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The Brazilian Association Biomass and Renewable Energy Industry with support from the Government of Brazil published this week the most important technical study on the Future of Biomass and ...

The Brazilian Association Biomass and Renewable Energy Industry with support from the Government of Brazil published this week the most important technical study on the Future of Biomass and Bioenergy, and Potential Waste of Forestry, Pulp, Wood, SugarCane,, Agroindustry, Energy and Agriculture ( Wood BioPellets Bagasse SugarCane).

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The Future Biomass and Bioenergy Brazil - The Future Biomass and Bioenergy Brazil - Document Transcript

  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL BIOMASS AND RENEWABLE ENERGYTHE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - BIOMASS – BIOENERGYBIOMASS POTENTIAL FOREST SUGARCANE AGROINDUSTRY BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO DE OLIVEIRA
  • Table of Contents THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS RENEWABLE ENERGY 04 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE – RENEWABLE ENERGY 10 RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL 21 BIOMASS POWER ENERGY 29 BIOMASS POTENTIAL BRAZIL - FOREST 37 BIOMASS POTENTIAL BRAZIL - SUGARCANE 56 RESIDUE AGROINDUSTRY BRAZIL 61 INDUSTRIAL BRAZIL BIOMASS WOODCHIPS BIO WOODBRIQUETTE 65 INDUSTRIAL BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGAR CANE 82 INDUSTRIAL BRAZIL WOODPELLETS 93-105 Brazil. 570 Candido Hartmann 24-243 Curitiba Parana 80730-440 Phone: +005541 BRAZILIAN 33352284 +005541 88630864 Skype Brazil Biomass E-mail Brazil: ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY diretoria@brasilbiomassa.com.br USA: abibbrasil@aol.com EU abibbrasil@sapo.ptBIOMASS AND RENEWABLE URL ABIB http://www.wix.com/abibbrasil/associacaobiomassabrasil ENERGY URL ABIB http://www.wix.com/abibbrasil/brazilianassociationbiomass Brasil Biomassa http://www.wix.com/abibbrasil/brasilbiomassaenergiarenovavel
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRA Energy consumption patterns have strongly changed during the last decades. The increase on industrial production of goods, the high mobility of the population and the dependency on fossil fuels for energy generation, particularly, coal, mineral oil and natural gas are considered the main factors causing environmental depletion. As reported by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety energy supply is globally based primarily on the finite fossil energy carriers of coal, mineral oil, and natural gas. The combustion of fossil fuels is the largest contributor to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. As a result, Earth‘s average temperature has been increasing and climatic phenomena like extreme drought and flood are more often (IPCC)The existing power supply systems contribute to increase CO2 emissions and costs for energy generation and distribution toconsumers. The need of reducing GHG emissions and the urgency in developing alternative technologies for energygeneration obliges industrialized and developing countries to encounter solutions using regenerative energy sources. Thediffusion of knowledge and technology is an important step for changing behavior and implementing new patterns of energysupply. The imminent collapse of non-renewable sources and new environmental legislations could result in a wider use of biomass. Research shows that biomass originated from crop and agricultural residues can be used, mainly in processes of gasification and thermoelectric generation of simple or combined cycles with cogeneration, becoming an important local energy source. The use of biomass is a promising alternative for a climate friendly heating and power generation. Close to 80 percent of the worlds energy supply could be met by renewables by mid-century if backed by the right enabling public policies a new report shows.The findings, from over 120 researchers working with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), also indicatethat the rising penetration of renewable energies could lead to cumulative greenhouse gas savings equivalent to 220 to 560Gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (GtC02eq) between 2010 and 2050. The upper end of the scenarios assessed, representing acut of around a third in greenhouse gas emissions from business-as-usual projections, could assist in keeping concentrationsof greenhouse gases at 450 parts per million. This could contribute towards a goal of holding the increase in globaltemperature below 2 degrees Celsius – an aim recognized in the United Nations Climate. The most optimistic of the four, in-depth scenarios projects renewable energy accounting for as much as 77 percent of the worlds energy demand by 2050,amounting to about 314 of 407 Exajoules per year. As a comparison, 314 Exajoules is over three times the annual energysupply in the United States in 2005 which is also a similar level of supply on the Continent of Europe according to variousgovernment and independent sources. 77 percent is up from just under 13 percent of the total primary energy supply ofaround 490 Exajoules in 2008. Each of the scenarios is underpinned by a range of variables such as changes in energyefficiency, population growth and per capita consumption. These lead to varying levels of total primary energy supply in 2050,with the lowest of the four scenarios seeing renewable energy accounting for a share of 15 percent in 2050, based on a totalprimary energy supply of 749 Exajoules.The Renewables Intensive Global Energy Scenario (RIGES) proposes a significant role for biomass in the next century. Theypropose that by 2050 renewable sources of energy could account for three-fifths of the world‘s electricity market and two-fifthsof the market for fuels used directly, and that global CO 2 emissions would be reduced to 75 per cent of their 2005 levels andsuch benefits could be achieved at no additional cost. Within this scenario, biomass should provide about 38 per cent of thedirect fuel and 17 per cent of the electricity use in the world. Detailed regional analysis shows how Latin America and Africamight become large exporters of biofuels. The Environmentally Compatible Energy Scenario (ECES) for 2020 assumes thatpast trends of technological and economic structural change will continue to prevail in the future and thereby serve, to someextent, economic and environmental objectives at the same time. Primary energy supply is predicted to be 12.7 Gtoe (533 EJ)of which biomass energy would contribute 11.6 per cent (62 EJ) derived from wastes and residues, energy plantations andcrops, and forests—this excludes traditional uses of noncommercial biomass energy for fuel wood in developing countries.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRA Fossil-Free Energy Scenario (FFES) was developed as part of Greenpeace International‘s study of global energy warming. Greenpeace forecast that in 2030 biomass could supply 24 per cent (=91 EJ) of primary energy (total=384 EJ) compared to their low estimate of only 7 per cent today (=22 EJ). The biomass supply could be derived equally from developing and industrialised countries. The IEA study ‗World Energy Lookout‘ addressed for the first time the current role of biomass energy and its future potential. It is estimated that by 2020 biomass will be contributing 60 EJ (compared to their estimate of 44 EJ today =11 per cent of total energy) thereby providing 9.5 per cent of total energy supply. The period 1995–2020 will show a 1.2 per cent annual growth rate in biomass provision compared to a 2.0 per cent rate for ‗conventional‘ energy. European countries gear up to meet renewable energy goals of 20 percent by 2020, demand for biomass, woodchips and wood pellets is expected to rise. By 2020, this number could be somewhere between 115 and 335 million tons per year, according to an article in Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. Both of these estimates eclipse the 11 million tons of pellets consumed by the EU in 2010.The greatest demand for imported biomass will be from Europe, Korea and Japan. In Europe the ―RE 20/20/20" energy policycarries legally binding renewable energy targets for each member country for 2020. Plans submitted by member countries in 2010to achieve targets will increase biomass use for production of electricity, heat, and transportation fuels by ~400 MT (million tonnes),mostly from woody material. Pellet consumption of 11 MT in 2010 is projected to reach 16-18 MT by 2013-15 and 50-80 MT by2020. The biomass shortfall is estimated at 60 MT. Key importing countries will be UK, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy andSpain. According to the European Biomass Association, it is expected that Europe will reach a consumption of 80 million tonspellets per year by 2020. The UK will become a very major importer of biomass: 206 million GJ/y equates to about 12 million t/y ofpellets or 20 million t/y of green woodchips, equivalent to the wood requirements of at least four world scale pulp millsAccording to [Werling, 2010] an increase of the pellets is to expect. Wood pellets have many advantages and it seems thatthe world wide consumption will increase drastically the next couple of years. Green Building Magazine denotes wood pelletsas a significant fuel of the 21th century as many considers the increased use of wood pellets an important way to achieve theEU 2020 goals of sustainable energy. According to [Hansen, 2010] the wood pellet market will double within short time. TheGerman wood pellet demand will e.g. increase with 70.8 mill tonnes until 2020. [Junginger et. al, 2009] estimates that thewood pellet exchange in Europe will vary between 18-25% per year and the demand increase between 130-170 milliontonnes per year until 2020. [Werling, 2010] denotes that new European electricity producing biomass units with a capacity uptill 5400 MW are under establishment until year 2014. These units alone will have a gross consumption on 280 PJ or 19million tonnes biomass a year. It is not only in Europe the market develops. New market areas are starting to develop andlarge potential users like Brazil, Argentina, Chile and New Zealand are assumed to be a part of the global wood pellet flowwithin short term. Asia (China, Australia, India, Japan and South Korean) is booming economically and according to [Peksa-Blanchard et al., 2007] the Asian countries is estimated to be the biggest global energy consumers by 2030, at the same timethe Asian region has the largest biomass resources in the world. It is fair to assume that Asia will become an important actorof the biomass market and therefore the wood pellet market.USA president Obama and his demonstration have expressed interest in consuming biomass including wood pellets c.f.[Mackinnon, 2010]. If the potential consumers will appear, it is reasonable to assume that the concentrated flow of woodpellets exclusively into Europe can be disturbed. The increase in European consumption and the many arising productionmarkets indicates that the wood pellet market will continue to boom. Moreover the environment issues and GHG emissionrestriction becomes visible in the media as never before and a political pressure can be enough to convert several heat andpower plants using biomass instead of fossil fuel.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRA The large role Brazil is expected to play in future energy supply can be explained by several considerations. First, biomass fuels can substitute more or less directly for fossil fuels in the existing energy supply infrastructure. Secondly, the potential resource is large since land is available which is not needed for food production and as agricultural food yields continue to rise in excess of the rate of population growth. Thirdly, in developing countries demand for energy is rising rapidly, due to population increase, urbanisation and rising living standards. While some fuel switching occurs in this process, the total demand for biomass also tends to increase.Brazil has tradition and a significant potential on biomass production. The historical importance of biomass energy in Brazil isdue to a set of factors, including (i) the size of the country and the availability of land, (ii) the adequacy of its weather, (iii) theavailability and the low cost of the working force and (iv) the domain of biomass-production and biomass conversiontechnologies in the agricultural and in the industrial sectors. The accomplishment of these conditions defines a potentialbiomass producer country in a bioenergy trade scenario.TYPE OF WASTE - HARVEST BRAZIL 2010 - Production Brazil 2010 Estimated Residual Energy Waste (mil Tep)TECHNICAL IBGE (mil tons) ( mil tons) FAO –0,35 Tep-TonAgricultural Waste - Cereals (incl. Cane Sugar) 776.299.153 547.306.628 191.557,30Waste - Extraction Plant 30.755.453 20.023.197 7.008,11Waste - Fruits 34.502.991 36.064.127 12.622,44Forestry residues (with firewood and m³ x ton) 205.010.012 157.992.556 35.010,00 In Brazil, the agroindustry of corn (13767400 ha), sugarcane (7080920 ha), rice (2890930 ha), cassava (1894460 ha), wheat (1853220 ha), citrus (930591 ha), coconut (283205 ha), and grass (140000 ha) collectively occupies an area of 28840726 ha and generates residues (agricultural residues, cereals, fruit and vegetable extraction) and approximately 157,992,556 cubic meters of forestry sector of residue per year. Other agricultural by-products of importance in Brazil, such as corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw and rice hulls, grass and forestry materials and residues from citrus, coconut and cassava processing, also deserve attention as local feedstock for the development of new and profitable activities. As each type of feedstock demands the development of tailor-made technology, the diversity of the aforementioned raw materials could allow for new solutions for the production of chemicals, fuels and energy in accordance with the local availability of these materials. Forestry leftovers, saw dust, bagasse sugarcane, rice and coffee husks, coconut shells and other residues can be compacted into pellets or briquettes. The compaction of residues enhances storage and transport efficiencies of bulky biomass.Forestry wastes correspond to the parts of trees not profited for cellulose production, such as tips and branches, which contribute tosoil fertility upon degradation. These wastes are by nature heterogeneous in size, composition and structure. According to theBrazilian Forestry Inventory, small pieces of wood, including tree bark, are the major waste obtained from the forestry industry,corresponding to 71% of the total waste. Sawdust is second, accounting for 22%. Furthermore, major wood loss occurs during thewood processing in the furniture sector. In some cases, up to 80% of a tree is lost between the tree being cut in the forest and thefurniture manufacturing. In Brazil, short-rotation woody crops such as round wood (Eucalyptus and Pinus) yielded 39 million tons(dry matter).
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRATheir potential production is estimated at 61.4 million tons (dry matter) yr-1 on a planted area of 6.3 million ha with an average meanannual increment from 13 to 14.7 t (dry matter) ha-1 yr-1. Furthermore, 30.9 million tons (dry matter) of woody biomass from nativeforests, of which 8.1 million tons (dry matter) were of saw logs, 20.3 million tons (dry matter) of firewood and 2.5 million tons (drymatter) of wood for charcoal Harvest costs for residues, which constitute about percent of total costs, could disappear entirely asnew log harvesting methods will pile or bundle the residues at the same time as the logs are harvested, according to industryexperts. Forwarding costs (20 percent of total) could fall by some 20 percent, mainly through improved bundling of residues and theuse of specialized forwarders that can carry more. Today‘s forwarders are made for logs, not residues. Chipping costs could fall byaround 50 percent by transporting unprocessed or bundled residues to the point of end use for efficient processing, rather thanchipping them at the road side as is currently the case. Lower costs are likely to be countered by higher stumpage prices andhauling costs, however. The stumpage price is the money paid to land owners for extracting forest residues. Stumpage prices coulddouble given historic price developments in Brazil and projected increases in demand. Hauling costs could increase by up to 50percent due to the need to source from more remote areas as demand increases. There are no estimates of potential production.Current production of forest residues in Brazil is estimated to be 38.6 million tons (dry matter) yr-1, of which 59% is field residue and41% is industrial waste. Plantations and native forests contribute 51 and 49%, respectively. Potential production is 52.8 million tons(dry matter) yr-1, of which 63 and 37% is from plantations and native forests, respectively. Forestry residues (with firewood and m³ x ton) 205.010.012 Residue (m³) 157.992.556 Dry Matter (ton) 38.600.000 In Brazil, currently 438 sugar-ethanol plants process approximately 501,231.0 million tons of sugar cane (2010-11) per year, and approximately equal amounts of its sucrose-rich juice are used for sugar and ethanol production. Brazil produced 290.713,980 million tons of sugar cane residues, 140 million tons of sugar cane bagasse and 150 million tons of sugar cane straw. The energy content of these wastes supports its use for bioethanol production, as one third of the sugarcane plant total energy is present in bagasse and one-third is present in straw (tops and leaves). Production Brazil 2010- Estimated Residual TYPE OF WASTE - HARVEST BRAZIL 2010 -11 TECHNICAL IBGE 11 (mil tons) ( mil tons) Sugar Cane Bagasse (Million Tons) 501.231.000 140.344.680 Sugar Cane Straw and Leaves (Million Tons) 501.231.000 150.369.300Biomass is the most important renewable energy source in the world. By the year 2050, it is estimated that 90% of the worldpopulation will live in developing countries. Brazil has the potential to provide a cost-effective and sustainable supply ofenergy (biomass, woodchips, wood biobriquette and wood bioepllets), while at the same time aiding countries in meeting theirgreenhouse gas reduction targets. Celso Oliveira President, Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy CEO Brazil Biomass and Renewable Energy and European Energy SRL
  • The ABIB Brazilian Association of Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy was founded in 2009as national association and currently brings together 489 industries bioenergy and biomass,woodchips, wood bio briquette and wood bio pellets in 24 states the Brazil (production 28.497.844 milton).Currently, the biomass power industry reduces carbon emissions by more than 100 million tons eachyear and provides 37,000 jobs nationwide, many of which are in rural areas in Brazil. ABIB is anorganization with the goal of increasing the use and production of biomass (woodchips, wood biobriquette and wood bio pellets) and bioenergy power and creating new jobs and opportunities in thebiomass industry the Brazil.ABIB educates policymakers at the state and federal level about the benefits of biomass or bioenergyand provides regular briefings and research to keep members fully informed about public policyimpacting the biomass and bioenergy industry. ABIB is actively involved in the legislative process andsupports policies that increase the use of biomass power (woodchips, wood bio briquette and woodbio pellets) and bioenergy (ethanol) other renewable energy sources in Brazils. As policy makers atevery level explore ways to lower greenhouse gases.Brazilian Association of Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy is a member of theassociated World Bioenergy Association: was formed in 2008 an effort to provide the wide range ofactors in the bioenergy sector a global organization to support them in their endeavors. WBA boardrecently decided to create several working groups to address a number of issues includingcertification, sustainability, standardisation, bioenergy promotion, and the about bioenergys impacton food, land-use, and water supplies.WBA is supported by national and international bioenergy associations to be the internationalbioenergy body that joins with the world‗s solar, wind, geothermal and hydro associations on theglobal level in the REN-Alliance. We encourage national and regional organisations, institutions andcompanies..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL IAN ASSOCIATION BIOMASS ABIB Vision. The vision of the Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy is to stimulate the exploitation of renewable energy (bioenergy and biomass) resources in Brazil. ABIB promotes energy efficiency development and investment in the knowledge and use of renewable energy technologies for the benefit the Brazil. ABIB Mission. To establish a global platform of: researchers, engineers, economists, entrepreneurs, educators and decision makers whom will: Create awareness surrounding the potential and opportunities of the renewable energy development in Brazil. Facilitate technology transfer and know-how to Brazil as biomass, bioenergy and renewable energy . Stimulate the exploitation of related technologies for supplying energy and biomass or bioenergy. Encourage the inward flow of investment through financial instruments by reforming legislations to meet the requirements of regulatory bodies. Promote national recognized education and training in renewable energy technologies. Sow the seeds of culture of renewable energy for individuals and societies. INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES PRODUCTION CAPACITY YEAR (MT) FOREST - BIOMASS 248 17.185.500 WOOD CHIPS 118 9.575.023 WOOD BRIQUETE 95 930.010 BIO BRIQUETE 10 271.922 WOOD PELLETS 12 318,789 BIO PELLETS 06 216.600 ABIB is an organization member companies and institutions that are dedicated to moving biomass and bioenergy into the mainstream of Brazil‗s economy, ensuring the success of the biomass and bioenergy industry while helping to build a sustainable and independent energy future for the nation. Celso Oliveira President Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy Brazil. 570 Candido Hartmann 24-243 Curitiba Parana 80730-440 Phone: +005541 BRAZILIAN 33352284 +005541 88630864 Skype Brazil Biomass E-mail Brazil: ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY diretoria@brasilbiomassa.com.br USA: abibbrasil@aol.com EU abibbrasil@sapo.pt BIOMASS AND RENEWABLE URL ABIB http://www.wix.com/abibbrasil/associacaobiomassabrasil ENERGY URL ABIB http://www.wix.com/abibbrasil/brazilianassociationbiomass Brasil Biomassa http://www.wix.com/abibbrasil/brasilbiomassaenergiarenovavel
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • Energy consumption patterns have strongly changed during the last decades. The increase onindustrial production of goods, the high mobility of the population and the dependency on fossil fuelsfor energy generation, particularly, coal, mineral oil and natural gas are considered the main factorscausing environmental depletion.As reported by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety,energy supply is globally based primarily on the finite fossil energy carriers of coal, mineral oil, andnatural gas.The combustion of fossil fuels is the largest contributor to the increasing concentration of greenhousegases (GHG) in the atmosphere.Over the past 20 years, scientists have gathered conclusive evidence temperatures have been risingsharply since the start of the industrial revolution, and that mankind is the main cause of global climatechange.The graph above, which has been produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) shows how global average temperatures have risen over past 1000 years: most of the changehas been in the past century as the world industrialised and population has grown rapidly. Fromfluctuating in a narrow band around 0.5°C below the average 1990 temperature, it has started to risesharply and is most likely to be between 1.5°C and 5.5°C above current temperatures by 2100.Recent years have seen a huge rise in the number of abnormal weather events. Meteorologists agreethat these exceptional conditions are signs that Global Climate Change is happening already.Scientists agree that the most likely cause of the changes are man-made emissions of the so-called"Greenhouse Gases" that can trap heat in the earths atmosphere in the same way that glass trapsheat in a greenhouse. Although there are six major groups of gases that contribute to Global ClimateChange, the most common is Carbon Dioxide (CO2)...
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEThis would have a catastrophic effect on the earth, with widespread melting of glaciers and ice-sheets, and a highly probablerise in sea level that could lead to the inundation of countries. Latest scientific concern is focused on melting ice loweringsalinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, that could lead to the reversal of the "Great Atlantic Conveyor" - better known as the GulfStream. If this were to happen, we could find that temperatures in NW Europe, fell by up to 10°C, despite temperatureselsewhere in the world risingCarbon Dioxide is a global problem, but the countries that produce the greatest amount per person are in North America,Europe and Australasia. If Carbon Dioxide reductions are to be made, the lead has to be taken by people living in thesecountries.Most Carbon Dioxide in these countries comes from burning fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil to heat buildings (includinghomes) and transport. Of course, Carbon Dioxide is also given off by all living things, but in general plants capture as muchas animals and micro-organisms generate.In contrast, Carbon Dioxide produced by burning fuel adds to the gases in the atmosphere and cannot be captured by plants. .Certain facts about Earths climate are not in dispute: The heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases wasdemonstrated in the mid-19th century.Their ability to affect the transfer of infrared energy through the atmosphere is the scientific basis of many JPL-designedinstruments, such as AIRS. Increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause the Earth to warm in response. Ice cores drawn from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain glaciers show that the Earth‘s climate responds tochanges in solar output, in the Earth‘s orbit, and in greenhouse gas levels.They also show that in the past, large changes in climate have happened very quickly, geologically-speaking: in tens of years,not in millions or even thousands. The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CLIMATE CHANGE.This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements,provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. The evidence for rapid climatechange is compelling: Sea level rise. Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century (Republic of Maldives: Vulnerable to sea level rise) Global temperature rise. All three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009. Warming oceans. The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969 Shrinking ice sheets. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Climate Experiment show Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006. Declining Arctic sea ice. Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades. Ocean acidification Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CAUSES.A layer of greenhouse gases – primarily water vapor, and including much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, methane andnitrous oxide – act as a thermal blanket for the Earth, absorbing heat and warming the surface to a life-supporting average of59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius). Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include:Water vapor. The most abundant greenhouse gas, but importantly, it acts as a feedback to the climate. Water vapor increasesas the Earths atmosphere warms, but so does the possibility of clouds and precipitation, making these some of the mostimportant feedback mechanisms to the greenhouse effect.Carbon dioxide (CO2). A minor but very important component of the atmosphere, carbon dioxide is released through naturalprocesses such as respiration and volcano eruptions and through human activities such as deforestation, land use changes,and burning fossil fuels. Humans have increased atmospheric CO2 concentration by a third since the Industrial Revolutionbegan. This is the most important long-lived "forcing" of climate change.Methane. A hydrocarbon gas produced both through natural sources and human activities, including the decomposition ofwastes in landfills, agriculture, and especially rice cultivation, as well as ruminant digestion and manure managementassociated with domestic livestock. On a molecule-for-molecule basis, methane is a far more active greenhouse gas thancarbon dioxide, but also one which is much less abundant in the atmosphere.Nitrous oxide. A powerful greenhouse gas produced by soil cultivation practices, especially the use of commercial and organicfertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and biomass burning.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Synthetic compounds of entirely of industrial origin used in a number of applications, but nowlargely regulated in production and release to the atmosphere by international agreement for their ability to contribute todestruction of the ozone layer. Not enough greenhouse effect: The planet Mars has a very thin atmosphere, nearly all carbon dioxide. Because of the low atmospheric pressure, and with little to no methane or water vapor to reinforce the weak greenhouse effect, Mars has a largely frozen surface that shows no evidence of life. Too much greenhouse effect: The atmosphere of Venus, like Mars, is nearly all carbon dioxide. But Venus has about 300 times as much carbon dioxide in its atmosphere as Earth and Mars do, producing a runaway greenhouse effect and a surface temperature hot enough to melt lead.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL EFFECTSThe potential future effects of global climate change include more frequent wildfires, longer periods of drought in someregions and an increase in the number, duration and intensity of tropical storms.Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakesis breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner. Effects that scientists hadpredicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occuring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise andlonger, more intense heat waves. Below are some of the regional impacts of global change forecast by the IPCC: North America: Decreasing snowpack in the western mountains; 5-20 percent increase in yields of rain-fed agriculture in some regions; increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in cities that currently experience them. Latin America: Gradual replacement of tropical forest by savannah in eastern Amazonia; risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction in many tropical areas; significant changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation Europe: Increased risk of inland flash floods; more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion from storms and sea level rise; glacial retreat in mountainous areas; reduced snow cover and winter tourism; extensive species losses; reductions of crop productivity in southern Europe. Africa: By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress; yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 percent in some regions by 2020; agricultural production, including access to food, may be severely compromised. Asia: Freshwater availability projected to decrease in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia by the 2050s; coastal areas will be at risk due to increased flooding; death rate from disease associated with floods and droughts expected to rise in some regions.
  • The World currently relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensiveor too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, the many types of renewable energyresources-such as wind or biomass and solar energy-are constantly replenished and will never runout.We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"—the energy from plants and plant-derived materialssince people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomassenergy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used.These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-richalgae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills(which are methane, a natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source.Biomass is a substantial renewable resource that can be used as a fuel for producing electricity andother forms of energy. Biomass feedstock, or energy sources, are any organic matter available on arenewable basis for conversion to energy. Agricultural crops and residues, industrial wood and loggingresidues, farm animal wastes, and the organic portion of municipal waste are all biomass feedstock.Biomass fuels, also known as biofuels, may be solid, liquid, or gas and are derived from biomassfeedstock. Biofuel technologies can efficiently transform the energy in biomass into transportation,heating, and electricity generating fuels.Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. Biomass used in todays power plants includeswood residues, agricultural/farm residues, food processing residues (such as nut shells), and methanegas from landfills. In the future, farms cultivating energy crops, such as trees and grasses, couldsignificantly expand the supply of biomass feedstock.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - BIOMASS Biomass can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would otherwise be made from fossil fuels. In such scenarios, biomass can provide an array of benefits. For example: •The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Burning biomass releases about the same amount of carbon dioxide as burning fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years ago— an essentially "new" greenhouse gas. Biomass, on the other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured in its own growth (depending how much energy was used to grow, harvest, and process the fuel). •The use of biomass can reduce dependence on foreign oil because biofuels are the only renewable liquid transportation fuels available. •Biomass energy supports agricultural and forest-product industries. The main biomass feedstocks for power are paper mill residue, lumber mill scrap, and municipal waste. For biomass fuels, the most common feedstocks used today are corn grain (for ethanol) and soybeans (for biodiesel). In the near future—and with developed technology—agricultural residues such as corn stover (the stalks, leaves, and husks of the plant) and wheat straw will also be used. Long-term plans include growing and using dedicated energy crops, such as fast-growing trees and grasses, and algae. These feedstocks can grow sustainably on land that will not support intensive food crops. Use of biofuels can reduce dependence on out-of-state and foreign energy sources. Biomass energy crops can be a profitable alternative for farmers, which will complement, not compete with, existing crops and provide an additional source of income for the agricultural industry. Biomass energy crops may be grown on currently underutilized agricultural land. In addition to rural jobs, expanded biomass power deployment can create high skill, high value job opportunities for utility, power equipment, and agricultural equipment industries. •Biofuels — Converting biomass into liquid fuels for transportation •Biopower — Burning biomass directly, or converting it into gaseous or liquid fuels that burn more efficiently, to generate electricity •Bioproducts — Converting biomass into chemicals for making plastics and other products that typically are made from petroleum
  • Environmental Benefits•Biomass fuels produce virtually no sulfur emissions, and help mitigate acid rain.•Biomass fuels "recycle" atmospheric carbon, minimizing global warming impacts since zero "net"carbon dioxide is emitted during biomass combustion, i.e. the amount of carbon dioxide emitted isequal to the amount absorbed from the atmosphere during the biomass growth phase.•The recycling of biomass wastes mitigates the need to create new landfills and extends the life ofexisting landfills.•Biomass combustion produces less ash than coal, and reduces ash disposal costs and landfill spacerequirements.The biomass ash can also be used as a soil amendment in farm land.•Perennial energy crops (grasses and trees) have distinctly lower environmental impacts thanconventional farm crops.Energy crops require less fertilization and herbicides and provide greater vegetative cover throughoutthe year, providing protection against soil erosion and watershed quality deterioration, as well asimproved wildlife cover.•Landfill gas-to-energy projects turn methane emissions from landfills into useful energy.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY – SOLAR.Solar is the Latin word for sun—a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes andbusinesses. Thats because more energy from the sun falls on the earth in one hour than is used by everyone in the world inone year. A variety of technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings.The most commonly used solar technologies for homes and businesses are solar water heating, passive solar design forspace heating and cooling, and solar photovoltaics for electricity.Businesses and industry also use these technologies to diversify their energy sources, improve efficiency, and save money.Solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies are also being used by developers and utilities to produceelectricity on a massive scale to power cities and small towns.Concentrating Solar Power . These technologies harness heat from the sun to provide electricity for large power stations.Passive Solar Technology . These technologies harness heat from the sun to warm our homes and businesses in winter.Solar Photovoltaic Technology. These technologies convert sunlight directly into electricity to power homes and businesses.Solar Water Heating. These technologies harness heat from the sun to provide hot water for homes and businesses.Solar Process Heat. These technologies use solar energy to heat or cool commercial and industrial buildings.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - WIND.Wind Energy Basics. We have been harnessing the winds energy for hundreds of years. From old Holland to farms in theUnited States, windmills have been used for pumping water or grinding grain.Today, the windmills modern equivalent—a wind turbine—can use the winds energy to generate electricityWind turbines can be used as stand-alone applications, or they can be connected to a utility power grid or even combinedwith a photovoltaic (solar cell) system. For utility-scale (megawatt-sized) sources of wind energy, a large number of windturbines are usually built close together to form a wind plant. Several electricity providers today use wind plants to supplypower to their customers.Stand-alone wind turbines are typically used for water pumping or communications. However, homeowners, farmers, andranchers in windy areas can also use wind turbines as a way to cut their electric bills.Small wind systems also have potential as distributed energy resources. Distributed energy resources refer to a variety ofsmall, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined to improve the operation of the electricity deliverysystem
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL
  • Brazil holds the greatest biological diversity on the planet, which includes the Amazon – one of thebiggest tropical forests in the world and the biggest water spring on Earth.According to Unesco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).In 2010, the International Year of Biodiversity, Brazil marked its presence at COP10 (United NationsConvention on Biological Diversity), held in Nagoya, Japan).The meeting sought a consensus to significantly diminish the loss of biodiversity on the planet in thenext decades and established new ecosystem protection agreements and a genetic resourcesprotocol.Public forests included in the CNFP (National Roll of Public Forests) until 2010 290 million hectaresof registered public forests, were included in the National Roll of Public Forests -an addition of 21.38% in comparison to the 2009.Greenhouse effect gas emissions reduction target. Reduce emissions between 36.1% and 38.9% until2020, based on 2010 levels (between 1.17-1.26 GtCO2eq until 2020).Brazil has a long time tradition in the use of renewable energy. A look at the primary energy supplyshows that in 2002, 41% was renewable energy with hydropower contributing with 14% and biomasswith 27%. The hydropower plants amount to 65 GW of the 82 GW of total installed capacity.At the COP15 last year, the country pledged to reduce about 37% of its carbon emissions by 2020.Until now, the hydropower sector has been the most developed renewable energy sector in Brazil with85% of the total electricity generation and almost 14% of the total primary energy supply..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - WHY BRAZILThe development model adopted by the Brazilian in the last years was to invest in public policies that increased productiveefficiency, diminished external vulnerability and stimulated the investment rate and savings as a fraction of GDP. By the endof 2010 the result of this policy was a consistent and stable economy.The adopted measures allowed for constant, sustainable growth with generation of formal employment, better incomedistribution and capacity to absorb external and internal shocks.The surplus in the agribusiness balance of trade in 2010 was a record, reaching US$ 63 billion – that is, US$ 8.1 billion abovewhat was registered in 2009. This was three times higher than the US$ 20 billion registered in Brazil‘s global trade surplus inthe same period. The country‘s most exported items are soy, coffee and sugar.The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply‘s forecast is that in the next 15 years there will be an increase of 30 millioncultivated hectares in the country, made available by former pasture areas, due to the technological development of beef andmilk cattle livestock. Brazil is the largest economic power in Latin America and the 10th largest country in the world. Over the last decade Brazil‘s agribusiness and domestic production has increased 47% and 32.3%, respectively, and the economy as a whole grew 5.4% in 2007. Record prices in the country‘s key commodities such as orange juice and soybeans, in addition to direct foreign investment upwards of $37 billion in 2007 have been key drivers of the Brazilian economy. Brazil is the world‘s largest exporter of ethanol and the largest producer of sugar cane. However, new oil discoveries will also launch Brazil into the world oil stage. Another discovery, known as the Carioca-Sugar Loaf, could be as large as 33 billion barrels according to Brazil‘s National Petroleum Agency. Power generation. Oil Production in 2010 2.18 million barrels per day Electricity in 2010 Total Consumption of 505,684 GWh. Natural gas in 2010 69 million cubic meters per day Pre-salt 65.2 thousand bbl/d and 2.312 million m³/d of natural gas Biodiesel in 2010 2.4 billion liters Ethanol in 2010 27.9 billion liters Power Plants Hydroelectric - 887 Gas - 129 Biomass - 389 Petroleum - 866 Nuclear - 2 Coal - 9 Wind - 50 Solar – 4
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL.Brazil currently holds 65 percent of the installed potential for wind power generation in Latin America. The country currentlymaintains 45 wind farms, totaling 794 MW of power, or just 0.7 percent of the Brazilian energy supply mix.This energy can supply about 600,000 households or a city with 3 million inhabitants. In summer 2010, Alstom has signed itsfirst contract in the Brazilian wind market with the renewable power generating company Desenvix. The project called―Brotas,‖ located in Bahia, will be a complex of three wind farms with a total capacity of 90MW.In 2009, around 5 million m² of solar panels were installed in Brazil according to data from IEA. The new installed area isincreasing each year, for instance, with an increase of almost 20% between 2008 and 2009. In 2009, approximately 2% ofBrazilian households used solar panels to heat water, so 27.11m²/1000 inhabitants.Following the ambitious ―National plan on Climate Change Ministry of Environment,‖ the objective of the government is totriple the area of solar panels by 2015.Geothermal currently has very few tapped wells in Brazil, knowing that only 1,840 GWh was produced in geothermalapplications.Wave energy. The port of Pecém in Ceará, 60 kilometers from Fortaleza, will be the first spot on the Brazilian coast to housea pilot plant for generating electricity from the waves of the sea. When it is completed, on a commercial scale, it will becapable of generating 500 kilowatts (kW) to start with. .Nuclear. Brazil has only 2 nuclear reactors called Angra 1 and Angra 2, which total 1900 MW of installed capacity, providing2% of the total electricity in 2007. Another reactor is now under construction with an rating capacity of 1270 MW.Brazil Investing in Renewables Not Fossil Fuels How is Brazil going to hit its targets? With strong investment in newrenewable energy technologies, not continued investment in fossil fuels.Heres how investment is scheduled to break down: R$70 billion ($44.5 billion) for renewable energy sources. R$96 billion($60.7 billion) for large-hydro plants. R$25 billion ($15.8 billion) for fossil projects.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL Hydropower. The map below presents hydropower potential of Brazil with the darker regions holding the most significant potential. The two main regions for hydropower exploitation are the North West in the Amazon region and the other is in the South East where the Itaipu dam is located. In the darker regions, the hydropower potential is estimated to be between 15GW and 20GW whereas the potential in the light-colored regions are between 0 and 1000MW.Small Hydropower Potential of BrazilBrazil also has a small hydropower potential of 258 MW, which it is currently tapped at only 28%. Due to the forest preservation anddifficult access, the northern part of the country remains the least tapped region for small hydropower with only 9% of the potentialexploited. Nonetheless, in isolated villages and with difficult access to the national grid, small hydropower through simple domesticapplications would be very promising to develop..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL Solar. Brazil is located in a region on Earth where solar radiation is one of the highest in the world, especially in the north of the country. Figure shows the global solar radiation of Brazil (Wh/m²). The warmest colors, orange, red and yellow, indicates the regions where the radiation is the most important. With an average of 6000 Wh/m², the Amazon is the sunniest region of Brazil, but it is also the worst location for ecological and economical reasons for the energy to be tapped there. Wind power. The map, created by the Brazilian Center of Wind Power Energy, depicts the wind profile of Brazil. This potential is highly concentrated on the coast, especially in the northeast of the country. The easterly breezes in northern Brazil are among the most consistent weather patterns in the world, according to the American Meteorological Society. They allow for the deployment of cheaper, lighter turbines, instead of the more rugged ones designed for unexpected gusts. Wind conditions are amazing in Brazil, far better than what is available in the U.S. and Europe..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BRAZIL The global challenge of climate change grows bigger every day. In the meantime, there is scientific evidence that generating and using energy in the cleanest, most efficient way is a matter of survival. Renewable energy sources will need to play a major part in Brazil‘s future energy mix. Investing in clean energy also includes upgrading the old inefficient and greenhouse gas emitting power plants and increasing energy efficiency on all levels. In addition, the role, that cities have – some of the largest energy consumers – will need to change and transform into sustainable models of urbanization. In future, the urban design of cities must enable people to thrive in harmony with nature and achieve sustainable development. Cities, towns and villages should be designed to enhance the health and quality of life of their inhabitants and maintain the ecosystems on which on they depend. The 2011 Signatories of this Declaration recognize that the development of a sustainable Brazil requires a focus and increased initiatives in the following 9 areas, which need to be embedded in short-term and long-term strategies . 1. Renewable energy Energy generation will need to transform towards a significant increase in the use of renewable energy sources, particular biomass or bioenergy and solar PV, solar thermal, and wind. We need to design cities for energy conservation, renewable energy uses and the reduction, re-use and recycling of materials. Based on the plentiful biomass residue, Brazil has the potential to show real leadership in renewable energy technology, securing energy independence with locally generated, decentralized, and distributed energy generation. 2. Water and waste Sustainable treatment and recycling of water, and all forms of waste. Storm and rainwater harvesting and better urban water management are necessary. Waste-to-energy strategies and more facilities for the sustainable handling of industrial and waste are necessary, including recycling and composting of organic waste. 3. Materials and short supply chains There is a need to emphasize materials re-use, life-cycle, and embodied energy. Technological innovation for prefabricated modular construction systems need to be explored by the architects and the entire building sector (this will help to ensure housing affordability). Food supply using community gardens, and short supply chains, need to be fully considered. 4. Sustainable urban form for growth Establishing growth boundaries for cities will stop sprawl and keep the cities compact. Integration of open green spaces for pedestrians and cyclists, such as parks, gardens, and a high quality of public space networks, to maximize biodiversity and maximize accessibility of the city for all citizens while conserving energy and resources and alleviating such problems as heat island effects and global warming. A better relationship between Brazilian Cities, their urban centres and the countryside/regions needs to be achieved. Stop building in agricultural land; intensification of the use of innercity roof tops.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BRAZIL5. Ecological awareness and educationProviding adequate, accessible education and training programs, for capacity building and local skills development, toincrease community participation and awareness of best practice in urban design and management. Supporting innovation,research, and programs at schools. Incubators need to be established for the application of ideas and roll-out of concepts forsustainable development. Encourage and initiate international and community-to-community cooperation to shareexperiences, lessons and resources (learning from others-principle). The role of the Brazilian universities as leaders anddevelopers of new knowledge is crucial.6. Public transport and the pedestrian friendly cityWe need a strong focus on public transport, to reduce the dependency on the automobile, to build cities for people.Furthermore, minimizing the loss of rural land by all effective measures, including regional urban and peri-urban ecologicalplanning. To build cities for safe pedestrian and non-motorized transport use includes investment in efficient, convenient andlow-cost public transportation (green, emission-free buses), and cycle paths.7. Legal framework, legislation and governanceProvide strong economic incentives and offer subsidies to businesses and the entire private sector for investment insustainability (which will also create green jobs). Tax all activities that work against ecologically healthy development,including those that produce greenhouse gases and other emissions (polluter pays-principle). Introducing policies that enablesolar power, wind, biomass and bioenergy adoption; updating the building code and set targets for energy and waterreduction. A strong position for a Brazilian Green Building Council will help to raise the quality of architectural and planningoutcomes (with a focus on passive building principles).8. Better coordination Creation of a government agency that will coordinate and monitor functions such as transportation, energy, water and landuse in holistic planning and management, and facilitate sustainable projects and master planning. Build demonstrationprojects: In policy at all levels of government and in the decision making bodies of all institutions – universities, businesses,nongovernmental organization, professional associations and so on – address in the plans and actions of those institutionsinstitutions‘ physical design and layout relative to its local community to address climate change effectively.9. City character and social sustainabilityThe protection of heritage and the unique character of the Brazilian cities and countryside are important. The adaptive reuseof existing older structures and a focus on urban revitalization projects are to be enforced. The vibrant city is a city of mixed-use, where people live close to work, therefore do not need to commute, allowing more time for family activities.Signatories:Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable EnergyThis Declaration was signed on the 15th of September 2011 by 40 organizations, which participated in the SustainableBrazilian and support the outlined strategies.
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POWER ENERGY
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POTENTIAL WORLD Biomass features strongly in virtually all the major global energy supply scenarios, as biomass resources are potentially the world largest and most sustainable energy source. Biomass is potentially an infinitely renewable resource comprising 220 oven dry tonnes (odt), or about 4500 exajoules (EJ), of annual primary production; the annual bioenergy potential is about 2900 EJ (approximately 1700 EJ from forests, 850 EJ from grasslands and 350 EJ from agricultural areas). In theory, at least, energy farming in current agricultural land alone could contribute over 800 EJ without affecting the world‘s food supply. There are large variations between the many attempts to quantify the potential for bioenergy. This is due to the complex nature of biomass production and use, including such factors as the difficulties in estimating resource availability, long-term sustainable productivity and the economics of production and use, given the large range of conversion technologies, as well as ecological, social, cultural and environmental considerations.Estimating biomass energy use is also problematic due to the range of biomass energy end-uses and supply chains and thecompeting uses of biomass resources.There is also considerable uncertainty surrounding estimates of the potential role of dedicated energy forestry/crops in Brazil,since the traditional sources of biomass they could replace, such as residues from agriculture, forestry and other sourceshave a much lower and varied energy value.Furthermore, the availability of energy sources, including biomass, varies greatly according to the level of socio-economicdevelopment. All these factors make it very difficult to extrapolate bioenergy potential, particularly at a Brazil scale. All majorenergy scenarios include bioenergy as a major energy source in the future. For the reasons given above, there are very largedifferences in these estimates, so these figures should be considered only as estimates.Are based on estimates of future energy needs and the determination of the related primary energy mix, including biomassenergy share, based on resource, cost and environmental constraints. In order to achieve realistic scenarios for biomassenergy use and its role in satisfying future energy demand and environmental constraints.Globally, about 50 per cent of the potentially available residues are associated with the forestry and wood processingindustries; about 40 per cent are agricultural residues (e.g. straw, sugarcane residues, rice husks and cotton residues) andabout 10 per cent animal manure. An important strategic element in developing a biomass energy industry Brazil is the needto address the introduction of suitable crops, logistics and conversion technologies. This may involve a transition over time tomore efficient crops and conversion technologies.
  • Thus, the fundamental problem is not availability of biomass resources but the sustainablemanagement and the competitive and affordable delivery of modern energy services. This implies thatall aspects both production and use of bioenergy must be modernized and, most importantly,maintained on a sustainable and long-term basis.Biomass fuels also have an increasingly important role to play in the welfare of the globalenvironment. Using modern energy conversion technologies it is possible to displace fossil fuels withan equivalent biofuel.When biomass is grown sustainably for energy there is no net build-up of CO2, assuming that theamount grown is equal to that burned, as the CO2 released in combustion is compensated for by thatabsorbed by the growing energy crop.The sustainable production of biomass is therefore an important practical approach to environmentalprotection and longer-term issues such as reforestation and revegetation of degraded lands and inmitigating global warming.Bioenergy can play a significant role both as a modern energy source and in abating pollution. Indeed,a combination of environmental considerations, social factors, the need to find new alternative sourcesof energy, political necessities and rapidly evolving technologies are opening up new opportunities formeeting the energy needs from bioenergy in an increasingly environment-conscious world.This is reflected in the current worldwide interest in Renewable Energy in general and bioenergy inparticular. Concerns with climate change and environment are playing a significant role in promotionbiomass and bioenergy, although there is still considerable uncertainty as to what the ultimate effectswill be.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZILTRADITIONAL AND MODERN USES BIOMASS The FAO classifies bioenergy into three main groups: woodfuels or agro-fuels, and urban waste-based fuels. Biomass can also be classified as: traditional bioenergy (firewood, charcoal, residues), and modern biomass (associated with industrial wood residues, energy plantations, use of bagasse, etc.). Traditional uses of biomass in its ‗raw‘ form are often very inefficient, wasting much of the energy available, and are also often associated with significant negative environmental impacts. Modern applications are rapidly replacing traditional uses, particularly in the industrialized countries. Changes are also occurring in many developing countries, although very unevenly. However, in absolute terms the use of traditional bioenergy continues to grow due to rapid population increases in many developing countries, increasing demand for energy and a lack of accessible or affordable alternative energy sources. Modern applications require capital, skills, technology, market structure and a certain level of development. Traditional uses of biomass have been estimated at between 900 Mtoe to 1500 Mtoe, depending on the source. These are rough estimates since, as already mentioned, traditional uses are at the core of the informal economy and never enter the official statistics. Modern applications. As was clearly reflected in the Bonn Conference, which was attended by representatives from 154 countries, concerted support for Renewable Energy is leading to a rapid, albeit varying, increase in modern applications of bioenergy around the world. The modernization of biomass embraces a range of technologies that include combustion, gasification and pyrolysis for: household applications, e.g. improved cooking stoves, use of biogas, ethanol; small cottage industrial applications, e.g. brick-making, bakeries, ceramics, tobacco curing, and large industrial applications, e.g. CHP, electricity generation.Technology options. Many studies have demonstrated that just minor technology improvements could increase the efficiencyof biomass energy production and use significantly, maintain high productivity of biomass plantations on a sustainable basisand mitigate environmental and health problems associated with biomass production and use.Combustion technologies produce about 90 per cent of the energy from biomass, converting biomass fuels into several formsof useful energy, e.g. hot air, hot water, steam and electricity. Commercial and industrial combustion plants can burn manytypes of biomass ranging from woody biomass to MSW. The simplest combustion technology is a furnace that burns thebiomass in a combustion chamber. Biomass combustion facilities that generate electricity from steam-driven turbinegenerators have a conversion efficiency of between 17 and 25 per cent.Cogeneration can increase this efficiency to almost 85 per cent. Large-scale combustion systems use mostly low-qualityfuels, while high-quality fuels are more frequently used in small application systems.
  • The main advantages of co-firing include:• existence of an established market particularly for CHP• relatively smaller investment compared to a biomass only plant (i.e. minor modification in existingcoal-fired boiler)• high flexibility in arranging and integrating the main components into existing plants (i.e. use ofexisting plant capacity and infrastructure)• favourable environmental impacts compared to coal-only plants• potentially lower local feedstock costs (i.e. use of agro-forestry residues and energy crops, if present,productivity can increase significantly)• potential availability of large amounts of feedstock (biomass/waste) that can be used in co-firingapplications, if supply logistics can be solved• higher efficiency for converting biomass to electricity compared to 100 per cent wood-fired boilers(for example, biomass combustion efficiency to electricity would be close to 33–37 per cent when firedwith coal)• planning consent is not required in most cases.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS COFIRING AND GASIFICATION Co-firing is potentially a major option for the utilization of biomass, if some of the technical, social and supply problems can be overcome. Co-firing of biomass with fossil fuels, primarily coal or lignite, has received much attention particularly in Denmark, the Netherlands and the United States. For example, in the United States tests have been carried out on over 40 commercial plants and it has been demonstrated that co- firing of biomass with coal has the technical and economic potential to replace at least 10 GW of coal-based generation capacity by 2012 and as much as 26 GW by 2020, which could reduce carbon emissions by 16–24 MtC (Millions tonnes Carbon). Since large-scale power boilers range from 100 MW to 1.3 GW, the biomass potential in a single boiler ranges from 15 to 150 MW. Biomass and Woodpellets can be blended with coal in differing proportions, ranging from 2 to 25 per cent or more. Extensive tests show that biomass energy could provide, on average, about 15 per cent of the total energy input with modifications only to the feed intake systems and the burner. Gasification is one of the most important research, development and demonstration (RD&D) areas in biomass for power generation, as it is the main alternative to direct combustion. Gasification is an endothermal conversion technology in which a solid fuel is converted into a combustible gas. The importance of this technology lies in the fact that it can take advantage of advanced turbine designs and heat-recovery steam generators to achieve high energy efficiency. The main attractions of gasification are: higher electrical efficiency (e.g. 40 per cent or more compared with combustion 26–30 per cent), while costs may be very similar; important developments on the horizon, such as advanced gas turbines and fuel cells; possible replacement of natural gas or diesel fuel used in industrial boilers and furnaces; distributed power generation where power demand is low AND displacement of gasoline or diesel in an internal combustion (IC) engine.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS CLASSIFICATION Biomass classification. There are many ways of classifying biomass, but generally it can be divided into woody biomass and non-woody biomass, including herbaceous crops. The system adopted in this e-book divides biomass types into eight categories. This is attractive because it allows similar methods of assessment and measurement for each type of biomass. You may be inclined to use a more refined classification system, but whatever method you select, make sure that it is clearly specified. 1 Natural forests/woodlands. These include all biomass in high standing, closed natural forests and woodlands. This category will also include forest residues. 2 Forest Energetic plantations. These plantations include both commercial plantations (pulp and paper, furniture) and energy plantations (trees dedicated to producing energy such as charcoal, and other energy uses). The total contribution of bioenergy in the future will be strongly linked to the potential of ‗energy forestry/crops plantations‘ since the potential of residues is more limited. 3 Agro-industrial plantations. These are forest plantations specifically designed to produce agro- industrial raw materials, with wood collected as a byproduct. 4 Trees outside forests and woodlands. These consist of trees grown outside forest or woodland, including bush trees, urban trees, roadside trees and on-farm trees. Trees outside forests have a major role as sources of fruits, firewood, etc., and their importance should not be underestimated.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS CLASSIFICATION 5 Agricultural crops. These are crops grown specifically for food, fodder, fibre or energy production. Distinctions can be made between intensive, larger-scale farming, for which production figures may show up in the national statistics, and rural family farms, cultivated pasture and natural pasture. 6 Crop residues. These include crop and plant residues produced in the field. Fuel switching can result in major changes in how people use biomass energy resources. 7 Processed residues. These include residues resulting from the agro-industrial conversion or processing of crops (including tree crops), such as sawdust, sawmill off-cuts, bagasse, nutshells and grain husks. These are very important sources of biomass fuels and should be properly assessed.8 Animal wastes. These comprise waste from both intensive and extensive animal husbandry. When considering the supplyof biomass, it is also important to ascertain the amount that is actually accessible for fuel, not the total amount produced.
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POTENTIAL BRAZIL FOREST
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POTENTIAL BRAZILTable shows that the energy potentially available from crop, agriculture and agroindustry, forestry residues in Brazil is about12-14 EJ. However, there is considerable variation in the estimates, which vary from around 0.5 to 1.2 Gt/yr for agricultureand 100–200 Mt/yr for forestry residues, and thus should be regarded as rough indications only. Product Production Total Residue Brazil 2010 Brazil 2010 (mill tonn) SugarCane 501.231.000 290.713,980 (Bagasse, Waste and Staw) Wood 205.010.012 m³ 157.992.556 m³(Wood Residue and Waste m³) Soya – Grains 68.479.967 95.871.950 (Straw and Waste) Corn - Grains 56.059.638 79.604.685 (Straw, Cob and Waste) Banana 7 072 076 29.136.953 (Leaf and Banana Stalks) Cassava 26.078.596 17.237.951 Rama (95%) Rice- Grains 11.325.672 16.875.250 (Bark and Straw ) Beans 3.223.074 11.828.681 (Straw and Waste) Herbaceous Cotton 2.931.295 8.647.319 (Pell, Waste and Seed) Wheat 5.960.523 8.344.732 (Straw and Waste) Orange 19 094 786 3.628.009 (Bran Orange Bagasse) Coconut 1.991.957 1.195.174 (Bark and Waste) Pineapple 1 448 875 869.325 (Meat and Waste) Coffee 2.862.013 801.363 (Bark and Waste) Sorghum 3900 794.176 (Grain and Waste)
  • Forest Industrial Production Waste and Wood and Forest and Consumption 2009 Logs Forest Plywood Industrial Wastes of Logs (m³) and Firewood Residue Production (m³) (m³) (m³) (%) Forest 205.010.012 5,29% 10.845.029 Logs 70.200.000 42.163.000 28.037.000 MDF 16.600.000 7.215.000 9.385.000PlywoodSawdust 122.159.595 22,00% 26.875.110 75.142.139Firewood 82.850.417 Total Forest 10.845.029 Residue (m³) Residue Industrial (m³) 64.297.110 Firewood (m³) 82.850.417 Total (m³) 157.992.556We have a potential of 157,992,556 cubic meters of forest residues. Incomparison (TJ) for thermal power generation 1,244,253 TJ have enough tomeet all domestic demand for energy. If we were to compare the use of non-renewable sources, avoiding theconsumption of coal and 56,877,331 m³ produce 71.096.664 ton of pellets orbiomass and would prevent the issuance of 189,591,060 tons of CO2.
  • According to the Brazilian Forestry Inventory small pieces of wood, including tree bark, are the majorwaste obtained from the forestry industry, corresponding to 71% of the total waste. Sawdust issecond, accounting for 22%.Furthermore, major wood loss occurs during the wood processing in the furniture sector. In somecases, up to 80% of a tree is lost between the tree being cut in the forest and the furnituremanufacturing.In Brazil, short-rotation woody crops such as round wood (Eucalyptus and Pinus) yielded 55 milliontons (dry matter). Their potential production is estimated at 81.4million tons (dry matter) yr-1 on aplanted area of 6.51 million ha with an average mean annual increment from 13 to 14.7 t (dry matter)ha-1 yr-1.Furthermore, 50.9 million tons (dry matter) of woody biomass from native forests was produced in2010, of which 15.1 million tons (dry matter) were of saw logs, 30.3 million tons (dry matter) offirewood and 5.5 million tons (dry matter) of wood for charcoal.There are no estimates of potential production. Current production of forest residues in Brazil isestimated to be 55.6 million tons (dry matter) yr-1, of which 59% is field residue and 41% is industrialwaste.Plantations and native forests contribute 51 and 49%, respectively. Potential production is 72.8 milliontons (dry matter) yr-1, of which 63 and 37% is from plantations and native forests, respectively.Forestry wastes obtained from the correct handling of the reforesting projects may increase the futureforest energetic productivity. The energetic potential of the forestry waste in the world was estimatedto be 35 EJ/year (10 GW).
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL FOREST WASTES AND BIOMASS BRAZIL Forestry wastes correspond to the parts of trees not profited for cellulose production, such as tips and branches, which contribute to soil fertility upon degradation. These wastes are by nature heterogeneous in size, composition and structure. Harvest costs for residues, which constitute about percent of total costs, could disappear entirely as new log harvesting methods will pile or bundle the residues at the same time as the logs are harvested, according to industry experts. Forwarding costs (20 percent of total) could fall by some 20 percent, mainly through improved bundling of residues and the use of specialized forwarders that can carry more. Today‘s forwarders are made for logs, not residues. Much of the waste is obtained from the plants for wood processing, cellulose and paper. In Brazil, the amount of waste from the cellulose and paper industry with no energy profit is estimated at 5 M tons. A large part of the wastes remains in the field, such as the branches and rest of the trunk, after the tree is cut.Residues from milling operations have been traditionally disposed in low technology incinerators, such as beehive burners, apractice being rapidly curtailed because of their air emissions. Part of the electric energy produced from biomass in Brazilcomes from wood waste, and the wood industry is not self-sufficient. Indeed, the current maximum potential is estimated at894 MW for wood waste.Supposing that only 50% of this potential could be profited due to economic features and transport difficulties, only 500 MWcould actually be used. Besides energy generation, the potential uses of this waste include the production of small woodobjects, furniture, and sheets. In addition, forestry waste may potentially be used for the production of bioethanol from itspolysaccharide parts. Forestry residues (with firewood and m³ x ton) 205.010.012 Residue (m³) 157.992.556 Dry Matter (ton) 50.900.000
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL FOREST EUCALYPTUS BRAZILThe area planted with this genus totaled 4,754,334 ha, of which 55.8% were concentrated in the Southeast. Statewise, MinasGerais, São Paulo, Bahia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Espírito Santo and Paraná held 86.1% of the plantationswith the genus Eucalyptus.The current levels of land prices in consolidated markets (Sao Paulo, Parana and Santa Catarina) are encouraging themigration of forestry activity to areas called ―new forest frontiers‖, where one observes the increase of Eucalyptus, as withstates of Maranhao, Piaui, Tocantins and Pará. It should be noted that the investments of large producers of pulp and woodenpanels are the largest contributors to the financing of these new plantings. This is corroborated by the growth of the area ofEucalyptus, between 2009 and 2010 in Mato Grosso do Sul (30.0%) and Maranhão (10.2%).
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL FOREST PINUS BRAZILThe area planted with Pinus in Brazil (1,756,359 ha) is concentrated mainly in the south of the country (79.8%) due toedaphoclimatic conditions and the location of major processing centers of this type of wood.The state of Paraná is ranked first in Pinus planted area, with 31.9% of total national area, followed by Santa Catarina thatrepresents 31.1% of total area.The states that showed the largest absolute reductions in the area of Pinus were Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina andBahia, totaling a decrease of 24,664 ha.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL FOREST PLANTATIONS BRAZIL Acacia mearnsii and Acacia mangium are species from Australia, New Guinea and Indonesia. In Brazil, the genus is cultivated with the purpose of extracting tannin from the bark for tannery industries, as well as the use of its wood in the pulp, energy and wooden panels industries. In general, the area planted with the genus in Brazil has been declining since 2008. In 2010, the plantation area reached 127,600 ha, a figure 26.7% lower than in 2009. Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) is a species cultivated both in extractive areas and in commercial plantations, with the aim to produce natural rubber. The wood, when the production cycle of resin trees is complete, is intended mainly to industries in the energy sector and furniture. In 2010, the area planted with rubber tree in Brazil amounted to 159,500 ha, which is significantly higher than that reported in 2009. However, this increase was not due to an increase in plantings, but the updating of official statistics. Schizolobium amazonicum is popularly known as Paricá and its plantations are concentrated in Pará and Maranhão. The main use of Parica wood is the production of veneer and plywood. In 2010, the area planted with the species reached 85,470 ha, remaining virtually unchanged in relation to the previous year. Teak (Tectona grandis) is native of Indian and Asian tropical forests. In Brazil, it is planted on a commercial scale in the states of Mato Grosso, Amazonas, Pará and Acre. The wood is mainly used in shipbuilding, construction, furniture, floor and deck manufacturing. Compared to 2009, the area of forest plantations with teak in Brazil grew 0.3%, totaling 65,440 ha. Araucaria angustifolia is a species originating from southern and southeastern Brazil. The commercial plantations of Araucaria are concentrated in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina. The wood is high quality and designed for the manufacture of sawn and veneer and the furniture industry, with reduced use in the paper industry.It is noteworthy that Araucaria plantations have been decreasing over recent years, partly due to the preference of forestproducers for the use of fast growing species (Pinus and Eucalyptus) and mainly due to regulatory restrictions and legalrequirements to preserve the species. Compared to 2009, Araucaria plantations decreased by 920 ha (7.6%) in absolute terms.Populus (Populus spp.) is commercially used since 1990 in Brazil. This species is usually employed in the matches and furnitureindustries. The areas planted with species of this genus are found mainly in southern Brazil. In 2010, this group of speciesreached 4,220 ha, an increase of 4.7% compared to 2009. .
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL – PULP & PAPER Pulp & Paper. The Brazilian short fiber pulp production (Eucalyptus) emerged with the aim of standing as a local alternative to the product imported from Europe and the United States. However, this product became strong and leveraged by competitiveness much higher than other countries, its production scale increased by 5 times in the past 40 years. The results in the pulp & paper sector in 2010 pointed to significant advances in the consolidation of Brazil both in the foreign and in the domestic market, indicating that the sector overcame the international financial crisis of 2009, increasing production and recovering exports revenues. The national pulp production totaled 14.1 million tons in 2010, a growth of 4.5% compared to the previous year. The current production level places Brazil in 4th place in world ranking of pulp producers. In the same period, the domestic consumption reached 6.1 million tons, 9.1% higher than the record in 2009. Accumulated pulp exports in 2010 reached 8.8 million tons, a growth of 2.5% against the previous year. External sales totaled US$ 4.8 billion, an increase of 43.6% against 2009. Europe and China remain the two largest destinations for Brazilian production.According to Bracelpa, Brazilian companies produced 9.8 million tons paper in 2010. Of this total, nearly half related toprinting and writing paper, whereas paper production for packaging totaled 4.8 million tons. Paper exports in 2010 grew 3.3%,reaching 2.07 million tons, whereas domestic sales grew 5.0%, totaling 5.4 million tons. Latin American countries remained asthe most relevant paper market, increasing export values by 28.8%, and accounting for 56.0% of the overall value ofinternational sales. External sales totaled US$ 2.0 billion, an increase of 19.1% against 2009.Again according to Bracelpa, the performance in 2010 favors the beginning of a new expansion cycle in the sector, predictinginvestments of US$ 20 billion in the next ten years, aiming at forest base and pulp & paper production, growing domesticdemand and expanding, emerging markets. Prospects for 2011 point to the importance of two major constraints to thesegment development: exchange rate and growth pace in emerging markets (especially China).Pulp In Brazil there are around 220 companies operating in the paper and pulp segment. At the international level, the countryleads the production of short fiber pulp (Eucalyptus), being the 6th largest producer of pulp and the 11th largest papermanufacturer. For 10 years, the pulp industry has been growing at an average rate of 5.9% per year. In 2010, the pulpnational production added up to 14.1 million tons, representing a growth of 4.4% in relation to 2009. In the same period,internal consumption reached 6.1 million tons, 8.9% more than what was registered in 2009Paper The national paper production in Brazil in 2010, approximately 9.8 million tons, resumed the growth observed in thepre-crisis period by registering an increase of 5.4% in relation to 2009. Consumption surpassed 2009 figures by 9.5% addingup to 9.2 million tons, reflecting an improvement in the internal market and the resumption of imports by the Asian market.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL – METALLURGY AND CHARCOAL 2010 was marked by the recovery of the national economy. However, despite the strong Brazilian economic growth, some sectors such as the pig iron – largest charcoal consumer in the country – remained in crisis. Three actors definitely contributed with the continuity of the unfavorable economic situation in the sector, which began in the end of 2008. The first factor was the strong dependence of the external demand, hampered by the sharp reduction of purchases from large American and Asian consumers, who substituted the Brazilian pig iron with products from Russia and Ukraine. The second factor was the iron exports expansion that contributed with the reduction of domestic pig iron consumption, used in steel manufacturing.The third factor – that also affected (and continues affecting) all other national exporting sectors – was the strong realexchange valuation, that helped to reduce the internal compensation for the exported product. These combined factors,compromised the sector‘s recovery and delayed production resumption which, for these reasons, have not reached pre-crisislevels yet.As a result of the above mentioned factors, until the end of 2010 there was a high idleness rate in the charcoal pig ironproduction. In Brazil, the annual production was only 1/3 of the installed capacity and only 56.0% of the furnaces operated.In the Carajás (Maranhão-Pará) mining region, the largest national production, only 30% of the furnaces were operating andproduction reached 59.0% of installed capacity. In Minas Gerais, largest national producer, only half of the furnaces wereoperating and production reached 41.0% of its capacity.The independent national production, estimated by the Instituto Aço Brasil (IABr), was 5.8 million tons, 36% higher than thevolume produced in 2009 (4.3 million tons).Exports fell even further in 2010. Last year, 2.3 million tons (45.0% of the national production) were exported, a drop of 26.0%compared to 2009. The Carajás industrial region stood out as the main exporting region.The United States is still the largest buyer. China, the second largest importer, reduced their purchase of national pig iron by78.0%, acquiring only 261 thousand tons against 1.2 million in 2009.The continuous national metallurgy crisis is contributing with the resumption of discussions, started in the 1960‘s andresumed in the 1980‘s, around the adoption of measures that allow value addition to the national pig iron.One of the alternatives for the sector, especially for independent producers, is verticalization or integration in the production ofsteel and iron alloys.The national producers, due to an increased demand that started in December 2010, expect the sector – even though apartial one – to recover in 2011. Some metallurgy industries are reactivating their furnaces and resuming production to meetthe demands of the foreign market.According to AMS, the recovery of the pig iron sector reflected in the charcoal market, especially in the last two months of2010..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL - CHARCOALBrazil is the world‘s largest producer of charcoal. The main consumer sectors are the pig iron, steel and iron-alloy and to alesser extent, trade and domestic customers. Charcoal has many advantages compared to coal. It‘s renewable, less polluting (low ash content), virtually free of sulfur / phosphorus and the technology for its manufacturehas been largely consolidated in Brazil.For the forestry economy, the more relevant range of companies in the issue of charcoal consumption refers to independentproducers of pig iron, which are suppliers of raw material for the steel industry. In 2010, we produced 11.6 million cubicmeters of charcoal from planted forests, of which 66.2% were consumed by independent ―pig iron makers‖.Currently, approximately 55.0% of Brazilian production of charcoal is still from native forests. The trend is for the consumptionof native wood to steadily decrease throughout the years, being replaced with wood from planted forests, and due to thegreater control exercised by the inspection bodies and the increase of social pressures on natural resource preservation..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL - WOODEN PANELS Over the past 10 years (2000-2010), the annual wooden panel production grew from 2.7 million tons to 6.4 million tons, that is, an average growth of 8.2% per year, consolidating its participation in some consuming segments, especially the wooden furniture industry. Similarly, the consumption of panels also grew from 2.6 million tons in 2000 to 6.5 million in 2010 – an increment of 8.7% per year.In 2009, with the effects of the world financial crisis, various national products had dramatic reductions in consumed volume.In this context, the government granted to the automotive segment and white goods (competing furniture) tax incentives andexemption on industrial products (IPI). Initially, this measure led to a problematic setting for the wooden panels segment, oneof the main components in the national wooden furniture production.After the sector‘s claims and as an emergency measure, the Brazilian government extended the IPI exemption to the woodenfurniture and panel industry between the end of 2009 and beginning of 2010, and reduced the tax rate from 10% to 5% fromApril 2010.This fact, added to the high level of activity in the Brazilian economy and the remarkable domestic consumption in 2010,leveraged the national production of wooden panels by 10.5%. According to ABIPA, expectations towards the panel sector for2011 are related to the behavior of economic activities in the last months and the strong domestic consumption as they aredetermining indicators for future projection.Structural factors such as real increase in income, employment expansion, greater supply of credit, GDP growth and thefavorable environment in civil construction can further strengthen public policies in the housing sector, increasing the demandfor furniture and, consequently, industrialized wooden panel consumption.In addition, an increased nominal installed capacity is predicted for 2011 in view of the startup of new industrial units and lineexpansion of MDF, HDF and MDP operating units in the country.Industrial Reconstituted Panel. Over the past 10 years (2000-2010), annual production of reconstituted panels has grownfrom 2.7 million tons to 6.4 million, i.e. an average growth of 8.2% per year by consolidating its participation in certainconsumer segments, mainly furniture.Likewise, the consumption of reconstituted panels also increased from 2.6 million tons in 2000 to 6.5 million in 2010, anincrease of 8.7%..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL - PLYWOOD AND SAWNWOOD Plywood. The Brazilian market for plywood is composed of approximately 300 firms, mostly concentrated in the south of the country. This market is characterized by high operating costs and the high dependence on external markets. In 2010, plywood production exceeded 25.0% in production recorded in 2009, amounting to 2 million tons produced Sawn wood. It is estimated that there are approximately 600 sawmills for the sawing of wood plantations, which together produced in 2010, 9.0 million tons of lumber. Considering the period between 2000 and 2010, Brazilian production of sawmilling grew at an average annual rate of 1.7%. Despite the strong production growth of Eucalyptus, the sawmilling volume of this genus is still small. However, in the medium term, this trend is estimated to be reversed. During that same period, consumption of lumber has decreased 21.8% compared to the total consumption in 2009 , reaching a total of 6.1 million tons of sawn wood. Mechanically Processed Timber. Plywood, sawn wood, veneer and VAP (value-added products such as doors, windows, frames and furniture parts) are all products which are comprised in the mechanically processed timber segment. Since its early stages of development, the mechanically processed timber trade has focused primarily on foreign markets, featuring higher levels of growth and recognition in the end of the 90s, boosted by the strong construction sector in the USA at the time. In 2010, plywood and sawn timber exports were partially impaired due to the high valuation of the national currency and a worldwide price decrease. In the internal market, however, healthy construction sector played a major part in the trade‘s 14.1% growth. Among the factors that encouraged internal demand, we should highlight the manufactured goods tax reduction, which boosted the furniture trade, and the growth in the packaging trade and the construction sector..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL - ENERGY FORESTSThe ever-growing international search for renewable sources of energy has taken several nations to promote changes in thecomposition of their energy mix. In countries like Germany, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, production ofenergy from renewable sources has been encouraged by means of governmental subsidies. The European Union plans tohave 20% of its energy being produced from renewable resources by 2020.Brazil‘s potential and importance in the production of renewable energy are very expressive. Data from the BrazilianElectricity Regulatory Agency (ANEEL) in 2010 reveal that energy produced from renewable sources represents 73.1% of thenational energy mix. The consumption of electric power should raise 9.4% in 2011, following the country‘s economic growth.Projections for the 2012-2020 period indicate a demand average growth of 5.2% per year.Therefore, there is room and opportunities for energy produced from biomass, not only a low cost and low investment source,but also environmentally friendly and socially and economically adequate.Furthermore, there are companies in the state of São Paulo that have been adopting dense clonal Eucalyptus plantationslocated in Avaré by using a clone that was essential in the productivity of 190 m3/ha in two years. Other companies, whichperform the experimental planting of Eucalyptus clones in dense spacings aiming the production of biomass in rotations of 1to 4 years, focus their activities in the states of Goiás, São Paulo, Tocantins, Maranhão and Piauí.Advancements in research related to the definition of spacing, clones, nourishment and forest maintenance have alreadybeen obtained. In regards to the feasibility of harvesting dense forests, studies have been carried out by several institutions.In England, an experiment involving a head has been performed. It allows for the harvesting of willow with concomitantprocessing for the production of chips and may be adapted to different types of equipment, and that principle would beadopted in Brazil.However, the height reached by two year old Eucalyptus trees in Brazil makes this system unfeasible. It is believed that thismodel would only be viable in rotations below 12 months, although density and heating value studies should be conducted forthe biomass produced derived from these plantations. The best solution so far for harvesting dense plantations is the Feller-bunchers module and small Skidders and chippers.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL FOREST CERTIFICATIONForest certification, which can be obtained for the custody chain and for forest management, is a voluntary processdeveloped since 1980. In general, the system certifies, reliably and independently, that the timber used in a particularproduct comes from an environmentally friendly process, socially just, economically feasible and is economic, as well ascomplies with all applicable laws.Certification systems are certified by stamps issued by certifiers and periodically checked through audits. These systemsensure minimum performance standards among certifiers.To avoid a proliferation of stamps on the market that may confuse the consumer, in 1993 was created the first accreditationbody of certification (FSC – Forest Stewardship Council), which soon gained worldwide visibility. Some years later, newcertifiers began to emerge, but with a less comprehensive scope.Currently there are several forest certification systems, among which is the Canadian Standard Association (CSA),Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).The certification systems of greater relevance in Brazil are the FSC and CERFLOR – Brazilian Program of ForestCertification).Globally, considering the two main accreditation bodies (FSC and PEFC), the certified forest area grew 10.0% in 2010,totaling 357 million hectares. It is noteworthy that the greatest increase occurred in North America and RussiaIn Brazil, there were approximately 5.8 million hectares of certified forests in 2010. Of this total, 4.7 million hectares offorests were certified by the FSC and 1.1 million hectares of forests were certified by the PEFC.
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POTENTIAL BRAZIL SUGARCANE
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL SUGARCANE Originally from India, sugar cane was first introduced to Brazil as a monoculture crop in the 16th century. Sugar cane has retained a prominent place in Brazilian agriculture and Brazil is currently the biggest producer of sugar cane worldwide (around 30 per cent of the global harvest). It is also the world‘s biggest exporter of sugar and of ethanol (11 per cent of Brazilian agribusiness exports). Today demand for ethanol drives growth in this sector. Due to recent oil price increases and the use of flex-fuel cars (run on a mix of petrol and ethanol), domestic consumption and production of ethanol have increased. This has led to a 52 per cent increase in the area planted with sugar cane, from 5.38 million hectares in 2003 to 8.21 million hectares in 2008. This area is predicted to more than double again between 2003 and 2018. Ethanol exports have also increased to meet demand for biofuels. Sugar cane ethanol is seen as the most economical fossil fuel alternative. The Brazilian government has seen this as an export opportunity and wants ethanol to be recognised as an international commodity. One of the most-widely proclaimed advantages of ethanol is that it significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The Brazilian government knows that, to open foreign markets to ethanol, it must demonstrate that ethanol production does not lead to deforestation. In 2009, it introduced zones for sugar cane expansion, excluding two of Brazil‘s most biodiversity areas: the Amazon Rainforest and Pantanal. Ninety per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is grown in the southern central region, mainly in the south east. The biggest areas of expansion are currently in the midwest and south, close to the processing plants, the ports and main markets for ethanol. Sixty per cent of sugar cane production is concentrated in the state of São Paulo. Increasing land values – and the lack of available suitable land –have driven expansion into other states, with production in Goiás increasing by 55 per cent in 2008/09 and in South Mato Grosso 30 per cent..
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL SUGARCANE BRAZILSugar cane has retained a prominent place in Brazilian agriculture and Brazil is currently the biggest producer of sugar caneworldwide (around 30 per cent of the global harvest). It is also the world‘s biggest exporter of sugar and of ethanol (11 percent of Brazilian agribusiness exports).The sugar cane sector in Brazil produces and processes more than 501,231.0 million tons of sugar cane (2010-11) , withmore than 50% of the sucrose being used in the production of ethanol.The sugar cane bagasse provides all energy required to process the sugar cane and several mills are already generatingsurplus power and selling it to the utilities; this surplus power generation of the sugar/ethanol mills could be highly increasedby the use of more efficient energy conversion systems, such as the biomass gasification integrated with gas turbines (BIG-GT), and the recovery of part of sugar cane trash, that is burned or wasted otherwise today, to supplement the bagasse asfuel; both the BIG-GT and trash recovery are emerging technologies that need development and demonstration to be able toreach the market.This has led to a 52 per cent increase in the area planted with sugar cane, from 5.38 million hectares in 2003 to 8.21 millionhectares in 2008.This area is predicted to more than double again between 2003 and 2018.One of the most-widely proclaimed advantages of sugarcane biopellets is that it significantly reduces greenhouse gasemissions. In 2009, it introduced zones for sugar cane expansion, excluding two of Brazil‘s most biodiversity areas: theAmazon Rainforest and Pantanal. Ninety per cent of Brazilian sugar cane is grown in the southern central region, mainly inthe south east.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL SUGARCANE BRAZILThe biggest areas of expansion are currently in the midwest and south, close to the processing plants, the ports and mainmarkets. Sixty per cent of sugar cane production is concentrated in the state of São Paulo.Increasing land values – and the lack of available suitable land have driven expansion into other states, with production inGoiás increasing by 55 per cent in 2008/09 and in South Mato Grosso 30 per cent. Sugar cane growing in Brazil covers anarea of more than five million hectares, which corresponds to 0,6% of the whole extent of the country.By exploiting a crop area of 60 Mha, sugar cane comes only third after soybean and corn in area planted.The sugar cane industry in Brazil can be considered as highly sustainable mainly because of its limited use of consumables(pesticides, fertilizers and fuels) in the agricultural sector and of the use of bagasse as a renewable energy source as well asthe total recycle of effluents such as vinasse and filter cake in the industrial sector.With the steady raising oil prices and the stabilization of sugar and alcohol prices on the world market, many new productscan be produced from sugar cane.In Brazil, currently 438 sugar-ethanol plants process approximately 501,231.0 million tons of sugar cane (2010-11) per year,and approximately equal amounts of its sucrose-rich juice are used for sugar and ethanol production.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RESIDUE SUGARCANE BRAZILSugar Production Brazil 2010 Estimated Residual TYPE OF WASTE - HARVEST BRAZIL 2010 - TECHNICAL IBGE (mil tons) ( mil tons) Sugar Cane Bagasse (Million Tons) 501.231.000 140.344.680 Sugar Cane Straw and Leaves (Million Tons) 501.231.000 150.369.300Brazil produced 290.713,980 million tons of sugar cane residues, 140 million tons of sugar cane bagasse and 150 milliontons of sugar cane straw. The energy content of these wastes supports its use for bioethanol production, as one third of thesugarcane plant total energy is present in bagasse and one-third is present in straw (tops and leaves).It is estimated that 38% of bagasse (19400 kJ/kg) has been used for energy cogeneration in the sugar-ethanol productionplants. An increase in bagasse surplus is forecasted due to the optimization of the boiler efficiency and the electricitygeneration system
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RESIDUE AGROINDUSTRY BRAZIL
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RESIDUE AGROINDUSTRY BRAZIL Agroindustrial and forestry residues, which are by-products of key industrial and economical activities, stand out as potential raw materials for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals and energy. The use of wastes is advantageous as their availability is not hindered by a requirement for arable land for the production of food and feed. In addition, waste utilization prevents its accumulation, which is of great environmental concern due to its potential for contamination of rivers and underground water. In Brazil, the agroindustry of corn (13767400 ha), sugarcane (7080920 ha), rice (2890930 ha), cassava (1894460 ha), wheat (1853220 ha), citrus (930591 ha), coconut (283205 ha), and grass (140000 ha) collectively occupies an area of 28840726 ha and generates 603 million tons of residue per year. Within this context, the crushed stalk of sugar cane (bagasse) and straw are obvious choices, although bagasse is often burned for the production of steam (heat) and power/electricity in sugar-ethanol mills and important amounts of straw are needed to keep the soil nutrients balance.Other agricultural by-products of importance in Brazil, such as corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw and rice hulls, grass andforestry materials and residues from citrus, coconut and cassava processing, also deserve attention as local feedstock for thedevelopment of new and profitable activities.As each type of feedstock demands the development of tailor-made technology, the diversity of the aforementioned rawmaterials could allow for new solutions for the production of chemicals, fuels and energy in accordance with the localavailability of these materials. TYPE OF WASTE - HARVEST BRAZIL 2010 - Production Brazil 2010 Estimated Residual Energy Waste (mil Tep) TECHNICAL IBGE (mil tons) ( mil tons) FAO –0,35 Tep-Ton Agricultural Waste - Cereals (incl. Cane Sugar) 776.299.153 547.306.628 191.557,30 Waste - Extraction Plant 30.755.453 20.023.197 7.008,11 Waste - Fruits 34.502.991 36.064.127 12.622,44 Forestry residues (with firewood and m³ x ton) 205.010.012 157.992.556 35.010,00.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RESIDUE AGROINDUSTRY BRAZIL Corn. Maize is the most widely grown crop in the Americas. While the United States produces almost half of the world‘s harvest (42.5%, corresponding to over 220 million tons), other top producing countries include China (151 million tons) followed by Brazil (52 million tons), Mexico, Argentina, India and France. Worldwide production was around 800 million tons, just slightly higher than rice (650 million tons) or wheat (600 million tons) In Brazil, corn is mainly used as food or feed, and this culture produces residues amounting to 46 million tons of straw, stems and leaves. Even considering that 50% of the total amount of lignocellulosic residues should be left in the field, over 4.4 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol could be produced from the surplus biomass.Technology development would be a win–win process with Brazilian collaboration with leading international institutions in thisarea. The use of corn flour-processing residue, maize germ and wraps, which correspond to 20% by weight of maize grains,would also be a valid option for biotechnological conversion processes. Wheat and Rice. The United States, Canada, Australia, the EU-27, the former Soviet Union (including three major wheat exporters: Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan), and Argentina account for about 90% of the world wheat exports, and the US is the world‘s leading wheat exporter. Brazil produced 4.1 million tons of wheat over an area of 1.8 Mha. Production and planted areas increased 46.8 and 30.9%, respectively, in 2009, accounting for the production of 6.02 million tons of wheat over 2.4 Mha. The main residue from the wheat crop is wheat straw (composition of 41% glucan, 19% xylan, 18% of lignin and 7.2% ash) corresponding to 50% of the plant weight. However, the residue from flour production is wheat bran, consisting of 13.5 g arabinose, 22.8 g xylose and 16.7 g glucose per 100 g of starch-free bran.From the Brazil wheat production, the wheat crops generate around 6 million tons of straw. Considering that 50% of the strawresidues would be available for conversion, over 600 million liters of ethanol and 1 million tons of lignin could potentially beproduced. Currently, there is 1.354 million tons of wheat bran annually produced in Brazil, which corresponds to 23% of thewheat productionThe current world rice production is estimated to be 659.591 million tons, with Brazil being responsible for over 10 milliontons, for the most part in the Estate of Rio Grande do Sul that is responsible for over 50% of the rice harvest. The percentageof straw (stem or stalk of rice) in the total plant biomass ranges from 31.2 to 63.9% . As such, 5 million tons of rice straw,consisting of 37% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose and 14% lignin, are produced yearly in Brazil. A unique feature of rice straw isits high silica content, which can be up to 18%. Farmers tend to randomly burn the surplus rice straw, which is not used ascompost for soil fertility, directly on the fields as the most economical method of disposal.This practice does not only generate smoke, but also breathable dust that contains crystalline silica and other hazardoussubstances. However, growers are looking at different ways of disposing off the rice residue in the field, in hopes ofdeveloping this ‗‗waste‘‘ into a potential resource. As such, the utilization of this residue for the production of renewableenergy is high on the environmental agenda.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RESIDUE AGROINDUSTRY BRAZIL Coconut. The coconut industry generates significant quantities of shell and husk residues that are used in Brazil as sources of agricultural substrates and erosion control blankets, as well as in the production of bio-composites, thermal and acoustic insulation, and ecological roofing. These residues can also be used for profitable alternatives products, such as fibers, proteins, enzymes and essential oils, pending the establishment of proper recycle mechanisms at production sites and of processing infrastructure. The large increase in coconut consumption as well as in the industrialization of coconut water has lead to increased amounts of the industrial residue, corresponding to around 85% of the fruit weightCoconut producers in the world; Brazil, with 2.8 million tons of coconut production, is the third main producer. Green fruits, thesource of coconut water, with an average weight of 2 kg, represent 15% of Brazilian production. As 85% of the total fruitweight becomes residue, it is estimated that the production of residue reached 481.270 tons. The use of shell and huskresidues as well as the leaves and trunk of coconut trees cut down can also be used as a source of energy. Nevertheless,their industrial use as an energy source implies the reduction of its moisture content. However, biomass gasification anddirect combustion of these residues allows for a more efficient energy output. Coconut shell can also be utilized to producehigh-quality activated carbon and charcoal by pyrolysis. Briquettes can also be made from coconut waste and used forenergetic purposes.Gramineous Crops The by-products of tropical grass seed production in Brazil that is left in pasture areas can becomecommercialized products with intensive agricultural systems, specific cultural practices and specialized equipment. Theexistence of favorable environmental conditions for seed production, the presence of a dynamic production sector and theavailability of cultivars adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions make Brazil the world‘s largest producer,consumer and exporter of tropical forage seeds.There are large seed production sites in the Brazilian States of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Goias, Mato Gosso and MatoGrosso do Sul. The amount of seed straw residue left in the field is large because tropical forage grasses occupy an areaover 140.000 ha per year, accumulating over 20 tons of residues per hectare. Thus, it is estimated that annually about 2.8million tons of lignocellulosic material is left in the field in Brazil. The residues from grass seed production and the biomass ofseveral cultivated gramineous crops, such as Elephant grass, Brachiaria grass, Panicum spp. and Paspalum spp., could beused for energetic purposes.It is described the potential of breeding to substantially increase the productivity of the 260 million hectares of savannahgrassland in South America. Recent decades have seen a dramatic increase in the use of the introduced grasses ofBrachiaria species, particularly in the Brazilian ‗‗cerrados‘‘ region. Over the past 30 years, more than 70 million ha of nativevegetation has been replaced by pastures for beef production, particularly of Brachiaria and Andropogon species. Inseasonally flooded lands, Paspalum atratum is a grass species native to South America that has attracted much research andcommercial interest . Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), a quickly growing tropical energy crop, has only recentlycaptured the interest of large energy consumers and companies after decades of scientific research. It is a cane-like speciesof grass, brought to Brazil from Africa at least a century ago, and used as cattle fodder. The interest in its possible use forenergy production was boosted by its high productivity . Elephant grass reaches yields ranging from 30 to 40 tons of driedbiomass per hectare per year, and can be harvested two to four times a year due to its rapid growth. The number of elephantgrass varieties is estimated to be around 200, so it would be worthwhile to evaluate the potential of individual varieties to growunder different soil and climate conditions.
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZILINDUSTRIAL BRAZIL BIOMASSWOODCHIPS BIO WOODBRIQUETTE
  • Indeed, most energy scenarios recognise the important role of biomass energy in the future energy supply matrix. Brazil‘s experiences are important because Brazil has, for reasons which should now be apparent, given biomass energy a significant role in the national energy programme. The lessons from Brazil‘s experiences which we draw for the future are: first, that biomass energy, if it is to fulfil its potential, must modernise its technical systems and become increasingly efficient so that it is seen to be more competitive with fossil fuels, and it must do so in an environmentally sustainable manner. Second, bearing in mind that that technology is embedded in our social relations, energy policy needs to become more democratic and transparent; and decisions need to be made on the best available evidence of energy costs that include social and environmental costs. The world is presently undergoing important changes which are leading to a new political and economic order that, undoubtedly, is having a considerable impact on the way we produce and use energy e.g. a more diversified, decentralised, and privatized energy market. The growing interest in bioenergy relects a combination of factors ranging from environmental, ecological, and sustainability concerns; its potential energy contribution; its versatility and global availability; substantial local benefits; technological advances; improved economic viability, etc. Biomass energy is gradually taking a more central stage in the energy supply matrix.TYPE OF WASTE - Production Brazil 2010 Estimated Residual Energy Waste (mil Tep) FAOHARVEST BRAZIL 2010 (mil tons) ( mil tons) –0,35 Tep-Ton- TECHNICAL IBGEForestry residues (with 205.010.012 157.992.556 35.010,00firewood and m³ x ton)
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS BRAZILThere is an enormous untapped biomass potential, particularly in improved utilisation of existing forest and other landresources, higher plant productivity and efficient conversion processes using advanced technologies. Much more usefulenergy could be extracted from biomass than at present. It can then form part of a matrix of fuel sources offering increasedflexibility of fuel supply and energy security. Bioenergy can be used on small and large scales in a decentralised manner,bringing substantial benefits both to rural and urban economies.Biomass Brazil for heat and power holds a large potential as a source of renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissionreductions, but that this potential is only being realized at a slow pace today, and that a concerted effort by companies andpublic institutions to remove a number of significant growth barriers is needed to accelerate the development. To ensure sucha development does not come at the expense of a sustainable use of natural resources, reinforced environmental frameworksand legislative processes will be needed.Brazil Biomass produced in a sustainable way, called modern biomass, excludes traditional uses of biomass as fuel wood andincludes electricity generation and heat production, as well as transportation fuels, from agricultural and forest residues andsolid waste. Biomass can be understood as regenerative (renewable) organic material that can be used to produce energy.Biomass is basically self-renewing energy. The most common types of biomass energy applications reduce carbon dioxideemissions 55 to 98 percent compared to fossil fuels, even when transported long distances, as long as the biomassproduction does not cause any land-use change.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS BRAZILContrary to common belief, there is a large inherent cost improvement potential in biomass-generated power and heat asvolumes and experience grow – 15 to 40 percent compared to today. Capturing these cost improvements will be challengingbut would make biomass cost competitive with coal and gas.In the medium term European biomass resources may need to be complemented with biomass resources from countries withhigh production potential in terms of climate and available land. In view of already visible trends towards resource nationalismaccess to such sources can only be secured by long term policies of cooperation that establish mutual benefits. Important willbe the assurance that imported biomass is produced in a sustainable way.Brazil has tradition and a significant potential on biomass production. The historical importance of biomass energy in Brazil isdue to a set of factors, including: (i) the size of the country and the availability of land, (ii) the adequacy of its weather, (iii) theavailability and the low cost of the working force and (iv) the domain of biomass-production and biomass conversiontechnologies in the agricultural and in the industrial sectors. The accomplishment of these conditions defines a potentialbiomass producer country in a bioenergy trade scenario.Biomass can play an important role also in the long-term Brazil power and heat production.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS BRAZIL Biomass Brazil has many advantages for an environmentally-friendly future. To obtain maximum benefit, trees, other than in primary forests, should be used as an energy source (or long-lived product) at the end of their growing life. It is probably preferable in most circumstances (except mature and primary forests) to use the biomass on a continuous basis as a substitute for present and future fossil fuel use. With the realisation that biomass energy could become part of the modern energy economy on a large scale there have been increasing concerns as to the short- and long-term environmental effects of such a strategy. Fortunately a number of environmental and biomass energy groups acknowledged some time ago that if biomass was to play an important role in future energy policy then its production, conversion and use must be environmentally acceptable and also accepted by the public. This relationship has been examined for eleven situations involving biomass from trees, ranging from natural forests to conifer plantations managed at average intensity to intensively-managed short-rotation hardwood plantations. A strong positive energy balance relationship (in which the net energy yield was twelve times the energy input) was found. Estimates of the energy costs of plantation biomass (including both woody and herbaceous crops).
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS BRAZIL Biomass is an important, environmentally-friendly source of energy which can also provide sound energy alternatives to ameliorate global warming. It is potentially the world‘s largest source of energy and it should play a key role in the future energy mix. It must also be recognised that biomass is already a major source of energy in both its traditional and modern forms In the case of Brazil, given the favourable climatic conditions, land availability and the accumulated experience, biomass should have a fundamental role in the search for a sustainable energy mix in the country. The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels, using energy-efficient and environmentally-sound conversion technologies, is an important alternative, that contributes, simultaneously, to the reduction of air pollution and the pressure on the country‘s non-renewable resources. Naturally, therefore, environmentalist pressures can be seen as an important factor favouring the use of biomass. Despite its potential environmental benefits, if the production and use of biomass are not sustainable, and without adequate policies and management schemes, numerous and complex adverse effects can result.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS BRAZIL These may impact economically, socially, environmentally and on the food supply. For instance, the occupation of large, continuous land spaces by monocultures (besides inhibiting other relevant agricultural activities, especially the production of food) can contribute to the suppression of significant native vegetation, affecting wild-life habitats and contributing to the reduction of biodiversity. For this reason, besides providing raw material and energy for industry, agriculture and forestry should also have the function of rehabilitating soils, blocking desertification, providing better drainage and preserving biodiversity. Thus, the sustainability of a biomass-based programme should start from a strategic viewpoint, which incorporates the challenge of making compatible the need to improve the air and to improve the rural spaces in Brazil
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS BRAZIL – SOROCABA – SÃO PAULO PRODUCTION YEARS 2011: 100.000 MT BIOMASS EUCALYPTUS
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS AND BRIQUETE BRAZIL – CAÇADOR – SANTA CATARINA PRODUCTION YEARS 2011: 100.000 MT BIOMASS BRIQUETTE PINUS
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL WOODCHIPS BRAZIL Why is Wood Chips so good for the environment? Burn clean and efficiently producing very little in the way of harmful emissions. How do I know that Wood Chips will stay relatively low in price compared with fossil fuel? Are made from a renewable resource where the amount of fossil fuels are finite. Also fossil fuels will always be higher taxed due to their harmful effect on the environment. What is meant by Carbon Neutral? Burning of Wood Chips Brazil Biomass is considered to be carbon neutral because the carbon emitted is already part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), and metal emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the more evident sources of air pollution. They affect the quality of urban air, help to form acid rain and are among the main causes of global environmental changes. Thus there is a broad understanding that energy conservation and the transition to potentially renewable and cleaner energy sources together with the development of pollution abatement technologies, should direct future energy policies, in order to meet environmental goals. Such needs are even more evident when the short-term view of the problem gives way to longer time horizons, where the needs of future generations are considered. Biomass and Wood Chips Brazil Biomass appliances may be installed with zero or minimum clearance. Biomass and Wood Chips Brazil Biomass is not subject to world price variations like imported oil .
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL WOODCHIPS EUCALYPTUS BRAZIL
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL WOODCHIPS PINE BRAZIL Soft Wood Chips Pine are produced from paper quality. Harvested from necessary tree thinning in the South Brazil, they are chosen for their ideal suitability in the manufacture of paper and pulp, particleboard and MDF. Like all Brazil Biomass products, our softwood chips are routinely delivered by the shipload to Europe and Asia by the leaders in wood chip transportation. We manage every stage from loading to receiving with our client‘s bottom line in mind. Pinus, in turn, has long fibers (measure between 3 and 6 mm in length) and, consequently, leads to roles resistance with high physical-mechanical that in addition to providing specific features paper, allow faster in paper machines, owing to increased resistance wet and dry leaf and greater ease drainage. Increased resistance of the sheet wet and dry and increased outflow facility may represent greater production efficiency Paper and lower production costs .
  • INDUSTRIAL WOODCHIPS BRAZIL – MONTENEGRO– RIO GRANDE DO SUL PRODUCTION YEARS 2011: 750.000 MT WOODCHIPS PAPER EUCALYPTUS ACÁCIA
  • Briquettes can also supply a range of briquettes baskets which allow our pellets to be burned efficiently in traditional stoves providing a sustainable alternative to gas patio heaters for outdoors heating. We feel our products can make a real contribution to combating climate change whilst offering the security of supply, cost effectiveness and quality a Brazil produced product can deliver. Briquette believes Brazil can make an important contribution to the energy requirements whilst reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels but has to be managed properly like all resources. . Characteristic Briquette Brazil ValueDiameter 85mmAsh (Dry Base) 0,69%Volatile Material (Dry Base) 84,91%Fixed Carbon (Dry Base) 14,14%Moisture 08,69%(approximately)Density 1,226 ton/m3Calorific Value (PCS) – Dry Base 4.515,04 KcalCarbon 47,51%Hydrogen 06,10%Nitrogen 00,50%Sulfur 00,00%
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRIQUETTE BRAZIL Some briquettes are compressed and dried brown coal extruded into hard blocks. This is a common technique for low rank coals. They are typically dried to 12-18% moisture, and are primarily used in household and industry. Although often used as the sole fuel for a fire, they are also used to begin a coal fire quickly without hassle. A fire burning peat briquettes is, similarly to a turf fire, slow burning. Peat briquettes can be used as an acceptable substitute for charcoal in barbecues for this reason Biomass briquettes are made from agricultural waste and are a replacement for fossil fuels such as oil or coal, and can be used to heat boilers in manufacturing plants, and also have applications in developing countries. Biomass briquettes are a renewable source of energy and avoid adding fossil carbon to the atmosphere. Use of biomass briquettes can earn Carbon Credits for reducing emissions in the atmosphere. Biomass briquettes also provide more calorific value/kg and save around 30-40 percent of boiler fuel costs. A popular biomass briquette emerging in developed countries is one which takes a waste produce such as sawdust, compresses it and then extrudes it to make a reconsistuted log which can replace firewood. It is a very similar process to forming a wood pellet but on a larger scale. There are no binders involved in this process. The natural lignin in the wood binds the particles of wood together to form a solid. .
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRIQUETTE BRAZIL Burning a wood briquette is far more efficient than burning firewood. Moisture content of a briquette can be as low as 4%, where as green firewood may be as high as 65%. Sawdust briquettes have developed over time with two distinct types: those with holes through the centre, and those which are solid. Both types are classified as briquettes but are formed using different techniques. A solid briquette is manufactured using a piston press which sawdust together, and ones which a hole are produced using a screw press. The hole is simply a by product of the screw thread passing through the centre however it also increases the surface area of the log and aids efficient combustion Firewood Briquettes Requires a lot of storage space. Need less storage space. Packed briquettes help keep storage space free from animals and Contamination in storage space from dirt or animal waste. contamination. Requires trade licence, with payment of taxes. No need of special licences and payment of taxes. High ash content from burning. Lower ash content from burning. Low flame temperature. High flame temperature. High moisture content. Low moisture content. Less uniform flame. Uniform flame.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOBRIQUETTE BRAZIL Biobriquettes to process local agricultural crop by-products, forestry residues and energy crops into high quality energy fuel briquette. Biobriquettes products dramatically increase their energy density creating convenient, stable, uniform, flow-able products which are much cheaper to transport and store than loose products. Our products offer a locally produced, secure, sustainable, economic, energy supply and importantly, as they are primarily derived from agricultural crop do not affect food prices. We supply large power utilities, co firing biomass to produce electricity, industrial and agricultural enterprises requiring process heat through to commercial and domestic heating markets.
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZILINDUSTRIAL BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGARCANE
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGARCANE BRAZIL Bagasse pellets: how Brazilians plan to create a market Capitalizing Cane Waste Every year during Brazil‘s January-to-March sugarcane off-season, managers of the 440-odd cane mills take pause beside mountains of fibrous cane waste that litter their lots, and curse the fact they must pay someone to haul it away. Brazil is the world‘s top sugarcane producer, and its ever growing cane industry earns billions annually making sweeteners, ethanol, alcohols and even electricity by burning most of the cane fiber, called bagasse. But they can‘t burn it all. Each year Brazil accumulates millions of tons of bagasse that, until now, have been treated as a burden instead of a blessing. Pellet producers have tried and failed for decades in Brazil to capitalize on the low-cost, high-value feedstock of cane bagasse. But a small handful of new entrepreneurs are taking a fresh stab at bagasse pellets, whipping up new formulas to treat the feedstock and building domestic market demand from the ground up. Why bagasse as a pellet feedstock? It has a high energy content and burn quality. It‘s also an existing agricultural byproduct that avoids impacting the food chain. If bagasse were left to rot, it would break down and release greenhouse gases, particularly methane, which is 20 percent more dangerous to the ozone than carbon dioxide (CO2). That‘s why bagasse pellets can earn carbon credits for European utilities, which are pursuing new sources to meet the European Union‘s 20 percent renewables mandate by 2020. Brazil Biomass and Renewable Energy is the most prominent company of a rumored handful currently testing the pellet waters in Brazil. It‘s also easily the furthest along in convincing domestic and foreign buyers to try bagasse pellets. Started in 2008 by entrepreneurial engineers and consultants led by Celso Oliveira, the group sees gold in industrial-grade pellets for both Brazilian factories and the European market. CANE KINGS: Brazils 440 cane mills crushed more than 556 million tons of sugarcane during the 2010-11 harvest season. From the Ground Up If bagasse pellet sales were easy, Brazil would already be a world leader in consumption and export. Its 440 cane mills crushed more than 556 million tons of sugarcane during the 2010-‘11 harvest season, up 3 percent from the year prior. After squeezing out every ounce of sugary juice, as much as 30 percent of that cane weight ends up as fibrous bagasse (nearly 167 million tons last season). All of Brazil‘s cane mills today burn their bagasse for energy, using between 60 and 100 percent of their supply depending on the mill‘s size. On average, they burn 80 percent, so the remaining 20 percent of bagasse is waste material with few secondary markets. That‘s potentially 33.4 million tons of bagasse last year alone for new products like pellets. Competing Interests. The sugarcane industry is developing new ways for mill o wners to utilize excess bagasse, via cellulosic ethanol and year-round energy cogeneration. The former remains years away in terms of cost-efficiencies, and for mills interested in cogeneration, entering the power business is often cost- prohibitive. Around 100 Brazilian mills currently produce surplus electricity consistently for sale to either the grid, or contracted buyers. Most industrial thermal power in Europe has approved the pellets of sugar cane bagasse for power generation. This will be the future market of pellets from Brazil.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGARCANE BRAZIL BioPellets Sugarcane Bagasse are an important renewable energy source that benefits the environment, provides jobs to local and national economies and is easily manageable in scale domestic and industrial systems. The heat market related to industrial can be best addressed by using Biopellets as this fuel. BioPellets are generally produced from residues of sugar cane processing industries and mainly used for heating and electricity production purposes. BioPellets are especially suitable in small heating systems due to their automatic heating process, easy storage as they do not degrade, relatively low cost comparing with fossil fuels and a very low amount of ash and other emissions released. The environmentally friendly alternative, the intelligent way of heating is BioPellets.. Is a fuel material that is uniform in size, shape, moisture, density and energy content, produced by drying and compacting bagasse sugar cane. Sustainability BioPellets SugarCane are recognised as being one of the richest sources of pure, sustainable, eco friendly fuels in the world. Compared to fossil fuels such as oil or gas, Biopellets are considered much friendlier to the environment because they produce less CO2, the gas which is contributing to global climate change. There are a number of reasons why using Biopellets SugarCane Bagasse produces less CO2: 1) Burning Biopellets is considered as a CO2 neutral process. The CO2 released into the atmosphere is the same amount as absorbed by the original sugar cane that the Biopellets are made from. Meaning the overall release of CO2 is zero. Also the CO2 released can then be reabsorbed as another sugar cane, thus continuing the cycle. 2) Manufacturing BioPellets is a relatively straightforward process which involves compressing bagasse. The process uses little energy and emits very little CO2, especially when compared to something like oil refining. 3) BioPellets are available locally. This means that transportation (which produces CO2) from the plant sugar cane (bagasse) to the factory and then from the factory to you is reduced. From a chemical perspective, Biopellets bagasse sugarcane contain carbon in simple or more complex combinations with other chemical elements -oxygen, hydrogen, etc. Carbon is the base element, which can be burned (by oxidizing it) to produce heat energy, which can thereafter be converted into other types of energy -steam, electricity, etc. From an ecological point of view, Biopellet is an ideal fuel material because it is considered carbon neutral. Using agropellet as an energy source creates a closed carbon cycle‗. As opposed to this, fossil fuels like coal are extracted from below the earth, releasing CO2 trapped beneath the soil, into the atmosphere. As this process continues, there is a CO2 overload in the atmosphere, which disturbs the natural carbon cycle, and is one of the ulprits behind climate change. Fossil fuels are, therefore, considered to be ―carbon negative.‖ Carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels currently account for about 65 per cent of the extra carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGARCANE BRAZIL According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the current increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere will have serious consequences, such as the rise in sea level, more intense detrimental meteorological phenomena, such as desertification, decreased agricultural production, melting of glaciers etc. Human activities result in the emission of several GHG, among which are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The three gases are chemically stable and persist in the atmosphere for periods that vary from decades to centuries or more, so their emissions have a long-term influence on climate. Clearly, CO2 represents almost two thirds of future projected warming. A continuous cyclical process sugarcane in the ecosystem to exchange carbon between biological sources and the environment. Carbon dioxide, a form of carbon, is absorbed from the atmosphere by carbon pools (sugarcane). Sugarcane convert carbon to carbohydrates (source of energy) by photosynthesis. Carbon is then passed into the food chain and returned to the atmosphere by the respiration and decay of plants and sugarcane, animals and other organisms. Cycle repeats itself over a period of 6 month to 2 year. Without Greenhouse Gases, Earth would be a frozen world. Carbon dioxide is a Greenhouse Gas & traps heat in the atmosphere. However, humans have dumped excess Greenhouse Gas into the atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels. The actual Greenhouse Gas level has increased in atmosphere, which has made the planet warmer The creation of the biopellets is only a small step in the overall process of manufacturing fuel biopellets. These steps involve feedstock grinding, moisture control, extrusion, cooling, and packaging. Each step must be carried out with care if the final product is to be of acceptable quality. Feedstock Bagasse Sugar Cane. Standard-sized biopellet mills generally require bagasse sugarcane that is ground to particles that are no more than 3 millimeters in size. Several types of equipment are available to carry out this task. If the biomass is quite large and dense (e.g., bagasse), the material is first run through a ―chipper,‖ and then run through a hammer mill or similar device to reduce the particles to the required size. Moisture Control. Maintaining an appropriate moisture level in your feedstock is vital for overall quality of the final biopellets. For bagasse sugarcane, the required moisture level of the feedstock is at or near 12 percent. Moisture can be removed from the feedstock by oven-drying or by blowing hot air over or through the particles. The Biopellet is actually created in this step. A roller is used to compress the biomass - bagasse sugar cane against a heated metal plate. The die includes several small holes drilled through it, which allow the biomass - bagasse sugarcane to be squeezed through under high temperature and pressure conditions. If the conditions are right, the biomass - bagasse sugarcane particles will fuse into a solid mass, thus turning into a Biopellet. Cooling. BioPellets, are quite hot (~150°C) and fairly soft. Therefore, they must be cooled and dried before they are ready for use. This is usually achieved by blowing air through the Biopellets as they sit in a metal bin. The final moisture content of the pellets should be no higher than 6,5 percent. Packaging. BioPellets are typically sold in 15-kilogram bags, which can be easily filled using an overhead hopper and conveyor belt arrangement. The bags should be clearly labeled with the type of Biopellet, their grade (i.e., premium or standard), and their heat content.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGARCANE BRAZILCOMPONENT QUALITY SPECIFICATION ANALYSIS STANDARD EN plusType Bio Pellets FprEN 14778, Solid biofuels – SamplingRaw Bagasse Sugar Cane prEN 14780, Solid biofuels – Sample preparationBiopellets Specifications EN 14962-1 Type A3 3Bulk Density kg/cm 620 kg-cm3 EN 15103, Solid biofuels – Determination of bulk densityHigher Heating Value 7950 BTU-lb EN 14918, Solid biofuels – Determination of calorific valueCalorific value asreceived, net, under 4.500 Kcal EN 14918, Solid biofuels – Determination of calorific valueconstant pressure 16,90 Gj-TonneMJ/kg EN 14774-1, Solid biofuels – Determination of moisture content – OvenMoisture % of weight 7,5% dry method – Part 1: Total moistureAsh Content 1,5% EN 14775, Solid biofuels – Determination of ash contentAsh Fusion InitialDeformation more than 1,100 SS 18 71 65 prEN 15234-1, Solid biofuels – Fuel qualityTemperature (IT) CAsh Fusion Softening more than 1,300 SS 18 71 65 prEN 15234-1, Solid biofuels – Fuel qualityAsh Fusion Hemisphere more than 1,300 SS 18 71 65 prEN 15234-1, Solid biofuels – Fuel qualityAsh Fusion Fluid more than 1,300 SS 18 71 65 prEN 15234-1, Solid biofuels – Fuel qualityTemperatureVolatile matter % 70 – 90 SS-ISO 562Diameter 8mm prEN 16127, Solid biofuels – Determination of length and diameteDiameter Range 0.256 to 0.026 prEN 16127 Determination of length and diameter for pelletsDiameter Averange 0.257 prEN 16127Determination of length and diameter for pelletsFine 0,34% w.t. prEN 16127Determination of length and diameter for pelletsMaximum Length 1.237 prEN 16127 Determination of length and diameter for pellets
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOPELLETS BAGASSE SUGARCANE BRAZIL QUALITY ANALYSISCOMPONENT SPECIFICATION STANDARD ASTM D 5373 FprEN15104, Solid biofuels – Determination of total content of carbon,Carbon 45,98% hydrogen and nitrogen – Instrumental method ASTM D 5373 FprEN15104, Solid biofuels – Determination of total content of carbon,Hydrogen 5,52% hydrogen and nitrogen – Instrumental method ASTM D 5373 FprEN15104, Solid biofuels – Determination of total content of carbon,Nitrogen 0.20%. hydrogen and nitrogen – Instrumental method ASTM D 4239 FprEN 15289 Solid biofuels – Determination of total content of sulphur andSulfur 0.09% chlorine ASTM D6721 FprEN 15289 Solid biofuels – Determination of total content of sulphur andChloride ND to < .1 % chlorineOxygen 42,98% ASTM D 5373Si02 52,82 % FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels –As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnAI203 4,86% FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels –As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnFe203 7,07 % FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels –As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnCaO 6,29% FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels – As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnMgO 3,41 % FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels – As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnNa2O 0.27%. FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels –As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnK2O 9,84 % FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels – As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnTiO2 1.38% FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels –As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnP205 2,08 % FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels –As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and ZnSO3 1,36 % FprEN 15297 Solid biofuels – As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOPELLETS BRAZIL – LINS – SÃO PAULO PRODUCTION YEARS 2012: 60.000 MT BIO PELLETS BAGASSE SUGAR CANE
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOPELLETS BRAZIL – ITAJU – SÃO PAULO PRODUCTION YEARS 2011: 48.000 MT BIO PELLETS BAGASSE SUGAR CANE
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOPELLETS BRAZIL – BANDEIRANTES – PARANÁ PRODUCTION YEARS 2011: 36.000 MT BIO PELLETS BAGASSE SUGAR CANE
  • INDUSTRIAL BIOPELLETS BRAZIL – MARINGÁ – PARANÁ PRODUCTION YEARS 2011: 24.000 MT BIO PELLETS BAGASSE SUGAR CANE
  • Torrefication BioPellets: Partial-combustion without oxygenProcess: Pre-drying 100-130°C, heating up to 130-250°C, pyrolysis 250-300°CEffect: Reduction of moisture content, reduction of acids, reduction of volatile matters,reduction of mass by 30%, reduction of NCV by 10% .Advantages: High Feedstock-Flexibility: agricultural residues, wood waste,– increase in production potential & availability. Storage characteristics: water resistance - can be stored in uncovered stockpiles. Excellent Grind ability: existing coal infrastructure can be used. Very homogenous end- product. Reduction of SOx and NOx during combustion Market Situation: Huge demand but no significant supply yet Most projects are still in very early stages ―Power producers are willing to pay extra 2-3€ /GJ only due to the better storage- and handling characteristics‖ Characteristics Torrefied BioPellets Normal Wood Pellets NCV (ARB) 20-22 MJ/Kg 16-18 MJ/Kg Bulk Density 800-850 Kg/m 3 650 Kg/m 3 Energy Density 20-22 MJ/kg 10-12 GJ/m 3 Moisture 3% ~ 10%
  • THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL BRAZIL WOODPELLETS
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS Brazil Woodpellets. Wood pellets are part of the wood fuel family together with e.g. firewood and wood chips. The definition of a wood fuel is simply any type of wood or wood derivative used as a fuel. Brazil Wood pellets can consist of all kinds of wood types, soft or hardwood e.g. pine and eucalyptus, and other wood (bracatinga). A Brazil wood pellet is generally made from compressed sawdust and therefore originates as a by-product of the ‘pulp & paper‘ industry, sawmill industry and other wood transformation activities. As the interest in wood pellets have increased dramatically, wood pellets have transformed from being a clever by-product to an actual trading commodity. Wood pellets are now not only a by-product but more and more an actually industry. Wood Pellets. In general, the very fine wood particles (sawdust) when compacted turn into wood pellets. These wood pellets are considered to be a form of wood fuel. Wood fuel, in its simplest explanation, is a fuel generated from wood. Wood pellets are normally the byproducts of sawing logs or woods by method of sawmilling. However, this can also be produced by any activities that involve transforming and cutting of woods. Wood pellets are basically solid and consistently hard. With the pellets‘ very low moisture content (humidity of 6 – 10%), they contain higher energy component that is likely comparable to high caliber coal. This would only means that their low humidity content saves a lot ofIndustrial Wood Pellets - Costruzioni Nazzareno S.R.L Italy energy that is needed to burn the amount of moist.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS These characteristics – a diameter of about 6 – 8mm, usually 2cm long, lower humidity and high density – allows the wood pellets to be automatically used in clean – burn heating appliances. Moreover, these attributes make the wood pellets highly effective as a burnable material. In addition, since wood pellets are considered to be a biomass, then they should be environmental friendly. They release less emissions and ashes that could be detrimental to the surroundings. As mentioned, these pellets are compacted, thus they do not need a lot of space unlike any other type of wood fuel. This would also make it easier to ship even in long distance. Not frequently used to manufacture pellets are similar organic materials such as straw, corn, etc. As a renewable material, wood pellets give the benefit of continuous energy supply. Moreover, woods and logs are not basically cut down to produce wood pellet but they are merely the byproduct of any wood processing activities. Also, pellets are actually waste materials, therefore utilizing them as an energy source would mean lessening the problem on waste disposal. With the current situation, where the cost of fossil fuels is expected to continually rise, installation for more capable pellet heating systems resulted. A modern form of densified biomass offer huge opportunities for the increased use of renewable energy Today pellets are fully competitive with fossil fuels, particularly oil. Companies have undisputed technology leadership both for domestic pellet heating appliances, for commercial and industrial boilers and for large plants turning pellets into electricity and heat. Pellets used for residential or commercial heating replace predominantly heating oil and natural gas and thus contribute directly towards improving energy security in Europe. In member states with a high share of electric heating pellet stoves provide a great possibility in replacing electric heating. Again the benefit in terms of energy security and cost reduction is significant. High fuel prices are creating a threat of energy poverty for millions of citizens. These people will not be able to properly heat their homes in winter due to the high price of heating oil.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS The quality of wood pellets in Brazil. Wood pellets are mostly traded via private transactions and in many different qualities and packings and like with almost any other consumer product wood pellets have many different types of brands. Because of the different quality requirement the existing pellets on the market is categorised into two main pellet types: One for industrial purposes, which is denoted as Standard wood pellets, and one for residential purposes which is denoted as Premium. The most important quality measurement is the ash content. Even though wood pellets have a very high combustion efficiency the burning of wood pellets still leaves ash residue. Standard wood pellets can contain up to 1-1,5% ash whereas Premium wood pellets contain maximum 0,5%. The difference might not seem that significant, but the ash content is quite important. Handling the ash requires both time and special equipment. Thus it is generally assumed that residential consumers purchase Premium quality wood pellets having a very low ash content, whereas large scale consumers are able to handle Standard quality wood pellets. Benefits of Brazil wood pellets as a biofuel. The wood pellets can be burned with a very high combustion efficiency in the burners compared to other biomass fuels. When biomass has been pelletized a lot of the water is removed, and the dried biomass has a much higher energy content. The removed water and lower material weight also is an advantage when transporting the fuels, because it is possible to transport a larger amount of energy transporting dry materials. Furthermore wood pellets are easier to handle, because of the low humidity content and the ability of being piled. Other wood fuels containing water cannot be piled because of the danger of gas generation. Pellets are therefore often easier to handle compared to wood logs or wood chips for both industrial consumers and residential consumers. Wood pellets are considered a more stable and clean fuel to the heat and/or power producers as the humidity always is low and the energy content is always stable centred around 17-18.6 GJ/tonnes. Thus one could conclude that the energy consumed by the pellet process is insignificant compared to the benefits. The most dominant attribute of wood pellets is that they are ‘straightforward‘ to implement in a heat and power plant. Wood pellets can also be used to cofiring wood pellets and coal reducing the GHG emission of using wood pellets while still benefiting the high energy content of coal. Wood pellets are rather effective to produce sustainable energy.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS The use of bio-based renewable and Pellets resources holds great potential value for industries in Brazil many sectors, including energy, organic chemicals, polymers, fabrics and health-care products. In general, a bio-based economy or biomass offers many benefits and opportunities: New areas of economic growth and development for the many regions that have plentiful biomass resources; Creation of new innovative business sectors and entrepreneurial skills; Improved energy security, by reducing dependence on non-renewable resources. Enhance economic and environmental linkages between the agricultural sector and a more prosperous and sustainable industrial sector; Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; improved health by reducing exposure to harmful substances through substitution of natural bio-based materials for chemical and synthetic materials and job creation and rural development. Wood pellets as a source of alternative energy over the usual non renewable fossil fuels have been gaining a lot of interest all over the world. As a matter of fact, heating systems designed specifically for the use of wood pellets are now widely available in the markets of some countries across the globe.It is believed that wood pellets as a wood fuel (a form of biofuel) is better than any other kinds of fuel. In fact, it can be compared to high quality coal and other similar goods. Below are some strong points of wood pellets as an alternative fuel. • Environmental Friendly. Wood fuels which include fuel derived from wood pellets release lesser amount of ashes and emissions that are harmful to the environment and to human beings. The carbon dioxide that is released during the combustion of wood pellets is being used by the growing plants. Thus, it does not add up to the problem of global warming. Moreover, there would be no worries on how to dispose wood pellets which are basically waste products because they can still be utilized as an alternative fuel. This would greatly reduce problems on waste management. • Convenient. Wood pellets are generally small – sized, highly densed and compacted unlike other biomass fuels such as wood chips. These characteristics would make a stack of wood pellets easy to store and transport. Their small, regular and uniform shapes enable them to flow like a fluid resulting on easy feeding on automated heating systems. • Available. Availability has been always one of the concerns in the use of non renewable fuels. There may be numerous resources now, but it might create a problem on scarcity in the future. This is where the production of biomass fuels enters. Wood pellets, a biomass, are byproducts of sawmilling and other similar activity. With this in mind, instead of discarding these waste materials, these can be utilized as a useful alternative source of energy. As long as trees are continually growing and a balance between cutting and planting exists, availability would not cause a major problem.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS • Effective. Wood pellets are proven effective as a wood fuel. Their low moisture content (humidity is typically 7 – 8%) does not require a lot of energy to burn it off making them highly efficient burnable material. Moreover, this feature also explains why it is easier to ignite (7-8% against 30-35% humidity of wood chips). Wood pellets generate high heat output. • Natural. Aside from being biodegradable, chemicals or additives are not necessary in manufacturing wood pellets. A natural substance called lignin is found in wood itself that serves as a binder. A small amount of maize starch is added though sometimes. Furthermore, the wood pellets are manufactured from pure and not contaminated woods. • Versatile. Wood pellets can be used in stoves (pellet stoves models and most traditional stoves), boilers, heating furnaces and similar heating systems. Lots of these appliances are now available in the markets. These are the benefits that can be gained in utilizing wood pellets as biomass fuel. Such advantages make the wood pellets more popular among the manufacturers and consumers. Pellets are a solid fuel produced from biomass, at present mainly from wood residues. They are produced by a simple and fairly cheap process of milling, drying and compacting which requires small amounts of energy. The key advantage of pellets compared to unprocessed biomass are high density and high energy content, standardized properties and consequently reduced cost for transport storage and handling. The huge opportunity of pellets lies in the fact that technologies for pellet production and pellet use are fully developed and ready for the market. Moreover they are highly competitive and have a wide range of benefits compared to the use of fossil fuels. What is still missing is a general awareness of the potential and the opportunities associated with pellet use. . Europe is using about 90 million tons oil equivalent of oil for heating purposes every year for households and services. By August 2008 wood pellets cost about 60 % less than heating oil. While fuel costs are significantly lower, the investment costs for pellet heating systems are substantially higher and represent a considerable barrier for market uptake. Therefore public financial incentives are important for the development of a successful pellet industry. Pellets used for residential or commercial heating replace predominantly heating oil and natural gas and thus contribute directly towards improving energy security in Europe. In member states with a high share of electric heating pellet stoves provide a great possibility in replacing electric heating. Again the benefit in terms of energy security and cost reduction is significant. High fuel prices are creating a threat of energy poverty for millions of European citizens. These people will not be able to properly heat their homes in winter due to the high price of heating oil. Pellet stoves offer a solution for many of these households, to cover their basic need for heat in an efficient, environmentally sound, and convenient way at affordable cost.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS Sustainability. When producing, trading and consuming wood pellets, it is of highly importance to make sure that the pellets are made of approved sustainable materials traded responsibly. In other words, a wood pellet must be sustainable. There are three types of sustainability one must consider when dealing with biofuels of any kind, climatic sustainability, social sustainability and economical sustainability. When being climatic sustainable, the climate must not suffer any damage when raw materials are gathered, e.g. if too many trees are felled at one time, it is limiting the photosynthesis. Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem. The biodiversity of the forests is a requirement with harvesting biomass from climate sustainable forest. The term social sustainability covers that the distribution of the income should be fairly divided between farmer, producer and other actors. Being social sustainable also refers to being aware of the balance between biomass crops replacing food crops. A general way of explaining, the wood pellets should on no circumstances be made in a way limiting any conditions for humans. For most, nearly all, wood pellet consumers it is important that the wood pellets are sustainable. One of the most economic ways to use pellets is to burn them as fuel for domestic heating. Energy costs from pellets are currently 60 % lower than the energy costs of fuel oil (for 2008). A full cost analysis shows the still existing barrier for the introduction of wood pellet heating. Investment costs for a state of the art pellet boiler system including all side costs amount to E14,000 – 17,000. These high capital costs result in an economic situation that does not represent a strong incentive to replace existing oil heating systems that are still working well. The high investment does not only limit the economic benefit but is also a serious constrains for the liquidity of households. For this reason investment subsidies are vital to achieve a fast market introduction. A similar situation exists with respect to pellet stoves. While pellet stoves are much smaller in investment compared to pellet boiler systems they could be acquired by families with lower incomes, those that would not buy such stoves without investment support. It should be mentioned at this point that a 30 % investment grant of E 4000 for a domestic pellet boiler system would result in a subsidy of about E 6 per MWh of energy produced over the lifetime of the boiler. It also means a (public) cost of reducing the CO2 emissions lower than E20 /t CO2 equivalent. In addition the heating fuel cost for the household would be reduced by about E1000 per year. Thus directing public money to support a change of the heating system from oil to pellets is cheaper than buying CO2 certificates with many additional advantages such as: Improved security of supply. Less expenses for households. Incentives for the regional economy including job creation.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS The Economics of Pellets. One of the most economic ways to use pellets is to burn them as fuel for domestic heating. Energy costs from pellets are currently 60 % lower than the energy costs of fuel oil (for 2008). A full cost analysis shows the still existing barrier for the introduction of wood pellet heating. Investment costs for a state of the art pellet boiler system including all side costs amount to E14,000 – 17,000. These high capital costs result in an economic situation that does not represent a strong incentive to replace existing oil heating systems that are still working well. The high investment does not only limit the economic benefit but is also a serious constrains for the liquidity of households. For this reason investment subsidies are vital to achieve a fast market introduction. A similar situation exists with respect to pellet stoves. While pellet stoves are much smaller in investment compared to pellet boiler systems they could be acquired by families with lower incomes, those that would not buy such stoves without investment support. It should be mentioned at this point that a 30 % investment grant of E 4000 for a domestic pellet boiler system would result in a subsidy of about E 6 per MWh of energy produced over the lifetime of the boiler. It also means a (public) cost of reducing the CO2 emissions lower than E20 /t CO2 equivalent. In addition the heating fuel cost for the household would be reduced by about E1000 per year. Thus directing public money to support a change of the heating system from oil to pellets is cheaper than buying CO2 certificates with many additional advantages such as: Improved security of supply. Less expenses for households. Incentives for the regional economy including job creation. Policy Recommendations. • Create stable and reliable incentives for investment in pellet boilers and stoves. • Implement communication programs that create awareness for the benefits of using pellets both in professional communities and among consumers. • Ensure a high quality level of products and services for using pellets as a heating fuel. An efficient/high quality technology can be introduced by linking quality requirements to subsidies, via labeling schemes, competitions, training programs and monitoring projects. • Apply regulatory policies that remove existing barriers for pellet use and that create obligations for minimum levels of renewable energy use in buildings. • Pay attention to the opportunities for alleviating energy poverty by making pellet stoves available to low income households
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS Comparing prices in GJ. The energy content of Brazil wood pellets depends mainly on the moisture content. Bone dry wood of any given type have an energy content of about 5.3 MWh/tonne equivalent to approximately 19.2 GJ/tonne, given that the wood is totally oven dried with a humidity of zero percent. Because of the low humidity (8%) the energy content of wood pellets is approximately 4.7-4.9 MWh/tonne equivalent to approximately 17-17.6 GJ/tonne. As mentioned earlier we will for analysis purposes generally assume an energy content of 17.5 GJ/tonne. Different types of firewood have different moist content and therefore the energy content varies a great deal. The energy content of firewood is around 13.8 GJ/tonne with a moisture content of 35%. Wood chips have an energy content on 8.4 GJ/tonne with a moisture content of 40%. One assumes an energy content of 9.5 GJ/tonne of regular wood chips. Another type of biomass in Brazil are bagasse sugar cane with energy content of 14.50 GJ/tonne and Biopellets have an energy content of 16 GJ/tonnes. Comparing wood pellets to other biological fuel types like wood chips and bagasse, wood pellets are obviously the ‘winner‘ with regards to energy content. However two main issues must be addressed before choosing wood pellets over other biomass types. First, wood pellets requires much more preprocessing than e.g. wood chips. The wood used to create wood pellets must be dried, shredded into fine particles and compressed. During the process a great deal of energy, fuel and money is used. In direct contrast wood used to create wood chips are only run through a wood chipper at the consumption site. Second, the price of wood pellets are much higher than the other mentioned biomass. The Pelletising Process. Drying. The content of water in the raw material must be about 10 % before the pelletising process begins. If the content of water in the raw material is too high, it has to be dried. The drying is of high importance for the final product, since raw material with a water content higher than 15 % is difficult to pelletise. The extent to which a material needs to be dried before pellitising makes a big difference to the energy required in the manufacture of wood pellets. It is worth ensuring that any steam used in the process is recycled and trying to ensure that the drying process is itself powered using a renewable source of energy such as wood, which the manufacturer may well have close at hand.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL INDUSTRIAL WOOD PELLETS Cleansing. On delivery of the raw material to the pelletising factory unwanted material, for example metal, is removed with the help of magnets and a screen. This is particularly important when using recycled wood. Grinding. After this the raw material is ground in a hammer mill. The resulting wood flour is then separated in a cyclone, alternatively in a filter. The grinding is necessary because the raw material, at delivery can be very heterogeneous in size (although it will typically be below 5 mm in diameter). Pressing. Before the wood pellets are pressed, 1-2 % of water in the form of steam is supplied to the raw material, which is thereby heated to approximately 70 ºC. The heating ensures that the content of lignin in the wood is released and this contributes to the increased binding of the particles together in the final product.The now softened lignin and wood dust is then transported to the pellet press. The raw material lies in a layer in front of arolling press, which presses the material down into the die block. When the rolling press is once again rolled over the hole,new material is pressed into the hole, thereby compressing the raw material into pellets. Six conditions are important forsuccessful pressing – and thus the quality of the pellets: The correlation between the qualities of the raw material, thecompressing capacity of the machine and the compressing process; The friction capacity of the die block; The surface andthe material of the die block and the rolling press. The length and diameter of the holes in the die block; The thickness of thelayer of raw material above the die block and thereby the thickness of the material that is pressed into the block; and Thefrequency of the compression – i.e. the speed of rotation. The distance between the die block and the rolling press has aninfluence on the quality of the pellets, the wear on the machine and the consumption of energy in the process. Tests haveshown that an increase in the distance from 0 to 1 mm causes a 20 % higher consumption of energy, but at the same timereduces the volume of dust by 30 %.Die blocks. Pelletising is done using a machine either with a die block in the shape of a ring or with a plane type die block.The raw material is led into the drum, where one or more rolling presses press the raw material into pellets throughcylindrical holes in the die block. When the pellets have passed through the block they are cut or broken into suitablelengths. The raw material is led into the drum, where one or more roller presses press the material into pellets throughcylindrical holes in the die block. On the outside of the block the pellets are cut in to suitable lengths. Die blocks can bechanged, so that the diameter of the cylindrical holes can be altered, and in this way pellets of different lengths can beproduced.. The pressing process increases the temperature of the raw material even more. The necessary pressure level inthe die block depends amongst other things on the type of raw material. In general, increasing the content of hard wood inthe raw material will increase the demand for pressure in the pelletising process. Material that requires a higher pressurethan the one actually used, may block the holes in the die block and thereby interrupting the pelletising process.Cooling. The still warm and elastic pellets are transported to a cooling device to be cooled to just above room temperature.The cooling increases the durability of the pellets, and this decreases the formation of dust during the followingtransportation and handling. During counter-current cooling pellets and cooling air are moved towards each another so thatwarm air is used to cool the warmest pellets and vice versa. The counter-current cooling gives a gradual cooling of thepellets, which reduces the amount of heat stress that the pellets are exposed to (which may decrease the quality of theproduct). Dust removal. After cooling the pellets are screened in order to remove dust and fine partices formed during theproduction process. The pellets are then stored loose or packed in bags and the residue is recycled back into the productionprocess.
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL WOODPELLETSPellets are a solid fuel produced from biomass, at present mainly from wood residues. They are produced by a simple andfairly cheap process of milling, drying and compacting which requires small amounts of energy. The key advantage of pelletscompared to unprocessed biomass are high density and high energy content, standardized properties and consequentlyreduced cost for transport storage and handling (AEBIOM, 2008). Wood pellet markets are opening up in many countries,such as USA, Canada and Europe, and it can be expected that this will continue in new markets. The forest residues andsawdust availability studies show large potentials in Brazil. Areas with sawmills but no local demand for by-products (as araw-material or as fuel) can offer interesting opportunities for constructing new wood pellet production capacity, though locallogistics, investment climate and support policies also play vital roles in mobilizing new markets.A modern form of densified biomass offer huge opportunities for the increased use of renewable energy in Brazil. Todaypellets are fully competitive with fossil fuels, particularly oil. Companies have undisputed technology leadership both fordomestic pellet heating appliances, for commercial and industrial boilers and for large plants turning pellets into electricity andheat. Pellets are a solid fuel produced from biomass, at present mainly from wood residues. The key advantage of pelletscompared to unprocessed biomass are high density and high energy content, standardized properties and consequentlyreduced cost for transport storage and handling. The huge opportunity of pellets lies in the fact that technologies for pelletproduction and pellet use are fully developed and ready for the market. Brazil Industrial WoodPellets Minas Gerais – Plant WoodPellets – Carbonovo Brazil Pará – Plant WoodPellets – GSW Renewable Energy (2012) Pará – Plant WoodPellets – VAR BrazilPellets (2012) Pará – Plant WoodPellets – Brazil Pellets Paraná – Plant WoodPellets –KCC Energias Renováveis (2012) Paraná – Plant WoodPellets – Green Bioenergia Pellets (2012) Paraná – Plant WoodPellets – Línea Wood Pellets Paraná – Plant WoodPellets – Wood Tradeland do Brasil Paraná – Plant BioPellets – Eco X Pellets Brasil Paraná – Plant BioPellets – BRBiomassa Energia Verde Piauí-Maranhão – Plant WoodPellets – Suzano Energia (2014) Rondônia – Plant WoodPellets – Nova Itália Pellets (2012) Santa Catarina – Plant WoodPellets – New Energy Pellets Santa Catarina – Plant WoodPellets – Koala Energy Pellets Santa Catarina – Plant WoodPellets – Elbra Energia Limpa Santa Catarina – Plant WoodPellets – Battistella Madeira São Paulo – Plant WoodPellets – Madersul – PelletBraz São Paulo – Plant BioPellets – BioPellets Brasil (2012) São Paulo – Plant BioPellets – Ecopell Pellets São Paulo – Plant BioPellets – Brazilian Pellets
  • BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL WOODPELLETSGlobal demand for Biomass (Agricultural and Forestry Residues, Energy Crops and Wood Pellets) is rapidly growing andespecially in Europe, where EU 2020s target for renewable energy (20% in gross energy consumption), is a major driver forthis growth. This growth drives the need for biomass to be traded as a real "commodity". Commercialising pretreatmenttechnologies, such as torrefaction, pyrolysis, will provide solutions to standardization of specification. Bio-char, touted as aalternative for carbon sequestration, is also gaining global interest in the US, Australia and Europe, for soil enhancement andreplacement for coal in power plants. Europe will reach a consumption of 80 million tons pellets per year by 2020. The UKwill become a very major importer of biomass: 206 million GJ/y equates to about 12 million t/y of pellets or 20 million t/y ofgreen woodchips, equivalent to the wood requirements of at least four worldscale pulp mills.The analysis above show that imports of biomass to Europe will most likely be needed: Even if the ―aggressive supplymobilization‖ scenario was to fully materialize, annual imports of 150 and 750 TWh of primary energy would be needed tomeet the EU scenarios. These imports will probably largely be in the form of pellets, due to the favorable transport economicsof pellets. The volumes above correspond to between 30 and 150 million tons of pellets, or the output from 50 to 300 large-scale pellet mills.In the future, imports of torrefied pellets may prove to be an alternative to conventional wood pellets if theyhave lower costs. As yet, they are not produced at scale.Satisfying this demand will be a major opportunity, and a challenge, for the entire feedstock supply chain, from forest andplantation owners, to pellet producers, traders, shipping companies and port operators globally. Chinas new 5-year planfocuses on renewable energy. Domestic demand will increase substantially but it supports self-sufficiency and biomass tradeis not yet envisioned. Korea has an ambitious target for renewable energy and a large scale import program (15 MT of pelletsfor co-firing). In post-tsunami Japan, massive domestic and import biomass programs are contemplated that would increasedemand for imported biomass to the same magnitude as Korea. Globally, solid biomass is mostly traded in an open market,supported by energy policy. In 2009, 30% of 13 MT of wood pellets produced was exported, primarily from Canada and theUS. Bio-ethanol and biodiesel are subject to import tariffs and other restrictions, so even though biodiesel trade grew 0-80 PJin 2005-09 only 14% was exported, and only 3% of ethanol, 95% from Brazil and the US. A growing portion of biomass forliquid fuels will be imported. The US has large potential in the South-Eastern States. Argentina has untouched mill residues.Large land potentials are seen in South America, Africa, Australia, and parts of Asia. Plantations will require attention toecological, political and cultural issues to avoid impacts on food and fodder production. Long term supply contracts willpersist, but some will be traded as a commodities. Countries with surplus biomass such as Canada, New Zealand and the USare viewed as low risk targets for investment due to stable political systems, western financial systems, solid infrastructureetc. Many other regions have surplus biomass and no meaningful domestic demand. Tropical countries in East and WestAfrica, South East Asia and Latin America have very good growing conditions and under-utilized agricultural.Solid biofuels such as pellets, traditionally sourced from sawmill residues, will increasingly come from more intensiveutilization of industrial, forestry and agricultural residues. Brazil has excess fibre from its forest industry, and potentially 25 MTof unused sugar cane bagasse. These players must not be underestimated, however, especially countries such as Brazil.With the availability of raw material, and well established wood and paper industry, it will be a matter of time for Brazil tobecome a key player in the wood pellets market.Celso Oliveira President, Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy