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Chapter 9 Notes- Popes vs. Princes, Feudal Monarchs and Crusades
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Chapter 9 Notes- Popes vs. Princes, Feudal Monarchs and Crusades


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  • 1. 9th century Europe (800s)Collapse of Carolingian Empire Political chaosDecline in influence of the church Moral Decay
  • 2. Power Struggle • The three Church powers united in their efforts CONFLICT when it cameNobles Kings to the Crusades, Crusades because all benefitted from them.
  • 3. I. Reforms in the ChurchPope Leo III crowning of Charlemagne sets a precedentChurch has authority over political leadersCorruption in church made it lose its prestige and authority in society
  • 4. A. Need for ReformChurch amassed a great wealthNeglected church duties to satisfy personal hunger and greedSeeking protection the church entered the feudal system Loyalty was split between lord and God
  • 5. Nobles started to think that it King appointing was their right to appoint church clergy officials (lay investiture) Nobles appointed men with low or no morals who would be loyal to them
  • 6. 910- Cluny, FranceReforms BeganForbade simony = buying and selling of church positions or relicsCistercians = monks living in seclusion and strict discipline Bernard Clairvaux- outspoken critic of worldliness in church and society
  • 7. B. Rivalry between Pope & EmperorChurch reform  rescue papacy from weakness and corruption1059 – College of Cardinals formed Clergy group who picked next pope After 200 years of bad popes, they chose a good one
  • 8. Notice who is whisperingGregory VII (1073 – 85) in his ear? Who does the dove represent?Benedictine Monk believed church was superior to stateWanted to free the church from state control1075  Gregory forbade any lay person to appoint a member of clergy
  • 9. Conflict with Henry IVRefused to obey Pope Gregory IV, wanted to appoint his own church clergy Pope excommunicates him & releases his subjects from his authority Henry’s nobles pressure him into asking the Pope’s forgiveness (How do you think they did that?)1077 – Canossa, Henry asks forgiveness Pope keeps him waiting 3 days in the snow until he talks to Henry Notice how much the pope’s throne looks like a monarch’s throne
  • 10. Struggle between church and monarchContinues until 1122 ADReach compromise at Concordat of Worms 1. Church can elect own bishops  Election held before clergy and monarch 2. Emperor can invest church officials with secular authority
  • 11. New Religious Orders13th century new reform movements Franciscan and Dominican Emphasized service to others Lived and preached among people Renounced worldly possessions Friars, mendicant orders (beggars) Allegiance to pope
  • 12. FRANCIS OF ASSISI DOMINICFounder of Spanish nobleman Devoted to battling Franciscan order heresySon of rich Best way to fight heresy is to educate merchant Promoted learningGave up life of Taught at best wealth for live of universities poverty and Greatest scholars service to order Leaders of Inquisition (court to find and try heretics)
  • 13. Zenith of PapacyReform to restore church powerIncrease power of pope above all elseInnocent III (1198 - 1216) Most powerful pope Called himself the “sun” (king = moon) “royal authority derives power from papal authority” Used his power to humble kings and stamp out opponents
  • 14. Papal Weapons Excommunication Interdict Inquisition • Take away • Suspend church • Court to find and try sacraments and services &sacraments heresy (teaching fellowship with in an area (used to contrary to church believers punish disobedient teaching) • “anathema” curse kings) • Heresy = greatest person to hell, it is • Public outcry would crime in medieval legal to kill this force king into times person, murderer obedience • Used torture and would receive “grace” death to punish the as a reward guilty
  • 15. Results of ReformReforms rebuilt the church’s prestigeDid not PURIFY it from contaminationWanted political power not spiritual powerOutside changes occurred, but NO INSIDE changes
  • 16. A. Founding of German KingdomsEast Frankland  descendants of Louis the GermanWeak, could not protect from MagyarsDukes = local tribe leaders Assumed role of protectors Duchy- land under rule of duke* After death of last Carolingian king,dukes chose from one of their own torule as king
  • 17. First German Saxon KingHenry Fowler (Henry I)Loved hunting with hawksAllowed dukes to govern own lands Dukes had authority to deal with their internal affairsHenry wanted to strengthen his land = Saxony He wanted to make Saxony a strong military base Repel Slavs and Magyars Extend his land eastward
  • 18. Otto I (936 – 973) Consider this: Is this what led him be calledHenry’s Son “Otto the Great”?One of strongest German kings Wanted to assert his power over the dukes (his father never did this) Used power of the church to do this Church supplied him with soldiers Defeated Magyars They settled in Danube River Valley
  • 19. Establishment of the Holy RomanEmpire10th century Italy Divided into warring statesOtto crosses into Italy, takes over Lombardy Proclaims himself king of Italy 962- Otto marches into Rome  Pope asks him for help against Roman nobles  Crowned Otto Emperor“I’ll give you crown, if you give me protection” This is an example of the bartering system that was so common in Middle Ages. Instead of money being exchanged, goods/favors were exchanged for goods/favors. It was so engrained in society that even the pope and king made it work for them.
  • 20. Germanic Empire began to be called the Holy Roman EmpireThis shows the close association between Otto and the Roman Catholic ChurchOtto claimed to be descended from Charlemagne and Roman Emperors What other people claimed to be descended from great past leaders and how did it benefit them? (China, Japan, Mongols, etc.)
  • 21. Conflicts within Empire1. Conflict of InterestsGerman rulers intervened in Italian affairsPaid more attention to Italy than home in their German lands German nobles increased in powerDivided interests weakened emperors powerHindered unification of Germany and Italy
  • 22. 2. Conflict with PopesEmperors intervened in papal affairs Began to appoint church officials (lay investiture) Pope began to challenge emperor authority in church affairsHenry IV vs. Pope Gregory VII Pope won temporary victory Henry return home and appoints new pope Gregory dies in exile Later Pope Innocent III interferes in politics and weakens power of emperor.
  • 23. 3. Conflict with NoblesNobles enjoyed great power while emperor was involved in ItalySalian Emperors (1024- 1125) Weak rulers Civil war broke out Feudalism brought order Powerful nobles ruled the land and chose the next king
  • 24. Empire under Hohenstaufens1152- King from Hohenstaufens familyFrederick I “Barbossa” “Red Beard” Wanted to restore glory and stalibity to empire Meddled in Italian affairs Strong opposition from pope Marriage alliance between son and heiress of Sicily
  • 25. Frederick II (1215 - 1250) grandson of Frederick IHeir to German & Sicilian throneExposed to Greek & Arab cultures Educated, patron of arts and scholarsWard of Pope Innocent III Promised Pope not to claim Sicily throne After Pope dies he breaks his promise Almost united Italy under his rule  Resistance from papacy Why did Pope want to prevent Frederick from claiming throne to Sicily on top of his throne of Germany? Notice where the Papal states are located…
  • 26. The death of Frederick  decline in Holy Roman EmpireEmperor’s contact with Germany was minimal Ignored the German nobles, they did whatever they wanted Attempts to unify Germany and Italy = FAIL What follows is a long history of disunity in both countries Not until 1800s do these become united in the countries that we know today
  • 27. German States ItalianStates
  • 28. England  Anglo-SaxonsRomans leave Britannia (England) early 5th centuryGermanic tribes invade from N. Europe Angles and Saxons establish independent kingdoms9th century Vikings (Danes) start to invade EnglandAlfred the Great (871 – 99)Saxon King (last kingdom not invaded by Vikings)Defeated Danes (Vikings) & pushed them to NE EnglandDrove out Vikings from England under Edward the Confessor
  • 29. Alfred the GreatLay foundation for Build churches and Invited foreign rule over united schools scholars to teach England Translated Split land into important literature Good ruler shires (counties) into common language Began Anglo-Patron of learning Build up navy Saxon chronicle (History of England
  • 30. Edward the Confessor (1042 – 1066)Descendant of AlfredDevoted to GodDied without heir cousin William (Duke of Normandy) claimed crown was promised to him Nobles appointed Harold, Earl of Essex as king William got pope blessing, raised army and invaded England Did you know: Edward the Confessor donated money to build Westminster Abbey, which turned out to be where many monarchs have been crowned and buried ever since.
  • 31. Battle of Hastings Battle of William Hastings Harold Duke Duke of (fight for of Essex Normandy English Throne)• Brought feudalism to • William wins England • Norman line of• Gave lands to his military English kings followers (who swore • William II allegiance to him) • Henry I• Saw his authority greater than pope (appointed his own bishops)
  • 32. Reforms strengthen Royal AuthorityNew Royal Line  PlantagenetHenry II (1154 – 1189) Great grandson of William the Conqueror Frenchman (owned more land in France than England)  Owned more French land than the king of France  ** Rivalry between 2 kings because of this Strengthened royal authority Circuit court  justices traveled and heard cases throughout the land  Jury of 12 men gathered information to present to justice when he arrived  ** more cases were heard in royal courts than in church courts** Henry’s justices provided universal laws for everyone Common law unified the country and ensured that justice was done
  • 33. Thomas a BecketFriend of Henry IIHenry appointed him archbishop (highest church position in England)Once in office he began disagreeing with Henry Conflict climaxed when Henry wanted to try clergy in royal court, not church courtKnights kill Becket, he becomes a martyr King abandons plan to control clergy
  • 34. RICHARD I JOHN( 11 8 9 – 11 9 9 ) ( 11 9 9 – 1 2 1 6 ) Son of Henry II  Brother of Richard I “lion hearted” brave  Able ruler warrior and crusader  Lacked personal Kings Crusade and qualities of his brother defending lands in  Weak willed & France kept him away Unscrupulous from England most of his  Constant conflict with reign French, Pope, and His brother, John and Nobles French King plotted to overthrow him Setting for Prince fictional tale John of Robin  Hood King Richard
  • 35. King John’s Conflict with: French • Took control of many of John’s lands in France PopeNobles • Conflict over next Archbishop of Canterbury• Angry with high • Monks chose one, John chose taxes another, both went to Rome • Pope chooses his own• 1215- Nobles archbishop, King John refused revolted & forced to accept him to England John to sign • Pope excommunicates King Magna Carta John • King John gives in and obeys Pope
  • 36. Magna Carta Limits Royal PowerOne of most important documents in British History symbol of freedom from oppression Foundation for English common law no free man should be imprisoned without due process  Echoed in America’s Bill of Rights and ConstitutionKing is not above the law He can be removed if does not obey law
  • 37. Parliament Becomes ImportantInstitutionEdward I (1272 – 1307)Wanted to extend rule over all Britain  Scotland, Wales and EnglandConquered wales (made his firstborn son = Prince of Wales)Cannot conquer Scotland (fierce opposition)Developed Parliament “to speak” until now king’s Up Enlarged membership to include: councils had only been  Knights from every shire upper class nobles  Citizens to represent each town WilliamAnglo-Saxon Edward I Conqueror “witan” parliament “curia regis”
  • 38. Edward I - ParliamentDivided into 2 houses1. Commons – knights and citizens2. Lords- nobility, chief vassalsKing cannot propose new taxes withoutconsent of parliamentMeans king had to summon parliament regularly to obtain needed $$Parliament could refuse to pass king’s new taxes to get what they wanted from him (power of the purse) Parliament’s power grew Legislative body, not only advisory body anymore
  • 39. France CapetiansWest Frankland broke up987 AD- Nobles chose Hugh Capet king Count of Paris Founded new royal line- Capetian increased monarch power over feudal lords 1. Sons succeeded father’s on throne 2. King added lands under his control (marriage or conquest) 3. Effective system of centralized government 4. Allies with church and townspeople  Wealth of church and towns made king independent of nobles
  • 40. Philip and Royal ExpansionCapetian kings only ruled small land area around Paris called Ile de France Surrounded by lands of powerful nobles Examples- Henry Plantagenet, William Duke of NormandyEarly capetian kings struggled to hold onto their land Notice only the darker green area belonged to the French king. (The red colors all belonged to the English kings.)
  • 41. Phillip II (1180 – 1223)founder of FranceEnlarged territory under his rule This increased power over vassals (Remember land = power)Began period of Capetian greatnessMain obstacle = English holding lands in France Gained lands of King John  Normandy, Anjou, Maine, Tourine (tripled size of Royal lands)Increased power of central governmentPlaced royal officials throughout lands to administer justice and enforce king’s authority
  • 42. Louis IX and Royal DignityGrandson of Philip IIIIdeal medieval king  Sincere, pious and just  Valued peace and justiceSought to protect every person’s rightsExpanded jurisdiction of royal courts Established permanent court at ParisLed 2 crusades against Muslims Died on 2nd crusade
  • 43. Philip IV (The Fair)Handsome; 17 years old comes to throneFurther strengthen central government and organizationTax clergy- need revenue Pope Boniface says “No one can tax clergy” Philip refuses to send tithes to Rome Philip has support of French people to stand up to Pope *** People support king more than pope*** Notice this never happened in England, the people never supported the king above the Pope. This leads to king having more power than Pope in France
  • 44. Estates GeneralRepresentatives from 3 social classes: Church Nobility TownspeopleAll meet in ParisAsks for their advice, but DOES NOT seek their approval for legislation and raise taxes
  • 45. Notice: French monarchy will continue to grow in power until it becomes an unlimited, absolute monarchyThis is a great contrast with the limitedmonarchy that is developing in England. This will end up causing problems in a few hundred years in France that will end in a horrendous revolution.
  • 46. The Call to CrusadesPeople would go to Jerusalem on a pilgrimage  Similar to Islam and Mecca Some went for piety (to get closer to God) Some went for forgiveness of sins11th century Seljuk Turks get close to Constantinople Byzantine Empire asks West for helpPope Urban II addresses church leaders and nobles Calls for Crusades to save Holy Land from Turks Convinces people it is God’s will to wage war on Turks  Next 200 years many Europeans obsessed with liberating Holy Lands from Muslims
  • 47. Motives1. Adventure seekers2. Pious, defenders of the church3. Escape from boring lives4. Gain fortunes5. Knights looking for a fight6. Merchants looking for commercial gain
  • 48. ChurchMajor force behind the CrusadesPromised rewards on earth and heaven for fighting in Crusades Eternal Life Debt forgiveness Penance for sins
  • 49. Crusades 8 of them from 1095 – 1291First Crusade (1096-99) Most successful one Took back city of Jerusalem & 4 small Mediterranean kingdomsSecond Crusade = FAILKing’s Crusade (1189 – 1192) Muslim’s recapture Jerusalem Crusade lead by Europes most powerful kings  Frederick Barbossa- Germany  Philip Augustus- France  Richard Lionheart – England Make a 3 year truce with Muslims to allow pilgrimages to holy places
  • 50. Diverted CrusadeVenetians transport crusadersThey don’t have enough money to payMust attack Venice rival cityCrusaders have appetite for plunder, no more Holy LandAttack Constantinople and pillaged city 1204 Constantinople fell The irony here is that Constantinople was the one who asked for the Crusader’s help and protection from the invasion of the Turks. The Crusaders are the ones who caused it to fall in t he end…
  • 51. Later CrusadesCrusades 4 – 8 all failed to accomplish anythingPeople’s zeal and religious fervor started to die out in Western Europe Started to become occupied with explorations and expeditions Crusader explorer “take up your cross” “seek and discover” recovery of Holy Land find new routes to Far East
  • 52. Consequences of Crusades1. Weakening of Feudalism in Europe Serfs bought their freedom to go on crusades Growth of cities Strong monarchs2. Expansion of commercial activity in Europe  Exposed to riches of far East  Sugar, spices, fruits, silk, cotton, glass, mirrors, etc.  Increase in trade  Rise of money economy
  • 53. Consequences of Crusades3. Early Crusades  increase power of PopeLater crusades  people disillusioned anddistrustful of pope4. Introduction to new cultures (Muslim &Byzantine) This leads to the - Renewed interest in knowledge of antiquityRenaissance Chapter 11 - Roman and Greek teachings5. Increase in travel and knowledge of This leads to theGeography Age of Exploration - encouraged exploration Chapter 13