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H1 N1 And Your Immunity
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H1 N1 And Your Immunity

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  • 1. H1N1 AND YOUR IMMUNITY Carol Morley, Naturopathic Doctor Zawada Health, Mississauga
  • 2. Overview
    • What is H1N1?
    • What is the history?
    • Transmission, progression and symptoms
    • Guidelines
      • Health Canada, Ministry of Health, CDC, Motherisk
    • Prevention
  • 3. H1N1
    • Flu virus – human swine influenza
      • Subtype influenza A
      • Genetic elements from four different flu viruses – North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe
      • Result of reassortment of human and swine influenza viruses
  • 4. H1N1 – history
    • 1918 flu pandemic – “Spanish flu”
    • 1930
    • 1976, 1988 – isolated human cases
    • 1998, 2007 – in swine
    • 2009 pandemic
      • Respiratory illness outbreak in March/April 2009
        • Patient zero was a 6 month old girl in Mexico
      • Farm in Alberta with a link to the outbreak in Mexico
  • 5. H1N1 Pandemic
    • World Health Organization (WHO) definition
      • emergence of a disease new to a population
      • agents infect humans, causing serious illness
      • agents spread easily and sustainably among humans
      • 6 levels - geographical
    • Must be infectious i.e. not cancer
    • H1N1 – pandemic as of June 2009
  • 6. H1N1 Spread
    • When someone coughs or sneezes, tiny droplets filled with virus can travel up to two metres away.
    • If these droplets land in your eyes, nose or mouth, you may become infected with the virus.
    • Doorknobs, pens
    • Not through pork
  • 7. Attacking the Body
    • Starts in the nose and then moves into lower airways
      • No symptoms
    • Attaches to cells and divides
      • Symptoms may start
      • 2-7 days for symptoms to begin after ‘infection’
      • Strength of immune system determines path taken
  • 8. Symptoms
    • Almost always :
    • Cough and fever (≥100° F / 37.8° C)
    • Common:
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle aches
    • Sore throat
    • Headache
    • Decreased appetite
    • Runny nose
    • Sometimes:
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Cold vs flu?
    • Seasonal flu vs H1N1?
  • 9. Who?
    • Median age of confirmed cases: 12 years
    • Median age of hospitalized cases: 20 years
    • Median age of lethal cases: 37 years
    • >65 years of age
    • Hospitalized Deaths
    • Seasonal flu 60% 90%
    • 2009 H1N1 5% 8%
  • 10. Who?
    • Patients hospitalized with H1N1 influenza
    • Adults with associated risks
      • asthma, chronic lung or heart disease
    • Children with associated risks
      • asthma, chronic lung disease, neurologic disease, or sickle cell disease
    • 6% were pregnant women
  • 11. Who?
    • Case fatality is reported to be 0.4%
    • 2.4% for the 1918 influenza pandemic
    • 0.1% for seasonal flu
    • The highest death rate is in persons 50-64 years.
  • 12. H1N1 Vaccine
    • Arepanrix from GlaxoSmithKline
    • Stimulates an immune response using a killed or weakened virus that uses the body’s own defense mechanisms to prevent infection.
    • With the H1N1 flu vaccine you will have some immunity to the current strain of the H1N1 flu virus within 10 – 21 days.
  • 13. H1N1 Vaccine
    • Priority groups for immunization clinics:
      • pregnant women
      • children 6 months to 5 years
      • under 65 with chronic conditions
      • people who live with or care for infants under 6 months old
      • immuno-compromised
      • healthcare workers
  • 14. H1N1 Vaccine
    • Egg – potential allergen
    • Thimerosol in multi-dose vials
      • mercury
    • Adjuvant
      • Boosts an immune response
      • Stretches out a vaccine to provide more
      • Vitamin E, squalene (shark liver oil), and water
  • 15. H1N1 Vaccine – Pregnancy
    • Adjuvanted for 20 weeks + or with underlying conditions.
      • Adjuvanted now considered ok <20 weeks (Oct 30, 2009)
    • Unadjuvanted vaccine is considered the preferred option.
      • extensive experience regarding the safety of unadjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines in pregnant women
      • there is currently no data on the safety of the adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine in this group
  • 16. H1N1 Vaccine
    • Who Shouldn’t Get the Vaccine?
    • Not approved for children under six months of age.
    • You have had a previous anaphylactic (severe allergic reaction) to any element of the vaccine.
    • You have a hypersensitivity to eggs (e.g. hives, swelling of mouth and/or throat, breathing difficulty).
    • You currently have a high fever.
    • You have experienced Guillan-Barre Syndrome within eight weeks of receiving a seasonal flu vaccine.
  • 17. Conventional Treatment
    • Antivirals
    • Must be taken within the first 24 to 48 hours after getting sick
    • Available in two forms:
      • a pill (called oseltamivir or Tamiflu®)
      • an inhaler (called zanamivir or Relenza®).
  • 18. Prevention
    • Wash your hands.
    • Disinfect door knobs, surfaces.
    • Sneeze into your sleeve.
    • Avoid large crowds.
    • Alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • 19. Naturopathic Immune Strategies
    • Nutrition
      • More fruits, veggies, garlic, onions, less sugar and alcohol
      • Vitamin D, probiotics
    • Herbal
      • Astragalus, cat’s claw, licorice
    • Lifestyle
      • Gargle with warm salt water, neti-pot
      • Stress management
      • Sleep
  • 20. Resources
    • http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/alert-alerte/h1n1/index-eng.php
    • http://www.who.int/en/
    • http://www.motherisk.org/women/index.jsp
    • http://www.flu.gov/index.html
    • Thank you!
    • Carol Morley, ND
    • Zawada Health, 201 City Centre Drive, Mississauga