads, cities, dams, and other structures built by people.
  • 10. Contour Lines
    • A contour line is a line on a map that connects points of equal elevation.
    Maps 3
    • The difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines is called contour interval.
  • 11. Contour Lines
    • In mountainous areas, the contour lines are close together.
    Maps 3
    • However, if the change in elevation is slight, the contour lines will be far apart.
    • Some contour lines, called index contours, are marked with their elevation.
  • 12. Map Scale
    • The map scale is the relationship between the distances on the map and distances on Earth’s surface.
    Maps 3
    • Scale often is represented as a ratio.
    • A map scale also can be shown in the form of a small bar that is divided into sections and scaled down to match real distances on Earth.
  • 13. Map Legend
    • A map legend explains what the symbols used on the map mean.
    Maps 3
  • 14. Geologic Maps
    • Geologic maps show the arrangement and types of rocks at Earth’s surface.
    Maps 3
    • Using geologic maps and data collected from rock exposures, a geologist can infer how rock layers might have looked below Earth’s surface.
  • 15. Geologic Maps
    • The block diagram is a 3-D model that illustrates a solid section of Earth.
    Maps 3
    • The top surface of the block is the geologic map.
    • Side views of the block are called cross sections , which are derived from the surface map.
  • 16. Three-Dimensional Maps
    • To visualize Earth three dimensionally, scientists often rely on computers.
    Maps 3
    • Using computers, information is digitized to create a three-dimensional view of features such as rock layers or river systems.
    • Digitizing is a process by which points are plotted on a coordinate grid.
  • 17. Map Uses
    • If you wanted to determine New Zealand’s location relative to Canada, you probably would examine a Mercator projection.
    Maps 3
    • If you wanted to travel across the country, you would rely on a road map, or conic projection.
    • To climb the highest peak in your region, you would take along a topographic map.