Chapter 7 Part 2- Mongols and Africa


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Chapter 7 Part 2- Mongols and Africa

  1. 1. The Mongols and Africa Chapter 7 - Part 2
  2. 2. Mongol Empire
  3. 3. Mongol Empire Attacked:  China  Byzantium  Russia  Muslim Regions Live in steppes (grassy plains of Central Asia)  Home to many nomadic tribes  Food for their herds/flocks Largest empire in history  More territory in 25 years than Roman Empire in 400 years
  4. 4. Ended Well Abbasid organized Dynasty & army Seljuk Turks Overtook Expert Muslim horsemen states ViciousConqueredall of China Mongols attacks on villages
  5. 5. Genghis Khan “Universal Ruler” United all Mongols under one rule Believed he had divine commission to conquer the world Well organized army that moved at lightning speed Had lots of wives and children
  6. 6. Yuan Dynasty (1279 – 1368) Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan)  Conquered all of China  Established Yuan Dynasty in China  Moved capital to modern day Beijing  Built highways or trade and communication  Invited foreign scholars, artists, missionaries, merchants, engineers into China  Employed them in government positions  Excluded Chinese from government positions
  7. 7.  After death, empire breaks apart Chinese drive out Mongols in 1368  Establish Ming Dynasty  Government control back in Chinese hands  Adopt isolationist and anti foreign attitude  Closed China to outsiders Marco Polo visited China  Lived there for 17 years  First time Europeans learned about life in China
  8. 8. Golden Horde in Russia Bhatu Khan (another grandson of Genghis Khan)  Leads Mongols into Europe (Hungary & Poland)  Europeans call them “Tartars” (Greek word for hell) Ruled in Russia for 200 years  Tribute from Russian people  Recruits for their army  Russian ties with Western Europe and Byzantine Empire are weakened  Moscow grows into powerful capital
  9. 9. Reasons for Moscow’s Growth in Importance 1. Center of inland waterways 2. Location good for trade and defense 3. Leaders of Moscow cooperated with Mongols  Tax collectors for Mongols  Mongols allowed them limited authority 4. Became religious center (head of church move from Kiev) As Moscow grows in power, Mongol power decreases  14th century princes openly challenge Mongol overlords  Ivan III (1462- 1505)  Refused to pay tribute to Mongols  1480- throw out Mongols  Autocratic ruler of independent state of Russia
  10. 10. Tamerlane Empire Late 14th century Claimed to be descendant of Genghis Khan (merciless & cruel) Wanted to rebuild Mongol Empire Raised army and began new wave of invasions  Captured Damascus and Baghdad  Defeated Ottoman Turks  Weakened Golden Horde (*Helped Russian independence)  Entered India 1398  Destroyed capital – Delhi  Killed 100,00 people  Died while planning to invade China
  11. 11. Mughal Empire Babur (“The Tiger”)  Descendant of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane  Leader of Turkish Mongol tribes in Afghanistan  1526- establish Mughal dynasty at Delhi, India Increased Indian Unity Established Reforms for law and People order Fostered Muslim achievement Rulers in the arts Akbar = Religious Mughal greatest Tolerance Empire leader
  12. 12. 2nd largest continent 4 times the size of USAAfricaSub-Saharan Africa
  13. 13. • contact between Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia limited by the Sahara Desert.• One major consequence = lack of access to the innovations of Southwest Asia • agriculture, writing, smelting, and the wheel• Agriculture reached Africa in first centuries AD (elsewhere started 3000 BC) • Cities developed in Middle Ages AD
  14. 14. Ancient African Kingdoms Kush (Northern Sudan)  Originally part of Egyptian Empire  Overthrew Egypt rulers 700 BC  Took control over Egypt and made their own pharaohs  Eventually fell to Aksum Aksum (Axum)  Embraced Christianity  Missionary from Syria  Frumentius  Traded with Roman Empire, control Red Sea Trade  Later becomes country of Ethiopia
  15. 15. Central Africa Middle Ages Kanem Bornu (800 – 1846)  around Lake Chad  Part of camel caravan trade  Strong military force
  16. 16. Western AfricaGhana - Wealth from gold minesMali - Caravan trade route - Niger River proximitySonghai
  17. 17. Western Africa Middle Ages 1. Ghana- 700-1200  Attacked by Muslims and weakened 2. Mali- 1200 – 1500  Mansa Musa (most famous king)  Muslim, pilgrimage to Mecca  Took 60,000 people with him  10,000 pounds of gold  Timbuktu = capital  Africa’s most important center of trade 3. Songhai  Larger than Ghana and Mali  Sought after wealth, not military power  Moroccans invaded 1591 and ended empire
  18. 18. Eastern African City-States East Coast of Africa had many important trading ports  Each port an important city state  Since time of roman empire still thriving today  Outlets for ivory, gold, iron and animal skins Shared similar culture:  Arab  Persian  African Shared similar language: Swahili Prospered for centuries until pressure from Europeans & interior tribes
  19. 19. Kilwa- “ one of most beautiful and well constructed towns of the world” Flourished between 1100-1500 AD Received goods from inland tribes; sold them to Arab sea traders Grew in wealth and culture
  20. 20. Benin- Forest Kingdom Southern Nigeria flourished 1300s-1800s Provided goods for eastern cities to sell Produced fine statues and relief sculptures in bronze
  21. 21. African Culture Family – basic social unit  Polygamy was common  Family Clan Tribe (Ethnic Group) Religion  Areas of Christianity and Islam  Tribal Religions = One big god, many smaller gods  Human sacrifice to keep gods happy Livelihood  Farming/herding  Trading- gold, ivory, animal skins  Europeans sail into port cities to trade  Slave trade demands more slaves  Main reason for European contact with Africa after 1500s