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Mapping Systems: Information & Disinformation

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An overview of mapping concepts, map types, & how maps can be used to visualize both information & disinformation.

An overview of mapping concepts, map types, & how maps can be used to visualize both information & disinformation.

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Mapping Systems: Information & Disinformation Mapping Systems: Information & Disinformation Presentation Transcript

  • MAPPING SYSTEMS INFOR MATION+ D ISINFOR MATION
  • MAPPING CONCEPTSPURPOSE A map answers the following questions: 1. Where am I? 2. Where do I want to go? 3. How do I get there? Akerman, J. R. & Karrow, R. W., Jr. (2007). Maps: Finding Our Place in the World.
  • Characterization related to both selection + scale Refers to need to modify depiction of a feature for the sake of clarity + legibility Usually involves simplification GENERALIZATIONMAPPING CONCEPTS Akerman, J. R. & Karrow, R. W., Jr. (2007). Maps: Finding Our Place in the World.
  • COGNITIVE P T SMAPPING CONCE MAPPING Internal representation of perceived environmental features or objects + spatial relations among them May be fragmented, distorted, and irregular — a result of difficulties experienced in mentally integrating different routes into networked structures Necessary for human navigation, but do not need to be accurate renderings of the real world Golledge, R. G. (1999). Human Wayfinding and Cognitive Maps.
  • LONDON TUBE MAP
  • Orientation task The task of matching the reality to the map User must find something which can be uniquely matched between the map + the actual scene — landmark “footprint” should have a direction Orientation task is harder if the map is not aligned to the direction that the user is facingMAP ORIENTATIONC O N C E P T S MAPPING Davies, C. (2005). Maps Beyond Diagrams: Real-World Spatial Orientation. Werner, S., & Long, P. (2003). Cognition Meets Le Corbusier: Cognitive Principles of Architectural Design.
  • UK MOTORWAY MAP — ROUTES SOUTHUK MOTORWAY MAP — ROUTES NORTH
  • Invented in 1950s by Situationists Ivan Chtcheglov, Guy Debord + Asger Jorn MAP CONCEPTSPSYCHOGEOGRAPY Navigation based on emotional response to surroundings Can provide level of familiarity with envi- ronment not normally found in conventional navigation Chtcheglov, Ivan. (1953). Formulary for a New Urbanism.
  • STRIP SMAP TYPE MAP Traditionally, the simplest way for humans to represent a route Understood by virtually all cultures and needs no scale, orientation, or frame of reference Usually oriented with travel from bottom of page to top — “pointed in direction of travel” Golledge, R. G. (1999). Human Wayfinding and Cognitive Maps. Davies, C. (2005). Maps Beyond Diagrams: Real-World Spatial Orientation.
  • JAPANESE STRIP MAP
  • Wildbur, P., & Burke, M. (1998). Information Graphics: Innovative Solutions in Contemporary Design.MERCATOR PROJECTION MAP TYPES Designed for maritime navigation Serious distortion from projecting spher- ical object (the Earth) onto a f lat surface Distortion particularly high at poles
  • MERCATOR PROJECTION, 1900
  • Wildbur, P., & Burke, M. (1998). Information Graphics: Innovative Solutions in Contemporary Design. MAP PETERS PROJECTION TYPESDeveloped in 1967 by non-cartographer ArnoPeters, a German-born historian + film-makerwith a PhD in political propagandaBased on cylindrical projection first describedin 1855 by James Gall, a Scottish clergymanClaims to be a more accurate depiction of therelative size of nations, particularly those in thedeveloping worldPeters denounced Mercator projection as“cartographic imperialism”
  • PETERS PROJECTION, 2004
  • MAPS AS KASHMIR D A PROPAGANIndia + Pakistan both claimprovince of KashmirOfficial Indian governmentmaps show Kashmir as part ofIndia, while official Pakistanimaps show it as part of PakistanMonmonier, M. S, (1996). How to Lie with Maps (2nd ed.)
  • IRAQI MISSILE CAPABILITYWashington Post
  • IRAQ WAR, 2003Washington Post
  • Mapped results of 2004 US election were misleading because they general- ized voting patterns a the state level Geographic map made no allowances for population density Gave impression of a huge Republican majorityMAPS USRELECTIONA AS P OPAGAND 2004Akerman, J. R. & Karrow, R. W., Jr. (2007). Maps:Finding Our Place in the World.Baer, K. (2008). Information Design Workbook.
  • GEOGRAPHIC ADJUSTED FOR POPULATIONPRESIDENTIAL ELECTION RESULTS PER STATE, 2004Michael Gastner, Cosma Shalizi & Mark Newman
  • PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION RESULTS PER STATE, 2004Archie Tse, New York Times
  • MAPS AS ADVOCACY MAPS PROPAGANDA Maps are used to support a particular political viewpoint Akerman, J. R. & Karrow, R. W., Jr. (2007). Maps: Finding Our Place in the World. Monmonier, M. S, (1996). How to Lie with Maps (2nd ed.)
  • COXCOMB GRAPH, 1857Florence Nightingale
  • HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY, 1888John F. Smith
  • DESCRIPTIVE MAP OF LONDON POVERTY, 1889Charles Booth
  • CONCLUSIONINFOR MATION + D ISINFOR MATION All maps have inherent bias There is no such thing as a truly objective map Despite this, mapping is among the most effective methods of presenting information in a visual manner Virtually anything can be mapped!
  • INFOR MATION + D ISINFOR MATIONAkerman, J. R. & Karrow, R. W., Jr. (2007).Maps: Finding Our Place in the World. Chi- REFERENCEScago: University of Chicago Press.Baer, K. (2008). Information Design Work- Davies, C. (2005). Maps Beyond Diagrams:book . Beverly: Rockport Publishers. Real-World Spatial Orientation. Southamp- ton: Ordnance Survey Research Labs.Black, J. (1997). Maps and politics. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. Dorling, D., & Fairbairn, D. (1997). Mapping: Ways of representing the world. London:Brewer, C. A. (2005). Designing better maps: Longman.A guide for GIS users (1st ed.). Redlands, CA:ESRI Press. Evamy, Michael (2003). World Without Words. New York: Watson-Guptill.Brown, B., & Laurier, E. Maps and Journeys:An Ethno-methodological Investigation. Car- Golledge, R. G. (1999). Human Wayfindingtographica, 40.3, 17-33. and Cognitive Maps. Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Pro-Chtcheglov, I. (2006). Formulary for a New cesses (R. Golledge, Ed.) Baltimore: JohnsUrbanism. (K. Knabb, Trans.) Situationist In- Hopkins University Press, 5-45.ternational Anthology. Paris: Éditions Allia.Clark, J. O. E. (Ed.). (2005). 100 maps : Thescience, art and politics of cartographythroughout history. New York: Sterling Pub-lishing.
  • Institute for Information Design (2003). Information Design Source Book . Tokyo: Graphic-Sha Publishing. Monmonier, M. S. (1995). Drawing the line: Tales of maps and cartocontroversy (1st ed.). Jeffrey, C. (2007). City maze. Design Week, New York: H. Holt. 22(26), 20-21. Monmonier, M. S. (1996). How to lie with Klinghoffer, A. J. (2006). The power of pro- maps (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chi- jections: How maps reflect global politics cago Press. and history. Westport, Conn: Praeger Pub- lishers. Montello, D. R. (2002). Cognitive Map- Design Research in the Twentieth Century: Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Theoretical and Empirical Approaches. Car- Cambridge: MIT Press. tography and Geographic Information Sci- ence, 29, 3, 283-304. MacEachren, A. M. (1994). Some truth with maps : A primer on symbolization and Noyes, L. (1980). The positioning of type on design. Washington, D.C: Association of maps: the effect of surrounding material on American Geographers. word recognition time. Human Factors, 22, 353-360.REFERENCES Phillips, R. J., Noyes, L. and Audley, R. J. (1977). The legibility of type on maps. Ergo- nomics, 20, 671-682. INFOR MATION + D ISINFOR MATION
  • INFOR MATION + D ISINFOR MATIONREFERENCES Phillips, R. J. (1979). Making maps easy to read: a summary of research. Processing of Visible Language 1, Kolers, P. A., Wrolstad, M. Phillips, R. J. and Noyes, L. (1977). Searching E. and Bouma, H. (Eds.) New York: Plenum, for names in two city street maps. Applied 165-174. Ergonomics, 8, 73-77. Sadler, S. (1998). The Situationist City. Cam- Phillips, R. J. (1979). Why is lower case bet- bridge: MIT Press. ter? Some data from a search task. Applied Ergonomics, 10, 211-214. Spencer, H. (1968). The Visible Word: Prob- lems of Legibility. New York: Hastings House. Phillips, R. J., Noyes, L. and Audley, R. J. (1978). Searching for names on maps. Carto- Whitehouse, R. (1999). The Uniqueness of graphic Journal, 15, 72-77. Individual Perception. Information Design. Robert Jacobson. (Ed.) Cambridge: MIT Press. Phillips, R. J. (1989). Are maps different from other kinds of graphic information? Wildbur, P., & Burke, M. (1998). Information Cartographic Journal, 26, 24-25. Graphics: Innovative Solutions in Contempo- rary Design. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • MAPPING SYSTEMSCHRISTOPHER J. MOOREHEAD February 2009