“ Denounced as enemies of the state, whole families were robbed of their possessions, left to starve, or even murdered outright.” Of those sent to the “gulags” …”some one million died annually as a result of harsh conditions, which included insufficient food, inadequate housing, and 12-16 hour days of crushing physical labor. Regular beatings and murders of prisoners rounded out Gulag life, as it too became another aspect of totalitarian violence.”
The term “totalitarian” was created by an Italian journalist protesting Mussolini’s total control of life in Italy…he was beaten to death by Mussolini’s souldiers Black shirts – Mussolini ’s personal army made up of veterans and the unemployed….one of their favorite things to do to opponents was forcing castor oil down their throats (which caused diarrhea) Mussolini was an atheist but supported the Catholic Church because of its importance to Italians, because of this the Catholic Church did not oppose him. “ Fascism is not a church, it is more like a training ground.” Being critical of the government was made a crime.
70% of the Nazi party was under 40… ”Full of idealism, the young had faith that a better world was possible if Hitler took control.” “ [Nazis] do not believe that one soul is equal to another, one man equal to another. It does not believe in rights as such it aims to create the German man of strength, its task is to protect the German people, and all…must be subordinate to this goal.” “ The Nazi government set policies to control everyday life, including gender roles. In June 1933, a bill took effect that encouraged Aryans (those people defined as racially German) to marry and have children. The bill provided for loans to Aryan newlyweds, but only to couples in which the wife left the workforce. The loans were forgiven on the birth of the pair’s fourth child. The ideal woman gave up her job, gave birth to many children, and completely surrendered her will to that of men, allowing her husband to feel powerful despite military defeat and economic depression. A good wife ‘joyfully sacrifices and fulfills her fate,’ as one Nazi leader explained.” Hitler Youth – mandatory organization for children over the age of 10, taught to report any adult suspected of disloyalty Killed not only Jews, but the handicapped and elderly
Ch.21- What happened after WW1?
Whathappenedafter WWI?Discontent and ExperimentationChapter 21
Great Britain veterans came home to a strugglingeconomy high debt trade suffering unemployment (25%) dole = aid for unemploymentdole = aid for unemployment England becomes more and more a welfarestate Labour party increases power in government
France heavier loss of life & property than GreatBritain gained new territories = mineral deposits& industrial plants (From Germany) Alsace and Lorraine politically unstable too many political parties, no one majority suspicious of Germany protect border with Germany***
USA WWI put America involved in world affairs many Americans wanted to return toisolationism Wilson ( involved in international affairs) Harding (return to isolationism) Coolidge (domestic over international) Hoover
USA Great Depression appearances = everything good Roaring 20s factories produce more consumer goods more leisure time than every before Stock Market Collapse 1929 prices drop unemployment (33%) banks fail factories close people lose homes
FDR and New Deal 1932 FDR elected president programs to provide: relief recovery reform Gave people jobs regulate stock exchange increse power of Federal Bureaucracy bureaucracy = nonelected officials who handlegovt affairs
The Rise ofThe Rise ofTotalitarianismTotalitarianism(1920s-1930s)(1920s-1930s)
What isWhat isTotalitarianism?Totalitarianism? Totalitarianism:Totalitarianism: dictator has complete controldictator has complete controlover his country & the lives of his peopleover his country & the lives of his people Key Traits of TotalitarianismKey Traits of Totalitarianism Dictator:Dictator: total powertotal power One party:One party: ruling party is the only legal political partyruling party is the only legal political party govt control of all aspects of lifegovt control of all aspects of life business, religion, the arts, education, etc.business, religion, the arts, education, etc. use ofuse of propagandapropaganda,, fearfear, and, and secret policesecret police No freedom of speech, religion, press, etc.No freedom of speech, religion, press, etc.
Totalitarian LeadersTotalitarian Leaders Why did they come to power?Why did they come to power? People wanted strong leaders to get them out ofPeople wanted strong leaders to get them out ofthe Great Depressionthe Great Depression Russia (Lenin, Stalin)Russia (Lenin, Stalin) Italy (Mussolini)Italy (Mussolini) Germany (Hitler)Germany (Hitler) Nationalism—they promised to make theirNationalism—they promised to make theircountries big and powerfulcountries big and powerful What did they want?What did they want? Total control over country and peopleTotal control over country and people Strong military and economyStrong military and economy More land—they were willing to go to war for it!More land—they were willing to go to war for it!
The Soviet UnionThe Soviet Union(U.S.S.R.)(U.S.S.R.)• Bolsheviks vs. Menshaviks (Both Social Democratic Party)•Russo Japanese War• embarassment for Russia• lost territory to Japan• Peace talks earnedRoosevelt Nobel PeacePrize- more radical- change throughviolence- more moderate- change throughpeaceful measures
Road to Revolution Bloody Sunday (March to Winter Palace) peaceful march ask for reforms (elections, improve conditions,etc.) soldiers open fire, kill innocent marchers October Strike Czar promises to give them duma (nationalassembly) free speech elections
Revolution Tzar abdicates throne 1917 ends 300 yrs Romanov rule Kerensky = provisional govt nobody respected him Germans send bolsheviks home to cause trouble knows this will get Russia out of WWI Lenin takes power easily good leadership & good orator discipline within party knew what the people wanted
Lenin studied karl marx leadership of Bolsheviks believed in violent revolution "communism will succeed if lead byworking class people" offered "hope" to downtrodden Russianpeople offered immediate results to problems
1918- Lenin movescapital to Moscow from St. Petersburg 1924- Russia becomes USSR tightly regulate economy all surplus crops and goods belong to govt forced labor no incentives 1921-28- New Economic Policy temporary retreat from communism to rescueeconomy from collapse allow capitalist aspects for a short time
Stalin steps in battle with Trotsky for control Stalin had more friends in govt 5 Year Plans (1928-33) tried to build up industry collectivize agriculture = bring under govt control secret police - tool of control and fear to force compliance RESULTS = conflict, famine, poverty death of 5 million Russians
Two Types ofTwo Types ofTotalitarianism:Totalitarianism:Fascism vs. CommunismFascism vs. Communism FascismFascism privately ownedcompanies;regulated by govt highlynationalistic military dictator glorifies state CommunismCommunism No social classes No private property Global communism calls for all nations tobe united undercommunism Anti-religion
BothBothTotalitarian dictatorshipTotalitarian dictatorship–– required absoluterequired absoluteobedience to leaderobedience to leaderAnti-democracyAnti-democracyExtreme militarismExtreme militarism ––glorification of militaryglorification of military
ItalyItaly• dissapointed after WWI•didnt get much reward for siding with Allies• strikes, inflation, debt problems• Rich were afraid of Communism• Soldiers came home to no jobs• Nationalists wanted a strong ItalyMussoliniMussolinisatisfied allsatisfied all3 groups3 groups
Mussolini imprisoned for being a socialist loved war and military glory organized fascist party after ancient Rome seemed to provide: order and stability March on Rome, demand king to make him premier ofItaly King does it slowly but surely increases his power over thepeople "Il Duce" (leader, commander)
Lateran Treaty treaty with RomanCatholic Church pope recognizeauthority ofgovernment Government grantpope independantstate = Vatican City
GermanyGermany Kaiswer Wilhelm II abdicates end of WWI revolutions all over Germany Weimar Republic written constitution 7 year president electedPresident appoints a chancellorWeaknesses:people didnt support republictoo many political parties no experience running a republicperfect timing for Adolph Hitler
Hitler little success as a young man artist and architect = fail not fit for military Volunteers for Reserve Infantry gets hurt and awarded to silver crosses Angry at armistice end of WWI Joined Nazi group and becameleader formed Blackshirts (protect Hitler,become SS- secret police, war crimes,concentration camps, good fighters)
Hitler and Nazi Party 1923- revolt in Munich = FAIL jailed for about a year wrote book "Mein Kampf" (MyStruggle") attacked Weimar Republic hatred for Jews renounce Treaty of Versailles Germanic people = master race after jail, he spread his ideasthrough speeches
Hitler Rise to Power1.Weimar Republic Weak2. Many Germans angry at Treaty ofVersailles3. Economic problems in Germany4. Anti-communist5. Hitlers charisma, leadership andpropaganda
Youth serve the leader. Allten-year-olds into the HJ(Hitler Youth)”. It is likely thatthe girl looks up with passionto Hitler as the leader.“Who is Adolf Hitler? Theman from the people, forthe people! The Germanfront soldier who risked hislife in 48 battles forGermany! What does AdolfHitler want? Freedom andfood for every decentworking German! ......A Nazi sword kills a snake, theblade passing through a redStar of David. The red wordscoming from the snake are:usury, Versailles,unemployment, war guilt lie,Marxism, Bolshevism, lies andbetrayal, inflation, Locarno,Dawes Pact, Young Plan,corruption, Barmat, Kutistker,Sklarek [the last three Jewsinvolved in major financialscandals], prostitution, terror,civil war.
Nazi Germany blame Jews forWWIs outcome action against Jews November 1938 =Kristallnacht destroyed thousandsof Jewish properties Jews citizenshipstaken away Sent to concentrationcamps
Hitlers 4 Year Plans 1933 - seeks to endunemployment building programs autobahn- militaryhighway across thecountry in case fights a 2 frontwar again Self sufficient in case of blockade it cansurvive "strength in joy" keep thepeople happy vacations andentertainment @ low cost