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Seminário Internacional - Aplicação de Escória de Aciaria

Seminário Internacional - Aplicação de Escória de Aciaria

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  • 1. SLAGV&M STAR Presentation – Date - Ref.
  • 2. SlagSlag is a byproduct of metal Common components of slagsmelting, and hundreds of tons of it include:are produced annually in the Silicon oxidesprocess of refining metals and Aluminum oxidesmaking alloys. Magnesium oxidesIn appearance, slag looks like a Sulfur oxidesloose collection of aggregate with Phosphoruslumps of varying sizes. CalciumSlag is produced in a number of Ashways: Limestone Represents undesired impurities in the metals being smelted which float to the top during smelting process. During smelting, metals oxidize and slag forms a protective crust of oxides on the top of the metal being smelted.
  • 3. Regulatory Status of Slag in U.S.The US Federal Register, Vol. 45, No. Reactivity standards were revised to98, May 19, 1980, lists the require that any toxic gases generatedsubstances ruled hazardous by the must be in a quantity sufficient toUS Environmental Protection present a danger to human health or theAgency (EPA). environment; slag generates onlyUS has four major hazardous waste minute quantities and is thereforecharacteristics: Ignitability, exempted.Corrosivity, Reactivity, and Toxicity. Toxicity requirements set maximumSlag was tested by the U.S. EPA and leachate values at 100 times thefound to be non hazardous: drinking water standard, far higher than any slag could ever be expected to test. Retained heat from manufacturing or processing was dropped from the The only furnace-related by-product standard to avoid inclusion of slag in of the steel industry listed as the Ignitability hazard class. hazardous is the electric-furnace Corrosivity requirements were emission control dust or sludge, changed to only include liquid wastes and the upper pH value raised to 12.5 based on possible high or more, effectively excluding high pH concentrations of hexavalent steel slag from the hazardous chromium, lead, and cadmium. classification.
  • 4. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)Designed to determine the mobility of both organic andinorganic analytes present in liquid, solid, and multiphasicwastes.Used to determine if a waste meets the definition of EPtoxicity, which means it carries a hazardous waste codeunder RCRA (40 US CFR Part 261) of D004 through D052.If a “solid waste” fails the test for one or more of thesecompounds, the waste is considered to be a characteristichazardous waste (unless an exemption applies).Slag and sludge (which both vary in their components)contain multiple contaminants that require a TCLP.
  • 5. TCLP: Maximum Concentration of Contaminants for Toxicity CharacteristicEPA Hazardous Regulated EPA Hazardous Regulated Contaminant Waste Code Level (mg/l) (or Waste Code Contaminant Level (mg/l) (or ppm) ppm) D004 Arsenic (As) 5 D033 Hexachlorobutadiene 0.5 D005 Barium (Ba) 100 D034 Hexachloroethane 3 D018 Benzene 0.5 D006 Cadmium (Cd) 1 D008 Lead (Pb) 5 D019 Carbon 0.5 D013 Lindane 0.4 Tetrachloride D009 Mercury (Hg) 0.2 D020 Chlordane 0.03 D014 Methoxychlor 10 D021 Chlorobenzene 100 D035 Methyl ethyl ketone 200 D022 Chloroform 6 D007 Chromium (Cr) 5 D036 Nitrobenzene 2 D023 o-Cresol 200 D037 Pentachlorophenol 100 D024 m-Cresol 200 D038 Pyridine 5 D025 p-Cresol 200 D010 Selenium (Se) 1 D026 Cresol 200 D016 2,4-D 10 D011 Silver (Ag) 5 D027 1,4- 7.5 D039 Tetrachloroethylene 0.7 Dichlorobenzene D015 Toxaphene 0.5 D028 1,2- 0.5 D040 Trichloroethylene 0.5 Dichloroethane D029 1,1- 0.7 D041 2,4, 5-Trichlorophenol 400 Dichloroethylene D042 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 2 D030 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 0.13 D012 Endrin 0.02 D017 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 1 D031 Heptachlor 0.008 D043 Vinyl Chloride 0.2
  • 6. Slag Research1Over the past several years, the U.S. Steel SlagCoalition ("SSC"), a group of 63 companies thatproduce steel, process slag, or both, has undertaken acomprehensive study of the chemical composition ofslag generated during the steelmaking process and thepotential human health and ecological risks associatedwith possible exposure to such slag.Risk assessments developed during 1998 demonstratethat slag poses no meaningful threat to human healthor the environment when used in a variety ofresidential, agricultural, industrial, and constructionapplications.
  • 7. Processors of Iron and Steel Slag in the AC Air-cooled blast furnace slag United States BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag. GG Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag OHF Open-Hearth Furnace steel slag Exp Expanded pelletized blast furnace slag EAF Electric Arc Furnace steel slagSlag processing company Plant location State Steel company serviced AC GG Exp BOF OHF EAFAMSI Holsopple PA North American Höganäs, Inc. XBarfield Enterprises, Inc. La Place LA Bayou Steel Corp. XBarfield Enterprises, Inc. Lone Star TX Lone Star Steel Corp. XBeaver Valley Slag Aliquippa PA Old slag pile site X XBeaver Valley Slag (Thor Mill ) Roanoke VA Roanoke Electric Steel, Inc. XBlackheart Slag Co. Muscatine (Montpelier) IA IPSCO Steel, Inc. XBorder Steel, Inc. El Paso TX Border Steel, Inc. XBuffalo Crushed Stone, Inc. Woodlawn NY Old slag pile site XBuzzi Unicem USA, Inc. New Orleans LA Various foreign XCivil & Marine, Inc. Cape Canaveral FL Various foreign XEdward C. Levy Co. Decatur (Trinity) AL Nucor Steel Corp. XEdward C. Levy Co. Butler IN Steel Dynamics Inc. XEdward C. Levy Co. Columbia City IN Steel Dynamics Inc. XEdward C. Levy Co. Crawfordsville IN Nucor Steel Corp. XEdward C. Levy Co. Detroit MI Severstal North America, Inc. X XEdward C. Levy Co. Detroit MI U.S. Steel Corp. X XEdward C. Levy Co. Canton OH The Timken Co. XEdward C. Levy Co. Delta OH North Star-Bluescope Steel Inc. XEdward C. Levy Co. Huger SC Nucor Steel Corp. XEssroc Corp. Middlebranch OH Miscellaneous domestic and foreign XFlorida Rock Industries, Inc. Tampa FL Various foreign X
  • 8. Processors of Iron and Steel Slag in the AC United States (Cont.) Air-cooled blast furnace slag BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag. GG Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag OHF Open-Hearth Furnace steel slag Exp Expanded pelletized blast furnace slag EAF Electric Arc Furnace steel slagSlag processing company Plant location State Steel company serviced AC GG Exp BOF OHF EAFFritz Enterprises, Inc. Fairfield AL U.S. Steel LLC X XGerdau Ameristeel Corp. Jacksonville FL Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XGerdau Ameristeel Corp. Charlotte NC Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XGlens Falls-Lehigh Cement Co. Cementon NY Various foreign XHolcim (US) Inc. Birmingham (Fairfield) AL U.S. Steel LLC XHolcim (US) Inc. Gary IN U.S. Steel LLC XHolcim (US) Inc. Weirton WV Weirton Steel Corp. XLafarge North America Inc. Chicago IL Ispat Inland Steel, Inc. XLafarge North America Inc. Joppa IL Ispat Inland Steel, Inc. XLafarge North America Inc. East Chicago IN Ispat Inland Steel, Inc. XLafarge North America Inc. Sparrows Point MD International Steel Group Inc. XLafarge North America Inc. Cleveland (Cuyahoga Co.) OH International Steel Group Inc. XLafarge North America Inc. Lordstown OH Old slag pile site XLafarge North America Inc. McDonald OH Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. XLafarge North America Inc. Salt Springs (Youngstown) OH Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. XLafarge North America Inc. Warren OH WCI Steel Inc. XLafarge North America Inc. West Mifflin PA U.S. Steel LLC (ET Works) XLafarge North America Inc. West Mifflin (Brown Reserve) PA Old slag pile site XLafarge North America Inc. Whitehall PA Various foreign XLafarge North America Inc. Seattle WA Various foreign XLafarge North America Inc. Weirton WV Weirton Steel Corp. XLehigh Cement Evansville PA Various foreign XLevy Co., Inc., The Burns Harbor IN International Steel Group Inc. X X
  • 9. Processors of Iron and Steel Slag in the AC Air-cooled blast furnace slag United States (Cont.) BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag. GG Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag OHF Open-Hearth Furnace steel slag Exp Expanded pelletized blast furnace slag EAF Electric Arc Furnace steel slagSlag processing company Plant location State Steel company serviced AC GG Exp BOF OHF EAFLevy Co., Inc., The East Chicago IN International Steel Group Inc. XLevy Co., Inc., The Gary IN U.S. Steel LLC X XMountain Enterprises, Inc. Ashland KY AK Steel Corp. XMultiServ Birmingham AL Structural Metals Corp. XMultiServ Tuscaloosa AL Nucor Steel Corp. XMultiServ Blytheville AR Nucor Steel Corp. XMultiServ Blytheville (Armorel) AR Nucor-Yamato Steel Co. XMultiServ Pueblo CO Rocky Mountain Steel Mills XMultiServ Wilton (Muscatine) IA IPSCO Steel, Inc. XMultiServ East Chicago IN Ispat Inland Steel, Inc. XMultiServ Indiana Harbor IN International Steel Group Inc. XMultiServ Ghent KY Gallatin Steel Co. XMultiServ Sparrows Point MD International Steel Group Inc. X XMultiServ Ahoskie (Cofield) NC Nucor Steel Corp. XMultiServ Canton OH Republic Engineered Products LLC XMultiServ Mansfield OH AK Steel Corp. XMultiServ Warren OH WCI Steel Inc. XMultiServ Braddock (Mon Valley) PA U.S. Steel/Republic Technologies XMultiServ Butler PA AK Steel Corp. XMultiServ Coatesville PA International Steel Group Inc. XMultiServ Koppel PA Koppel Steel Co. (NS Group, Inc.) X
  • 10. Processors of Iron and Steel Slag in the AC Air-cooled blast furnace slag United States (Cont.) BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag. GG Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag OHF Open-Hearth Furnace steel slag Exp Expanded pelletized blast furnace slag EAF Electric Arc Furnace steel slagSlag processing company Plant location State Steel company serviced AC GG Exp BOF OHF EAFMultiServ Steelton PA International Steel Group Inc. XMultiServ Midlothian TX TXI Chaparral Steel Co. XMultiServ Geneva (Provo) UT Geneva Steel Holdings Corp.6 X XMultiServ Seattle WA Nucor Steel Corp. XRinker Materials Corp. Miami FL Various foreign XSt. Lawrence Cement, Inc. Camden NJ Various foreign XSt. Marys Cement, Inc. Detroit MI Various foreign XStein, Inc. Sterling IL Sterling Steel, Inc. XStein, Inc. Ashland KY AK Steel Corp. X XStein, Inc. Cleveland OH International Steel Group Inc. X XStein, Inc. Loraine OH Republic Engineered Products LLC X XTitan Florida, Inc. Medley FL Various foreign XTube City IMS Corp. Birmingham AL Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Newport AR Arkansas Steel Assoc. XTube City IMS Corp. Rancho Cucamonga CA TAMCO Steel XTube City IMS Corp. Portage IN Beta Steel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Norfolk NE Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Perth Amboy NJ Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Sayreville NJ Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Middletown OH AK Steel Corp. X XTube City IMS Corp. Mingo Junction OH Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corp. X X
  • 11. Processors of Iron and Steel Slag in the AC Air-cooled blast furnace slag United States (Cont.) BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag. GG Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag OHF Open-Hearth Furnace steel slag Exp Expanded pelletized blast furnace slag EAF Electric Arc Furnace steel slagSlag processing company Plant location State Steel company serviced AC GG Exp BOF OHF EAFTube City IMS Corp. Youngstown OH V&M Star (North Star, Inc.) XTube City IMS Corp. Sand Springs OK Sheffield Steel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Cayce SC SMI/CMC Steel Group XTube City IMS Corp. Knoxville TN Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City IMS Corp. Seguin TX SMI/CMC Steel Group XTube City IMS Corp. Petersburg VA TXI Chaparral Steel Co. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Axis AL IPSCO Steel, Inc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Fort Smith AR Macsteel XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Newport AR Arkansas Steel Assoc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Kingman AZ North Star Steel Inc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Claymont DE CitiSteel USA, Inc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Cartersville GA Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Wilton (Muscatine) IA Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Kankakee IL Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Peoria IL Keystone Steel & Wire Co. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Laplace LA Bayou Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Jackson MI Macsteel XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Monroe MI Macsteel (Quanex) XTube City-IMS, IMS Division St. Paul MN Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Jackson MS Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Charlotte NC Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. X
  • 12. Processors of Iron and Steel Slag in the AC Air-cooled blast furnace slag United States (Cont.) BOF Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slag. GG Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag OHF Open-Hearth Furnace steel slag Exp Expanded pelletized blast furnace slag EAF Electric Arc Furnace steel slagSlag processing company Plant location State Steel company serviced AC GG Exp BOF OHF EAFTube City-IMS, IMS Division Perth Amboy NJ Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Sayreville NJ Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Auburn NY Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Marion OH Marion Steel Co. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division McMinnville OR Cascade Steel Rolling Mills, Inc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Portland OR Oregon Steel Mills Inc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Bethlehem PA Old slag pile site X X Universal Stainless & Alloy ProductsTube City-IMS, IMS Division Bridgeville PA X Inc.Tube City-IMS, IMS Division Midland PA J&L Specialty Products, Inc. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Monroeville PA Old slag pile site XTube City-IMS, IMS Division New Castle PA Ellwood Quality Steels Co. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Park Hill (Johnstown) PA Old slag pile site XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Pricedale PA Old slag pile site XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Reading PA Carpenter Technology Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Darlington SC Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Georgetown SC Georgetown Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Jackson TN Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Beaumont TX Gerdau Ameristeel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Jewett TX Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Longview TX LeTourneau Steel Group XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Plymouth UT Nucor Steel Corp. XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Saukville WI Charter Steel XTube City-IMS, IMS Division Weirton WV Weirton Steel Corp. X
  • 13. Slag Use in U.S.In 1997, iron and steel slag consumption totaled approximately21.4 million tons valued at about $147 million.Of this total, BF slag accounted for approximately 65 percent ofthe tonnage and was worth about $118 million.Steel slag accounted for the remainder.The physical shape of slag particles make steelmaking slag asuperior material for use as a construction aggregate, currentlythe major use of steelmaking slag.Natural aggregates, such as limestone, sand, and gravel products,compete with slag for use as a construction aggregate.Because slag is a renewable mineral resource, its use reduces theconsumption of natural resources by the construction industry.
  • 14. Slag Use in US (continued)Major uses of steelmaking slag: Railroad ballast Aggregate in bituminous mixes such as: Neutralization of mine drainage and pavement surfaces, bases, surface industrial discharge treatments, seal coats, slurry coats, Agricultural uses, such as soil and cold patch. remineralization and conditioning, pH Concrete aggregate and as an supplement/liming agent, fertilizer ingredient in cement Controlled, granular fills, such as those Anti-skid aggregate (snow and ice for unpaved parking and storage areas, control aggregate) pipe and tank backfill, berm construction, and other industrial and Surfacing of stabilized shoulders, banks construction activity and other select material Construction aggregate or a fluxing Bank stabilization (erosion control agent at steel mills aggregate) Landfill daily cover material Gabions and riprap Landscape aggregate Aggregate base courses and sub-bases Trench aggregate/drain fields Unpaved driveways, surface roads, and walkways Sand blast grit Mineral wool (home and appliance Roofing granules insulation) Bulk filler (e.g., paints, plastics, adhesives)
  • 15. Youngstown, OhioThe V&M - Youngstown facility includes: •An 85-ton electric arc furnace; •A 3-strand continuous caster of 8 3/4" or 11 1/4” rounds; •A walking beam reheat furnace; and •A 6-stand retained mandrel mill (MPM).Site Statistics •27.05 acres owned •112.93 acres leased •29.2 acres under roof
  • 16. V&M STAR Youngstown, OHMini-mill with a 830,000 short ton per yearcapacity.Produce high quality seamless steel pipe for theoil and gas industries.Annual output capacity is approximately 610,000tons of finished tubular products, of which 66%are Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG).Produced approximately 34,744 tons of slag in2009, which is sold to a third part for processing.Slag produced per month is approximately 10-12% of liquid steel tons.
  • 17. Slag ProcessingTube City IMS serves as the third part processor forthe V&M STAR Youngstown facility.After slag is poured off EAF it is transported to acooling pit and watering area.The slag is then sorted, all large pieces of steel areremoved with a magnetic crane, and then runthrough a separator which sorts the slag accordingto sizes.The sized slag is then sold to outside companies formany different applications.All slag processed is sold to an outside company, nowaste is generated.At V&M STAR the mTon of Slag per mTon of LiquidSteel Produced = .12
  • 18. 3RD PARTY SLAG SALES - 20099-Jan 2,191 tons 9-Jul 1,163 tonsRobert Janson 637 Gwinn Brothers 238Foster Trucking 512 Murphy Trucking 123Youngstown Iron 250 Ray Brothers 113Lakeside 2109-Feb 2,216 tons 9-Aug 2,767 tonsMurphy Trucking 551 Youngstown Iron 320Foster Trucking 253 Ray Brothers 292Ray Brothers 229 Larson Trucking 265Rt#5 Sand & Gravel 212 Lee Gardner 172 Simak Trucking 170 Robert Janson 1249-Mar 6,051 tonsRay Brothers 1,491Murphy Trucking 1,361 9-Sep 2,279 tonsRt#5 Sand & Gravel 405 Gwinn Brothers 827JDS Landscape 374 Ray Brothers 500Gwinn Brothers 325 Simak Trucking 250Simak 309 Robert Janson 1539-Apr 4,076 tons 9-Oct 2,912 tonsRay Brothers 818 Youngstown Iron 826Don Kennedy 817 Gwinn Brothers 738Murphy Trucking 217 Ray Brothers 451NJM Excavating 176 JDS Landscaping 148Rt#5 Sand & Gravel 134 Robert Janson 1029-May 2,414 tons 9-Nov 3,961 tonsRay Brothers 296 Total Waste Logistics 1,419Gwinn Brothers 282 Ray Brothers 691Rt#5 Sand & Gravel 202 Gwinn Brothers 355Murphy Trucking 170 Simak Trucking 307 Robert Janson 2889-Jun 3,099 tonsRay Brothers 651 9-Dec 1,615 tonsGwinn Brothers 498 Gwinn Brothers 532Rt#5 Sand & Gravel 253 Simak Trucking 301Murphy Trucking 124 Ray Brothers 262 Youngstown Iron 250TOTAL TONS FOR 2009 = 34,744
  • 19. 2008 Pilot StudyV & M Star pilot study to reduce Waste streams were mixed withwaste and increase recycling efforts fly ash, steel furnace slag, andwas successfully completed in 2008. cement to create a strong base material to use during roadOhio EPA was involved in and improvement operations withinapproved of pilot study. the facility.Waste streams (mill scale and Since the pilot study, a 600 footsludge) that are generated during section of this road base materialproduction of seamless pipe were was utilized at the Youngstownincorporated into a road base facility.material. V&M STAR EnvironmentalThe objectives of the pilot study Department has requestedincluded: providing sufficient continued installation of the roadstrength to support heavy equipment, base material throughout theflexibility to prevent cracking, plant in upcoming years as adurability for long service life, and feasible alternative to off-sitestability to bind and secure any disposal, potentially increasingresidual metals, oil, and/or grease the average waste recycling ratepresent in the mill scale and sludge. to greater than 90%.
  • 20. 2008 Pilot Study (cont.) Slag roadway installation
  • 21. 2008 Pilot Study (cont.) Completed slag roadway
  • 22. Sludge Pad
  • 23. Sludge pad
  • 24. AwardsV&M STAR Ohio received the 2009 Steel ManufacturesAssociation Recycling Award for the road way project.Additionally, the facility is in the final selection process forthe Ohio Environmental Stewardship Award.
  • 25. Comparison of V&M Slag Analytical to Regulated Level (ppm) 2010 Analytical Regulated LevelArsenic ND 5Barium .266 100Cadmium ND 1Lead ND 5Selenium ND 1Silver ND 5
  • 26. Contact Information: Soil SolutionsSenior Project Manager: Timothy C. JonesSoil Solutions, LLC21 Highcroft WayHopkinton, MA 01748Phone: 508-497-0030Fax: 508-497-0031Email: Info@soilsolutions.infoWebsite: http://www.soilsolutions.info/index.htm
  • 27. For More Information:National Slag Association http://www.nationalslag.org/Slag Cement Associationhttp://www.slagcement.org/American Iron and Steel Institutehttp://www.steel.org//AM/Template.cfm?Section=HomeThe Steel Manufactures Associationhttp://www.steelnet.org/
  • 28. References1. Information developed by the National Slag Association – Environmental Committee