Chapter4- Religion in the 13 Colonies


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Chapter4- Religion in the 13 Colonies

  2. 2. ELIZABETHAN SETTLEMENT Queen Elizabeth Puritan • Purify church of England • Clean it of unbiblical practices Anglican • Low = agree with puritans; don’t have a problem with unbiblical practices • High= believe unbiblical practices are biblical Separatists • Must separate from church of England completely • Pilgrims • Baptists, etc.
  3. 3. PILGRIMS VS. PURITANS Few Many Early (1620) Later (1629-30) Poor class Upper middle class Uneducated Educated Separatists from state church Loyal Settled in Plymouth Salem, Boston Wm. Bradford, Wm. Brewster John Endicott, Miles Standish, 4 John Winthrop
  4. 4. PURITAN: MYTHS VS. REALITY “Haunting fear that someone, somewhere may be happy” Wore black Books, music, beer, rum, swam, skated, bowled Blue, violet, green, yellow Narrow minded +100: Oxford & Cambridge “Dumme Doggs” Established Harvard after 6 years Women sheltered Literate, well read, managed household Song-less A capella, in unison Minority 1776: 75% of Puritan roots 5
  5. 5. POLITY (CHURCH ORGANIZATION) Episcopal • Monarch appoints archbishop • Archbishop • bishop • parish (vicar) • Ex. Church of England Presbyterian Congregationalist • Church members vote for church leadership • Vote for presbytery and synod • Governed by church Assembly • Ex. Church of Scotland • Congregation elects officials of church • Churches independent of each other • Ex. Most Puritans in American colonies
  6. 6. PURITAN DECLINE • Religious zeal decline with each generation • More concerned with monetary gain than spiritual gain • Halfway Covenant • Accept membership of non converted (but outwardly pure) to fill increase membership • Allows non-saved people into churches • Compromise on principles of puritan ancestors • Salem Witch Trials 1692 • • • • • Fanaticism and hysteria Girls accuse witches of afflicting them 20 innocent people killed Later people confessed accusations Spiritual depression until Great Awakening
  7. 7. ANGLICANISM IN AMERICA • Beginnings • Anglican ministers • devout in faith • Bray and Blair • Start William and Mary College • Start missionary work in the colonies • Expansion • Grows throughout colonies • Established church in: • • • • • Virginia Maryland Carolinas Georgia NY & NJ (parts of) Big on tradition Not big on true spiritual worship
  9. 9. BAPTISTS • Roger Williams = founder • • • • • Rhode Island Him and a friend baptized each other Baptize only truly repentant No baptize babies Largest number in Pennsylvania
  10. 10. QUAKERS • • • • • • • • George Fox ―Friends‖ Shake while worshipping Guided by ―inner light‖  salvation Simple worship No ministers No Baptism or Communion Welcome in: • Pennsylvania and Rhode Island
  11. 11. PRESBYTERIANS • Last major separatist group to come to America • Doctrine similar to Congregationalist but Presbyterian polity (organization) • Francis Makemie • Founder • Won court cases to ensure religious freedom of worship in colonies
  12. 12. LUTHERANS • • • • Follow teachings of Martin Luther New Sweden (Delaware) New Amsterdam ( NY) Pennsylvania (mostly) • Henry Muhlenberg • Lay foundation for Lutheran church in America • Encouraged unity between Lutherans from Delaware, NY and Pennsylvania
  15. 15. MENNONITE & AMISH • Refused to have anything to do with the state • No military service (no buttons) • No voting or political activity • No modern technology • Simple and holy life • Mennonites = followers of Menno Sims • Amish = conservative Mennonites • • • • No electricity Old language (High German) Reject modern ways of life Little contact with outsiders
  16. 16. MORAVIANS • Follow teachings of John Huss from Bohemia • Conducted missionary work to slaves in Caribbean and slaves in America • Emphasis on • conversion • leading a holy life • Not on: doctrine • Legacy: • Lead to John Wesley conversion • Easter Sunrise Service • Settled: • North Carolina • Pennsylvania
  17. 17. ROMAN CATHOLIC • Center  Maryland • Haven for Catholics • Minority until Irish migration in 1840s • Feared by many colonists • Catholic countries (Spain and France) threatened existence of colonies • WHY??? • Found in: • Maryland • Pennsylvania • NY
  19. 19. WORSHIP
  20. 20. MUSIC • Singing important during services • Many adapted from Psalms • Book of Psalms (1640) • First published book in America ―The Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully
Whereunto is prefixed a discourse
declaring not only the lawfullnes, but also
the necessity of the heavenly Ordinance
of singing Scripture Psalmes in
the Churches of God. Imprinted, 1640‖
  21. 21. • • • • • • Long prayer Long sermon No instruments Hard wooden benches No heat Ushers
  22. 22. PEWS FOR RENT
  24. 24. Social Political Religious Great Awakening 1720s – 60s
  25. 25. BACKGROUND • Religious life is in decline • Church attendance as a tradition • Some ministers are not really converted
  26. 26. EARLY STIRRINGS • 1720 Dutch reformer – Frelinghuysen • Gr. Awakening begins in New Jersey • Friend Gilbert Tennent • Preaches throughout colonies ―Old Lights‖ •Oppose awakening •No emotions towards religion ―New Lights‖ •Support awakening •Tripled in size Presbyterians
  27. 27. JONATHAN EDWARDS • • • • ―Greatest Theologian of Great Awakening‖ Passionate devotion to God Lived what he preached Justification through faith not works • Opposed to Anglican, Catholic, etc. • Famous sermon: ―Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God‖
  28. 28. GEORGE WHITEFIELD • ―Greatest Evangelist of Gr. Awakening‖ • 30 year ministry • 7 preaching tours throughout colonies • Powerful voice • Could reach 30,000 people with no amplification
  29. 29. GR. AWAKENING IN THE SOUTH • Samuel Doak • Pastor in Virginia &Tennessee • Pioneer for abolishment of slavery • Founded school in Tennessee • Washington College1795
  31. 31. CHURCHES • Growth • Membership • # of churches • Especially Presbyterians and Baptists
  32. 32. COLLEGES • Growth • Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth formed • Yale grew Under the Protection of God She Flourishes
  33. 33. SPIRITUAL LIFE • Brought true repentance to many thousands • Brought unity to the Americans Paved the way for unity between the colonies needed for the revolution against England
  34. 34. DIVISION • Within denominations • Presbyterians • Dutch • Oppositions to awakening: • Upset ―good church order‖ • Oppose personal experience with God • Mostly from Anglican Church Many colonists associated Anglican Church with British govt.
  35. 35. POLITICAL • First national movement in America • Affected every: • race • gender • social class
  36. 36. PERSONAL • Increase in personal liberty • All equal before God • Greater freedom of worship * • Freedom of speech * • Freedom of assembly *
  37. 37. NEGATIVE • Authority of ministers diminished • Cults appeared in 19th century • Mormons (Latter Day Saints) • Jehovah’s Witnesses
  38. 38. • #5.) Polygamy: ―The only men who become Gods, even the Sons of God, are those who enter into polygamy.‖ (Journal of Discourse, Volume 11, Page 269, 1866) • #4.) Adam is God: ―Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, Saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is MICHAEL, the archangel, the ANCIENT OF DAYS! About whom holy men have written and spoken—HE is our FATHER and our GOD, and the only God with whom WE have to do. Every man upon the earth, professing Christians or non-professing, must hear it, and will know it sooner or later.‖ (Journal of Discourse, Volume 1, Page 50, 1852, and The Millennial Star, Volume 15, Page 769) • #3.) Men on the moon and sun: ―Who can tell us of the inhabitants of this little planet that shines of an evening, called the moon? When we view its face we may see what is termed ―the man in the moon,‖ and what some philosophers declare are the shadows of mountains. But these sayings are very vague, and amount to nothing; and when you inquire about the inhabitants of that sphere you find that the most learned are as ignorant in regard to them as the most ignorant of their fellows. So it is with regard to the inhabitants of the sun. Do you think it is inhabited? I rather think it is. Do you think there is any life there? No question of it; it was not made in vain.‖ (Journal of Discourses,Volume 13, Page 271, 1870) • #2.) Blood Atonement: ―Now take a person in this congregation who has knowledge with regard to being saved in the kingdom . . . and suppose that he is overtaken in a gross fault, that he has committed a sin that he knows will deprive him of that exaltation which he desires, and he cannot attain to it without the shedding of his blood, and also knows that by having his blood shed he will atone for that sin, and be saved and exalted with the Gods, is there a man or woman in this house but what would say, ―shed my blood that I may be saved and exalted with the Gods?‖ All mankind love themselves, and let these principles be known by an individual, and he would be glad to have his blood shed. That would be loving themselves, even unto an eternal exaltation. Will you love your brothers or sisters likewise, when they have committed a sin that cannot be atoned for without the shedding of their blood? Will you love that man or woman well enough to shed their blood?‖ (Journal of Discourse, Volume 4, Page 219, 1857) • #1.) The Black Race is Cursed: ―You see some classes of the human family that are black, uncouth, uncomely, disagreeable, and low in their habits, wild, and seemingly deprived of nearly all the blessings of the intelligence that is generally bestowed upon mankind. . . . Cain slew his brother. Cain might have been killed, and that would have put a termination to that line of human beings. This was not to be, and the Lord put a mark upon him, which is the flat nose and black skin.‖ (Journal of Discourses, Volume 7, Page 291, 1859)
  39. 39. Many movements started in the Great Awakening that would be fully developed in the American Revolution