The Future Biomass and Bioenergy Brazil -


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The Brazilian Association Biomass and Renewable Energy Industry with support from the Government of Brazil published this week the most important technical study on the Future of Biomass and Bioenergy, and Potential Waste of Forestry, Pulp, Wood, SugarCane,, Agroindustry, Energy and Agriculture ( Wood BioPellets Bagasse SugarCane).

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The Future Biomass and Bioenergy Brazil -

  4. 4. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRA Energy consumption patterns have strongly changed during the last decades. The increase on industrial production of goods, the high mobility of the population and the dependency on fossil fuels for energy generation, particularly, coal, mineral oil and natural gas are considered the main factors causing environmental depletion. As reported by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety energy supply is globally based primarily on the finite fossil energy carriers of coal, mineral oil, and natural gas. The combustion of fossil fuels is the largest contributor to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. As a result, Earth‘s average temperature has been increasing and climatic phenomena like extreme drought and flood are more often (IPCC)The existing power supply systems contribute to increase CO2 emissions and costs for energy generation and distribution toconsumers. The need of reducing GHG emissions and the urgency in developing alternative technologies for energygeneration obliges industrialized and developing countries to encounter solutions using regenerative energy sources. Thediffusion of knowledge and technology is an important step for changing behavior and implementing new patterns of energysupply. The imminent collapse of non-renewable sources and new environmental legislations could result in a wider use of biomass. Research shows that biomass originated from crop and agricultural residues can be used, mainly in processes of gasification and thermoelectric generation of simple or combined cycles with cogeneration, becoming an important local energy source. The use of biomass is a promising alternative for a climate friendly heating and power generation. Close to 80 percent of the worlds energy supply could be met by renewables by mid-century if backed by the right enabling public policies a new report shows.The findings, from over 120 researchers working with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), also indicatethat the rising penetration of renewable energies could lead to cumulative greenhouse gas savings equivalent to 220 to 560Gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (GtC02eq) between 2010 and 2050. The upper end of the scenarios assessed, representing acut of around a third in greenhouse gas emissions from business-as-usual projections, could assist in keeping concentrationsof greenhouse gases at 450 parts per million. This could contribute towards a goal of holding the increase in globaltemperature below 2 degrees Celsius – an aim recognized in the United Nations Climate. The most optimistic of the four, in-depth scenarios projects renewable energy accounting for as much as 77 percent of the worlds energy demand by 2050,amounting to about 314 of 407 Exajoules per year. As a comparison, 314 Exajoules is over three times the annual energysupply in the United States in 2005 which is also a similar level of supply on the Continent of Europe according to variousgovernment and independent sources. 77 percent is up from just under 13 percent of the total primary energy supply ofaround 490 Exajoules in 2008. Each of the scenarios is underpinned by a range of variables such as changes in energyefficiency, population growth and per capita consumption. These lead to varying levels of total primary energy supply in 2050,with the lowest of the four scenarios seeing renewable energy accounting for a share of 15 percent in 2050, based on a totalprimary energy supply of 749 Exajoules.The Renewables Intensive Global Energy Scenario (RIGES) proposes a significant role for biomass in the next century. Theypropose that by 2050 renewable sources of energy could account for three-fifths of the world‘s electricity market and two-fifthsof the market for fuels used directly, and that global CO 2 emissions would be reduced to 75 per cent of their 2005 levels andsuch benefits could be achieved at no additional cost. Within this scenario, biomass should provide about 38 per cent of thedirect fuel and 17 per cent of the electricity use in the world. Detailed regional analysis shows how Latin America and Africamight become large exporters of biofuels. The Environmentally Compatible Energy Scenario (ECES) for 2020 assumes thatpast trends of technological and economic structural change will continue to prevail in the future and thereby serve, to someextent, economic and environmental objectives at the same time. Primary energy supply is predicted to be 12.7 Gtoe (533 EJ)of which biomass energy would contribute 11.6 per cent (62 EJ) derived from wastes and residues, energy plantations andcrops, and forests—this excludes traditional uses of noncommercial biomass energy for fuel wood in developing countries.
  5. 5. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRA Fossil-Free Energy Scenario (FFES) was developed as part of Greenpeace International‘s study of global energy warming. Greenpeace forecast that in 2030 biomass could supply 24 per cent (=91 EJ) of primary energy (total=384 EJ) compared to their low estimate of only 7 per cent today (=22 EJ). The biomass supply could be derived equally from developing and industrialised countries. The IEA study ‗World Energy Lookout‘ addressed for the first time the current role of biomass energy and its future potential. It is estimated that by 2020 biomass will be contributing 60 EJ (compared to their estimate of 44 EJ today =11 per cent of total energy) thereby providing 9.5 per cent of total energy supply. The period 1995–2020 will show a 1.2 per cent annual growth rate in biomass provision compared to a 2.0 per cent rate for ‗conventional‘ energy. European countries gear up to meet renewable energy goals of 20 percent by 2020, demand for biomass, woodchips and wood pellets is expected to rise. By 2020, this number could be somewhere between 115 and 335 million tons per year, according to an article in Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. Both of these estimates eclipse the 11 million tons of pellets consumed by the EU in 2010.The greatest demand for imported biomass will be from Europe, Korea and Japan. In Europe the ―RE 20/20/20" energy policycarries legally binding renewable energy targets for each member country for 2020. Plans submitted by member countries in 2010to achieve targets will increase biomass use for production of electricity, heat, and transportation fuels by ~400 MT (million tonnes),mostly from woody material. Pellet consumption of 11 MT in 2010 is projected to reach 16-18 MT by 2013-15 and 50-80 MT by2020. The biomass shortfall is estimated at 60 MT. Key importing countries will be UK, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy andSpain. According to the European Biomass Association, it is expected that Europe will reach a consumption of 80 million tonspellets per year by 2020. The UK will become a very major importer of biomass: 206 million GJ/y equates to about 12 million t/y ofpellets or 20 million t/y of green woodchips, equivalent to the wood requirements of at least four world scale pulp millsAccording to [Werling, 2010] an increase of the pellets is to expect. Wood pellets have many advantages and it seems thatthe world wide consumption will increase drastically the next couple of years. Green Building Magazine denotes wood pelletsas a significant fuel of the 21th century as many considers the increased use of wood pellets an important way to achieve theEU 2020 goals of sustainable energy. According to [Hansen, 2010] the wood pellet market will double within short time. TheGerman wood pellet demand will e.g. increase with 70.8 mill tonnes until 2020. [Junginger et. al, 2009] estimates that thewood pellet exchange in Europe will vary between 18-25% per year and the demand increase between 130-170 milliontonnes per year until 2020. [Werling, 2010] denotes that new European electricity producing biomass units with a capacity uptill 5400 MW are under establishment until year 2014. These units alone will have a gross consumption on 280 PJ or 19million tonnes biomass a year. It is not only in Europe the market develops. New market areas are starting to develop andlarge potential users like Brazil, Argentina, Chile and New Zealand are assumed to be a part of the global wood pellet flowwithin short term. Asia (China, Australia, India, Japan and South Korean) is booming economically and according to [Peksa-Blanchard et al., 2007] the Asian countries is estimated to be the biggest global energy consumers by 2030, at the same timethe Asian region has the largest biomass resources in the world. It is fair to assume that Asia will become an important actorof the biomass market and therefore the wood pellet market.USA president Obama and his demonstration have expressed interest in consuming biomass including wood pellets c.f.[Mackinnon, 2010]. If the potential consumers will appear, it is reasonable to assume that the concentrated flow of woodpellets exclusively into Europe can be disturbed. The increase in European consumption and the many arising productionmarkets indicates that the wood pellet market will continue to boom. Moreover the environment issues and GHG emissionrestriction becomes visible in the media as never before and a political pressure can be enough to convert several heat andpower plants using biomass instead of fossil fuel.
  6. 6. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRA The large role Brazil is expected to play in future energy supply can be explained by several considerations. First, biomass fuels can substitute more or less directly for fossil fuels in the existing energy supply infrastructure. Secondly, the potential resource is large since land is available which is not needed for food production and as agricultural food yields continue to rise in excess of the rate of population growth. Thirdly, in developing countries demand for energy is rising rapidly, due to population increase, urbanisation and rising living standards. While some fuel switching occurs in this process, the total demand for biomass also tends to increase.Brazil has tradition and a significant potential on biomass production. The historical importance of biomass energy in Brazil isdue to a set of factors, including (i) the size of the country and the availability of land, (ii) the adequacy of its weather, (iii) theavailability and the low cost of the working force and (iv) the domain of biomass-production and biomass conversiontechnologies in the agricultural and in the industrial sectors. The accomplishment of these conditions defines a potentialbiomass producer country in a bioenergy trade scenario.TYPE OF WASTE - HARVEST BRAZIL 2010 - Production Brazil 2010 Estimated Residual Energy Waste (mil Tep)TECHNICAL IBGE (mil tons) ( mil tons) FAO –0,35 Tep-TonAgricultural Waste - Cereals (incl. Cane Sugar) 776.299.153 547.306.628 191.557,30Waste - Extraction Plant 30.755.453 20.023.197 7.008,11Waste - Fruits 34.502.991 36.064.127 12.622,44Forestry residues (with firewood and m³ x ton) 205.010.012 157.992.556 35.010,00 In Brazil, the agroindustry of corn (13767400 ha), sugarcane (7080920 ha), rice (2890930 ha), cassava (1894460 ha), wheat (1853220 ha), citrus (930591 ha), coconut (283205 ha), and grass (140000 ha) collectively occupies an area of 28840726 ha and generates residues (agricultural residues, cereals, fruit and vegetable extraction) and approximately 157,992,556 cubic meters of forestry sector of residue per year. Other agricultural by-products of importance in Brazil, such as corn straw, wheat straw, rice straw and rice hulls, grass and forestry materials and residues from citrus, coconut and cassava processing, also deserve attention as local feedstock for the development of new and profitable activities. As each type of feedstock demands the development of tailor-made technology, the diversity of the aforementioned raw materials could allow for new solutions for the production of chemicals, fuels and energy in accordance with the local availability of these materials. Forestry leftovers, saw dust, bagasse sugarcane, rice and coffee husks, coconut shells and other residues can be compacted into pellets or briquettes. The compaction of residues enhances storage and transport efficiencies of bulky biomass.Forestry wastes correspond to the parts of trees not profited for cellulose production, such as tips and branches, which contribute tosoil fertility upon degradation. These wastes are by nature heterogeneous in size, composition and structure. According to theBrazilian Forestry Inventory, small pieces of wood, including tree bark, are the major waste obtained from the forestry industry,corresponding to 71% of the total waste. Sawdust is second, accounting for 22%. Furthermore, major wood loss occurs during thewood processing in the furniture sector. In some cases, up to 80% of a tree is lost between the tree being cut in the forest and thefurniture manufacturing. In Brazil, short-rotation woody crops such as round wood (Eucalyptus and Pinus) yielded 39 million tons(dry matter).
  7. 7. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CELSO MARCELO OLIVEIRATheir potential production is estimated at 61.4 million tons (dry matter) yr-1 on a planted area of 6.3 million ha with an average meanannual increment from 13 to 14.7 t (dry matter) ha-1 yr-1. Furthermore, 30.9 million tons (dry matter) of woody biomass from nativeforests, of which 8.1 million tons (dry matter) were of saw logs, 20.3 million tons (dry matter) of firewood and 2.5 million tons (drymatter) of wood for charcoal Harvest costs for residues, which constitute about percent of total costs, could disappear entirely asnew log harvesting methods will pile or bundle the residues at the same time as the logs are harvested, according to industryexperts. Forwarding costs (20 percent of total) could fall by some 20 percent, mainly through improved bundling of residues and theuse of specialized forwarders that can carry more. Today‘s forwarders are made for logs, not residues. Chipping costs could fall byaround 50 percent by transporting unprocessed or bundled residues to the point of end use for efficient processing, rather thanchipping them at the road side as is currently the case. Lower costs are likely to be countered by higher stumpage prices andhauling costs, however. The stumpage price is the money paid to land owners for extracting forest residues. Stumpage prices coulddouble given historic price developments in Brazil and projected increases in demand. Hauling costs could increase by up to 50percent due to the need to source from more remote areas as demand increases. There are no estimates of potential production.Current production of forest residues in Brazil is estimated to be 38.6 million tons (dry matter) yr-1, of which 59% is field residue and41% is industrial waste. Plantations and native forests contribute 51 and 49%, respectively. Potential production is 52.8 million tons(dry matter) yr-1, of which 63 and 37% is from plantations and native forests, respectively. Forestry residues (with firewood and m³ x ton) 205.010.012 Residue (m³) 157.992.556 Dry Matter (ton) 38.600.000 In Brazil, currently 438 sugar-ethanol plants process approximately 501,231.0 million tons of sugar cane (2010-11) per year, and approximately equal amounts of its sucrose-rich juice are used for sugar and ethanol production. Brazil produced 290.713,980 million tons of sugar cane residues, 140 million tons of sugar cane bagasse and 150 million tons of sugar cane straw. The energy content of these wastes supports its use for bioethanol production, as one third of the sugarcane plant total energy is present in bagasse and one-third is present in straw (tops and leaves). Production Brazil 2010- Estimated Residual TYPE OF WASTE - HARVEST BRAZIL 2010 -11 TECHNICAL IBGE 11 (mil tons) ( mil tons) Sugar Cane Bagasse (Million Tons) 501.231.000 140.344.680 Sugar Cane Straw and Leaves (Million Tons) 501.231.000 150.369.300Biomass is the most important renewable energy source in the world. By the year 2050, it is estimated that 90% of the worldpopulation will live in developing countries. Brazil has the potential to provide a cost-effective and sustainable supply ofenergy (biomass, woodchips, wood biobriquette and wood bioepllets), while at the same time aiding countries in meeting theirgreenhouse gas reduction targets. Celso Oliveira President, Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy CEO Brazil Biomass and Renewable Energy and European Energy SRL
  8. 8. The ABIB Brazilian Association of Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy was founded in 2009as national association and currently brings together 489 industries bioenergy and biomass,woodchips, wood bio briquette and wood bio pellets in 24 states the Brazil (production 28.497.844 milton).Currently, the biomass power industry reduces carbon emissions by more than 100 million tons eachyear and provides 37,000 jobs nationwide, many of which are in rural areas in Brazil. ABIB is anorganization with the goal of increasing the use and production of biomass (woodchips, wood biobriquette and wood bio pellets) and bioenergy power and creating new jobs and opportunities in thebiomass industry the Brazil.ABIB educates policymakers at the state and federal level about the benefits of biomass or bioenergyand provides regular briefings and research to keep members fully informed about public policyimpacting the biomass and bioenergy industry. ABIB is actively involved in the legislative process andsupports policies that increase the use of biomass power (woodchips, wood bio briquette and woodbio pellets) and bioenergy (ethanol) other renewable energy sources in Brazils. As policy makers atevery level explore ways to lower greenhouse gases.Brazilian Association of Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy is a member of theassociated World Bioenergy Association: was formed in 2008 an effort to provide the wide range ofactors in the bioenergy sector a global organization to support them in their endeavors. WBA boardrecently decided to create several working groups to address a number of issues includingcertification, sustainability, standardisation, bioenergy promotion, and the about bioenergys impacton food, land-use, and water supplies.WBA is supported by national and international bioenergy associations to be the internationalbioenergy body that joins with the world‗s solar, wind, geothermal and hydro associations on theglobal level in the REN-Alliance. We encourage national and regional organisations, institutions andcompanies..
  9. 9. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BRAZIL IAN ASSOCIATION BIOMASS ABIB Vision. The vision of the Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy is to stimulate the exploitation of renewable energy (bioenergy and biomass) resources in Brazil. ABIB promotes energy efficiency development and investment in the knowledge and use of renewable energy technologies for the benefit the Brazil. ABIB Mission. To establish a global platform of: researchers, engineers, economists, entrepreneurs, educators and decision makers whom will: Create awareness surrounding the potential and opportunities of the renewable energy development in Brazil. Facilitate technology transfer and know-how to Brazil as biomass, bioenergy and renewable energy . Stimulate the exploitation of related technologies for supplying energy and biomass or bioenergy. Encourage the inward flow of investment through financial instruments by reforming legislations to meet the requirements of regulatory bodies. Promote national recognized education and training in renewable energy technologies. Sow the seeds of culture of renewable energy for individuals and societies. INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES PRODUCTION CAPACITY YEAR (MT) FOREST - BIOMASS 248 17.185.500 WOOD CHIPS 118 9.575.023 WOOD BRIQUETE 95 930.010 BIO BRIQUETE 10 271.922 WOOD PELLETS 12 318,789 BIO PELLETS 06 216.600 ABIB is an organization member companies and institutions that are dedicated to moving biomass and bioenergy into the mainstream of Brazil‗s economy, ensuring the success of the biomass and bioenergy industry while helping to build a sustainable and independent energy future for the nation. Celso Oliveira President Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable Energy Brazil. 570 Candido Hartmann 24-243 Curitiba Parana 80730-440 Phone: +005541 BRAZILIAN 33352284 +005541 88630864 Skype Brazil Biomass E-mail Brazil: ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY USA: EU BIOMASS AND RENEWABLE URL ABIB ENERGY URL ABIB Brasil Biomassa
  11. 11. Energy consumption patterns have strongly changed during the last decades. The increase onindustrial production of goods, the high mobility of the population and the dependency on fossil fuelsfor energy generation, particularly, coal, mineral oil and natural gas are considered the main factorscausing environmental depletion.As reported by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety,energy supply is globally based primarily on the finite fossil energy carriers of coal, mineral oil, andnatural gas.The combustion of fossil fuels is the largest contributor to the increasing concentration of greenhousegases (GHG) in the atmosphere.Over the past 20 years, scientists have gathered conclusive evidence temperatures have been risingsharply since the start of the industrial revolution, and that mankind is the main cause of global climatechange.The graph above, which has been produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) shows how global average temperatures have risen over past 1000 years: most of the changehas been in the past century as the world industrialised and population has grown rapidly. Fromfluctuating in a narrow band around 0.5°C below the average 1990 temperature, it has started to risesharply and is most likely to be between 1.5°C and 5.5°C above current temperatures by 2100.Recent years have seen a huge rise in the number of abnormal weather events. Meteorologists agreethat these exceptional conditions are signs that Global Climate Change is happening already.Scientists agree that the most likely cause of the changes are man-made emissions of the so-called"Greenhouse Gases" that can trap heat in the earths atmosphere in the same way that glass trapsheat in a greenhouse. Although there are six major groups of gases that contribute to Global ClimateChange, the most common is Carbon Dioxide (CO2)...
  12. 12. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGEThis would have a catastrophic effect on the earth, with widespread melting of glaciers and ice-sheets, and a highly probablerise in sea level that could lead to the inundation of countries. Latest scientific concern is focused on melting ice loweringsalinity in the North Atlantic Ocean, that could lead to the reversal of the "Great Atlantic Conveyor" - better known as the GulfStream. If this were to happen, we could find that temperatures in NW Europe, fell by up to 10°C, despite temperatureselsewhere in the world risingCarbon Dioxide is a global problem, but the countries that produce the greatest amount per person are in North America,Europe and Australasia. If Carbon Dioxide reductions are to be made, the lead has to be taken by people living in thesecountries.Most Carbon Dioxide in these countries comes from burning fossil fuels, such as coal, gas and oil to heat buildings (includinghomes) and transport. Of course, Carbon Dioxide is also given off by all living things, but in general plants capture as muchas animals and micro-organisms generate.In contrast, Carbon Dioxide produced by burning fuel adds to the gases in the atmosphere and cannot be captured by plants. .Certain facts about Earths climate are not in dispute: The heat-trapping nature of carbon dioxide and other gases wasdemonstrated in the mid-19th century.Their ability to affect the transfer of infrared energy through the atmosphere is the scientific basis of many JPL-designedinstruments, such as AIRS. Increased levels of greenhouse gases must cause the Earth to warm in response. Ice cores drawn from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain glaciers show that the Earth‘s climate responds tochanges in solar output, in the Earth‘s orbit, and in greenhouse gas levels.They also show that in the past, large changes in climate have happened very quickly, geologically-speaking: in tens of years,not in millions or even thousands. The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling.
  13. 13. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CLIMATE CHANGE.This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements,provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. The evidence for rapid climatechange is compelling: Sea level rise. Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century (Republic of Maldives: Vulnerable to sea level rise) Global temperature rise. All three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009. Warming oceans. The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969 Shrinking ice sheets. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Climate Experiment show Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006. Declining Arctic sea ice. Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades. Ocean acidification Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.
  14. 14. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL CAUSES.A layer of greenhouse gases – primarily water vapor, and including much smaller amounts of carbon dioxide, methane andnitrous oxide – act as a thermal blanket for the Earth, absorbing heat and warming the surface to a life-supporting average of59 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees Celsius). Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include:Water vapor. The most abundant greenhouse gas, but importantly, it acts as a feedback to the climate. Water vapor increasesas the Earths atmosphere warms, but so does the possibility of clouds and precipitation, making these some of the mostimportant feedback mechanisms to the greenhouse effect.Carbon dioxide (CO2). A minor but very important component of the atmosphere, carbon dioxide is released through naturalprocesses such as respiration and volcano eruptions and through human activities such as deforestation, land use changes,and burning fossil fuels. Humans have increased atmospheric CO2 concentration by a third since the Industrial Revolutionbegan. This is the most important long-lived "forcing" of climate change.Methane. A hydrocarbon gas produced both through natural sources and human activities, including the decomposition ofwastes in landfills, agriculture, and especially rice cultivation, as well as ruminant digestion and manure managementassociated with domestic livestock. On a molecule-for-molecule basis, methane is a far more active greenhouse gas thancarbon dioxide, but also one which is much less abundant in the atmosphere.Nitrous oxide. A powerful greenhouse gas produced by soil cultivation practices, especially the use of commercial and organicfertilizers, fossil fuel combustion, nitric acid production, and biomass burning.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Synthetic compounds of entirely of industrial origin used in a number of applications, but nowlargely regulated in production and release to the atmosphere by international agreement for their ability to contribute todestruction of the ozone layer. Not enough greenhouse effect: The planet Mars has a very thin atmosphere, nearly all carbon dioxide. Because of the low atmospheric pressure, and with little to no methane or water vapor to reinforce the weak greenhouse effect, Mars has a largely frozen surface that shows no evidence of life. Too much greenhouse effect: The atmosphere of Venus, like Mars, is nearly all carbon dioxide. But Venus has about 300 times as much carbon dioxide in its atmosphere as Earth and Mars do, producing a runaway greenhouse effect and a surface temperature hot enough to melt lead.
  15. 15. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL EFFECTSThe potential future effects of global climate change include more frequent wildfires, longer periods of drought in someregions and an increase in the number, duration and intensity of tropical storms.Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakesis breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner. Effects that scientists hadpredicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occuring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise andlonger, more intense heat waves. Below are some of the regional impacts of global change forecast by the IPCC: North America: Decreasing snowpack in the western mountains; 5-20 percent increase in yields of rain-fed agriculture in some regions; increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in cities that currently experience them. Latin America: Gradual replacement of tropical forest by savannah in eastern Amazonia; risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction in many tropical areas; significant changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation Europe: Increased risk of inland flash floods; more frequent coastal flooding and increased erosion from storms and sea level rise; glacial retreat in mountainous areas; reduced snow cover and winter tourism; extensive species losses; reductions of crop productivity in southern Europe. Africa: By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress; yields from rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 percent in some regions by 2020; agricultural production, including access to food, may be severely compromised. Asia: Freshwater availability projected to decrease in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia by the 2050s; coastal areas will be at risk due to increased flooding; death rate from disease associated with floods and droughts expected to rise in some regions.
  16. 16. The World currently relies heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensiveor too environmentally damaging to retrieve. In contrast, the many types of renewable energyresources-such as wind or biomass and solar energy-are constantly replenished and will never runout.We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"—the energy from plants and plant-derived materialssince people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomassenergy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used.These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-richalgae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills(which are methane, a natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source.Biomass is a substantial renewable resource that can be used as a fuel for producing electricity andother forms of energy. Biomass feedstock, or energy sources, are any organic matter available on arenewable basis for conversion to energy. Agricultural crops and residues, industrial wood and loggingresidues, farm animal wastes, and the organic portion of municipal waste are all biomass feedstock.Biomass fuels, also known as biofuels, may be solid, liquid, or gas and are derived from biomassfeedstock. Biofuel technologies can efficiently transform the energy in biomass into transportation,heating, and electricity generating fuels.Biomass is a proven option for electricity generation. Biomass used in todays power plants includeswood residues, agricultural/farm residues, food processing residues (such as nut shells), and methanegas from landfills. In the future, farms cultivating energy crops, such as trees and grasses, couldsignificantly expand the supply of biomass feedstock.
  17. 17. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - BIOMASS Biomass can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would otherwise be made from fossil fuels. In such scenarios, biomass can provide an array of benefits. For example: •The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Burning biomass releases about the same amount of carbon dioxide as burning fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years ago— an essentially "new" greenhouse gas. Biomass, on the other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured in its own growth (depending how much energy was used to grow, harvest, and process the fuel). •The use of biomass can reduce dependence on foreign oil because biofuels are the only renewable liquid transportation fuels available. •Biomass energy supports agricultural and forest-product industries. The main biomass feedstocks for power are paper mill residue, lumber mill scrap, and municipal waste. For biomass fuels, the most common feedstocks used today are corn grain (for ethanol) and soybeans (for biodiesel). In the near future—and with developed technology—agricultural residues such as corn stover (the stalks, leaves, and husks of the plant) and wheat straw will also be used. Long-term plans include growing and using dedicated energy crops, such as fast-growing trees and grasses, and algae. These feedstocks can grow sustainably on land that will not support intensive food crops. Use of biofuels can reduce dependence on out-of-state and foreign energy sources. Biomass energy crops can be a profitable alternative for farmers, which will complement, not compete with, existing crops and provide an additional source of income for the agricultural industry. Biomass energy crops may be grown on currently underutilized agricultural land. In addition to rural jobs, expanded biomass power deployment can create high skill, high value job opportunities for utility, power equipment, and agricultural equipment industries. •Biofuels — Converting biomass into liquid fuels for transportation •Biopower — Burning biomass directly, or converting it into gaseous or liquid fuels that burn more efficiently, to generate electricity •Bioproducts — Converting biomass into chemicals for making plastics and other products that typically are made from petroleum
  18. 18. Environmental Benefits•Biomass fuels produce virtually no sulfur emissions, and help mitigate acid rain.•Biomass fuels "recycle" atmospheric carbon, minimizing global warming impacts since zero "net"carbon dioxide is emitted during biomass combustion, i.e. the amount of carbon dioxide emitted isequal to the amount absorbed from the atmosphere during the biomass growth phase.•The recycling of biomass wastes mitigates the need to create new landfills and extends the life ofexisting landfills.•Biomass combustion produces less ash than coal, and reduces ash disposal costs and landfill spacerequirements.The biomass ash can also be used as a soil amendment in farm land.•Perennial energy crops (grasses and trees) have distinctly lower environmental impacts thanconventional farm crops.Energy crops require less fertilization and herbicides and provide greater vegetative cover throughoutthe year, providing protection against soil erosion and watershed quality deterioration, as well asimproved wildlife cover.•Landfill gas-to-energy projects turn methane emissions from landfills into useful energy.
  19. 19. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY – SOLAR.Solar is the Latin word for sun—a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes andbusinesses. Thats because more energy from the sun falls on the earth in one hour than is used by everyone in the world inone year. A variety of technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings.The most commonly used solar technologies for homes and businesses are solar water heating, passive solar design forspace heating and cooling, and solar photovoltaics for electricity.Businesses and industry also use these technologies to diversify their energy sources, improve efficiency, and save money.Solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies are also being used by developers and utilities to produceelectricity on a massive scale to power cities and small towns.Concentrating Solar Power . These technologies harness heat from the sun to provide electricity for large power stations.Passive Solar Technology . These technologies harness heat from the sun to warm our homes and businesses in winter.Solar Photovoltaic Technology. These technologies convert sunlight directly into electricity to power homes and businesses.Solar Water Heating. These technologies harness heat from the sun to provide hot water for homes and businesses.Solar Process Heat. These technologies use solar energy to heat or cool commercial and industrial buildings.
  20. 20. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - WIND.Wind Energy Basics. We have been harnessing the winds energy for hundreds of years. From old Holland to farms in theUnited States, windmills have been used for pumping water or grinding grain.Today, the windmills modern equivalent—a wind turbine—can use the winds energy to generate electricityWind turbines can be used as stand-alone applications, or they can be connected to a utility power grid or even combinedwith a photovoltaic (solar cell) system. For utility-scale (megawatt-sized) sources of wind energy, a large number of windturbines are usually built close together to form a wind plant. Several electricity providers today use wind plants to supplypower to their customers.Stand-alone wind turbines are typically used for water pumping or communications. However, homeowners, farmers, andranchers in windy areas can also use wind turbines as a way to cut their electric bills.Small wind systems also have potential as distributed energy resources. Distributed energy resources refer to a variety ofsmall, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined to improve the operation of the electricity deliverysystem
  22. 22. Brazil holds the greatest biological diversity on the planet, which includes the Amazon – one of thebiggest tropical forests in the world and the biggest water spring on Earth.According to Unesco (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).In 2010, the International Year of Biodiversity, Brazil marked its presence at COP10 (United NationsConvention on Biological Diversity), held in Nagoya, Japan).The meeting sought a consensus to significantly diminish the loss of biodiversity on the planet in thenext decades and established new ecosystem protection agreements and a genetic resourcesprotocol.Public forests included in the CNFP (National Roll of Public Forests) until 2010 290 million hectaresof registered public forests, were included in the National Roll of Public Forests -an addition of 21.38% in comparison to the 2009.Greenhouse effect gas emissions reduction target. Reduce emissions between 36.1% and 38.9% until2020, based on 2010 levels (between 1.17-1.26 GtCO2eq until 2020).Brazil has a long time tradition in the use of renewable energy. A look at the primary energy supplyshows that in 2002, 41% was renewable energy with hydropower contributing with 14% and biomasswith 27%. The hydropower plants amount to 65 GW of the 82 GW of total installed capacity.At the COP15 last year, the country pledged to reduce about 37% of its carbon emissions by 2020.Until now, the hydropower sector has been the most developed renewable energy sector in Brazil with85% of the total electricity generation and almost 14% of the total primary energy supply..
  23. 23. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY - WHY BRAZILThe development model adopted by the Brazilian in the last years was to invest in public policies that increased productiveefficiency, diminished external vulnerability and stimulated the investment rate and savings as a fraction of GDP. By the endof 2010 the result of this policy was a consistent and stable economy.The adopted measures allowed for constant, sustainable growth with generation of formal employment, better incomedistribution and capacity to absorb external and internal shocks.The surplus in the agribusiness balance of trade in 2010 was a record, reaching US$ 63 billion – that is, US$ 8.1 billion abovewhat was registered in 2009. This was three times higher than the US$ 20 billion registered in Brazil‘s global trade surplus inthe same period. The country‘s most exported items are soy, coffee and sugar.The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply‘s forecast is that in the next 15 years there will be an increase of 30 millioncultivated hectares in the country, made available by former pasture areas, due to the technological development of beef andmilk cattle livestock. Brazil is the largest economic power in Latin America and the 10th largest country in the world. Over the last decade Brazil‘s agribusiness and domestic production has increased 47% and 32.3%, respectively, and the economy as a whole grew 5.4% in 2007. Record prices in the country‘s key commodities such as orange juice and soybeans, in addition to direct foreign investment upwards of $37 billion in 2007 have been key drivers of the Brazilian economy. Brazil is the world‘s largest exporter of ethanol and the largest producer of sugar cane. However, new oil discoveries will also launch Brazil into the world oil stage. Another discovery, known as the Carioca-Sugar Loaf, could be as large as 33 billion barrels according to Brazil‘s National Petroleum Agency. Power generation. Oil Production in 2010 2.18 million barrels per day Electricity in 2010 Total Consumption of 505,684 GWh. Natural gas in 2010 69 million cubic meters per day Pre-salt 65.2 thousand bbl/d and 2.312 million m³/d of natural gas Biodiesel in 2010 2.4 billion liters Ethanol in 2010 27.9 billion liters Power Plants Hydroelectric - 887 Gas - 129 Biomass - 389 Petroleum - 866 Nuclear - 2 Coal - 9 Wind - 50 Solar – 4
  24. 24. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL.Brazil currently holds 65 percent of the installed potential for wind power generation in Latin America. The country currentlymaintains 45 wind farms, totaling 794 MW of power, or just 0.7 percent of the Brazilian energy supply mix.This energy can supply about 600,000 households or a city with 3 million inhabitants. In summer 2010, Alstom has signed itsfirst contract in the Brazilian wind market with the renewable power generating company Desenvix. The project called―Brotas,‖ located in Bahia, will be a complex of three wind farms with a total capacity of 90MW.In 2009, around 5 million m² of solar panels were installed in Brazil according to data from IEA. The new installed area isincreasing each year, for instance, with an increase of almost 20% between 2008 and 2009. In 2009, approximately 2% ofBrazilian households used solar panels to heat water, so 27.11m²/1000 inhabitants.Following the ambitious ―National plan on Climate Change Ministry of Environment,‖ the objective of the government is totriple the area of solar panels by 2015.Geothermal currently has very few tapped wells in Brazil, knowing that only 1,840 GWh was produced in geothermalapplications.Wave energy. The port of Pecém in Ceará, 60 kilometers from Fortaleza, will be the first spot on the Brazilian coast to housea pilot plant for generating electricity from the waves of the sea. When it is completed, on a commercial scale, it will becapable of generating 500 kilowatts (kW) to start with. .Nuclear. Brazil has only 2 nuclear reactors called Angra 1 and Angra 2, which total 1900 MW of installed capacity, providing2% of the total electricity in 2007. Another reactor is now under construction with an rating capacity of 1270 MW.Brazil Investing in Renewables Not Fossil Fuels How is Brazil going to hit its targets? With strong investment in newrenewable energy technologies, not continued investment in fossil fuels.Heres how investment is scheduled to break down: R$70 billion ($44.5 billion) for renewable energy sources. R$96 billion($60.7 billion) for large-hydro plants. R$25 billion ($15.8 billion) for fossil projects.
  25. 25. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL Hydropower. The map below presents hydropower potential of Brazil with the darker regions holding the most significant potential. The two main regions for hydropower exploitation are the North West in the Amazon region and the other is in the South East where the Itaipu dam is located. In the darker regions, the hydropower potential is estimated to be between 15GW and 20GW whereas the potential in the light-colored regions are between 0 and 1000MW.Small Hydropower Potential of BrazilBrazil also has a small hydropower potential of 258 MW, which it is currently tapped at only 28%. Due to the forest preservation anddifficult access, the northern part of the country remains the least tapped region for small hydropower with only 9% of the potentialexploited. Nonetheless, in isolated villages and with difficult access to the national grid, small hydropower through simple domesticapplications would be very promising to develop..
  26. 26. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL RENEWABLE ENERGY BRAZIL Solar. Brazil is located in a region on Earth where solar radiation is one of the highest in the world, especially in the north of the country. Figure shows the global solar radiation of Brazil (Wh/m²). The warmest colors, orange, red and yellow, indicates the regions where the radiation is the most important. With an average of 6000 Wh/m², the Amazon is the sunniest region of Brazil, but it is also the worst location for ecological and economical reasons for the energy to be tapped there. Wind power. The map, created by the Brazilian Center of Wind Power Energy, depicts the wind profile of Brazil. This potential is highly concentrated on the coast, especially in the northeast of the country. The easterly breezes in northern Brazil are among the most consistent weather patterns in the world, according to the American Meteorological Society. They allow for the deployment of cheaper, lighter turbines, instead of the more rugged ones designed for unexpected gusts. Wind conditions are amazing in Brazil, far better than what is available in the U.S. and Europe..
  27. 27. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BRAZIL The global challenge of climate change grows bigger every day. In the meantime, there is scientific evidence that generating and using energy in the cleanest, most efficient way is a matter of survival. Renewable energy sources will need to play a major part in Brazil‘s future energy mix. Investing in clean energy also includes upgrading the old inefficient and greenhouse gas emitting power plants and increasing energy efficiency on all levels. In addition, the role, that cities have – some of the largest energy consumers – will need to change and transform into sustainable models of urbanization. In future, the urban design of cities must enable people to thrive in harmony with nature and achieve sustainable development. Cities, towns and villages should be designed to enhance the health and quality of life of their inhabitants and maintain the ecosystems on which on they depend. The 2011 Signatories of this Declaration recognize that the development of a sustainable Brazil requires a focus and increased initiatives in the following 9 areas, which need to be embedded in short-term and long-term strategies . 1. Renewable energy Energy generation will need to transform towards a significant increase in the use of renewable energy sources, particular biomass or bioenergy and solar PV, solar thermal, and wind. We need to design cities for energy conservation, renewable energy uses and the reduction, re-use and recycling of materials. Based on the plentiful biomass residue, Brazil has the potential to show real leadership in renewable energy technology, securing energy independence with locally generated, decentralized, and distributed energy generation. 2. Water and waste Sustainable treatment and recycling of water, and all forms of waste. Storm and rainwater harvesting and better urban water management are necessary. Waste-to-energy strategies and more facilities for the sustainable handling of industrial and waste are necessary, including recycling and composting of organic waste. 3. Materials and short supply chains There is a need to emphasize materials re-use, life-cycle, and embodied energy. Technological innovation for prefabricated modular construction systems need to be explored by the architects and the entire building sector (this will help to ensure housing affordability). Food supply using community gardens, and short supply chains, need to be fully considered. 4. Sustainable urban form for growth Establishing growth boundaries for cities will stop sprawl and keep the cities compact. Integration of open green spaces for pedestrians and cyclists, such as parks, gardens, and a high quality of public space networks, to maximize biodiversity and maximize accessibility of the city for all citizens while conserving energy and resources and alleviating such problems as heat island effects and global warming. A better relationship between Brazilian Cities, their urban centres and the countryside/regions needs to be achieved. Stop building in agricultural land; intensification of the use of innercity roof tops.
  28. 28. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY BRAZIL5. Ecological awareness and educationProviding adequate, accessible education and training programs, for capacity building and local skills development, toincrease community participation and awareness of best practice in urban design and management. Supporting innovation,research, and programs at schools. Incubators need to be established for the application of ideas and roll-out of concepts forsustainable development. Encourage and initiate international and community-to-community cooperation to shareexperiences, lessons and resources (learning from others-principle). The role of the Brazilian universities as leaders anddevelopers of new knowledge is crucial.6. Public transport and the pedestrian friendly cityWe need a strong focus on public transport, to reduce the dependency on the automobile, to build cities for people.Furthermore, minimizing the loss of rural land by all effective measures, including regional urban and peri-urban ecologicalplanning. To build cities for safe pedestrian and non-motorized transport use includes investment in efficient, convenient andlow-cost public transportation (green, emission-free buses), and cycle paths.7. Legal framework, legislation and governanceProvide strong economic incentives and offer subsidies to businesses and the entire private sector for investment insustainability (which will also create green jobs). Tax all activities that work against ecologically healthy development,including those that produce greenhouse gases and other emissions (polluter pays-principle). Introducing policies that enablesolar power, wind, biomass and bioenergy adoption; updating the building code and set targets for energy and waterreduction. A strong position for a Brazilian Green Building Council will help to raise the quality of architectural and planningoutcomes (with a focus on passive building principles).8. Better coordination Creation of a government agency that will coordinate and monitor functions such as transportation, energy, water and landuse in holistic planning and management, and facilitate sustainable projects and master planning. Build demonstrationprojects: In policy at all levels of government and in the decision making bodies of all institutions – universities, businesses,nongovernmental organization, professional associations and so on – address in the plans and actions of those institutionsinstitutions‘ physical design and layout relative to its local community to address climate change effectively.9. City character and social sustainabilityThe protection of heritage and the unique character of the Brazilian cities and countryside are important. The adaptive reuseof existing older structures and a focus on urban revitalization projects are to be enforced. The vibrant city is a city of mixed-use, where people live close to work, therefore do not need to commute, allowing more time for family activities.Signatories:Brazilian Association Industry Biomass and Renewable EnergyThis Declaration was signed on the 15th of September 2011 by 40 organizations, which participated in the SustainableBrazilian and support the outlined strategies.
  30. 30. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POTENTIAL WORLD Biomass features strongly in virtually all the major global energy supply scenarios, as biomass resources are potentially the world largest and most sustainable energy source. Biomass is potentially an infinitely renewable resource comprising 220 oven dry tonnes (odt), or about 4500 exajoules (EJ), of annual primary production; the annual bioenergy potential is about 2900 EJ (approximately 1700 EJ from forests, 850 EJ from grasslands and 350 EJ from agricultural areas). In theory, at least, energy farming in current agricultural land alone could contribute over 800 EJ without affecting the world‘s food supply. There are large variations between the many attempts to quantify the potential for bioenergy. This is due to the complex nature of biomass production and use, including such factors as the difficulties in estimating resource availability, long-term sustainable productivity and the economics of production and use, given the large range of conversion technologies, as well as ecological, social, cultural and environmental considerations.Estimating biomass energy use is also problematic due to the range of biomass energy end-uses and supply chains and thecompeting uses of biomass resources.There is also considerable uncertainty surrounding estimates of the potential role of dedicated energy forestry/crops in Brazil,since the traditional sources of biomass they could replace, such as residues from agriculture, forestry and other sourceshave a much lower and varied energy value.Furthermore, the availability of energy sources, including biomass, varies greatly according to the level of socio-economicdevelopment. All these factors make it very difficult to extrapolate bioenergy potential, particularly at a Brazil scale. All majorenergy scenarios include bioenergy as a major energy source in the future. For the reasons given above, there are very largedifferences in these estimates, so these figures should be considered only as estimates.Are based on estimates of future energy needs and the determination of the related primary energy mix, including biomassenergy share, based on resource, cost and environmental constraints. In order to achieve realistic scenarios for biomassenergy use and its role in satisfying future energy demand and environmental constraints.Globally, about 50 per cent of the potentially available residues are associated with the forestry and wood processingindustries; about 40 per cent are agricultural residues (e.g. straw, sugarcane residues, rice husks and cotton residues) andabout 10 per cent animal manure. An important strategic element in developing a biomass energy industry Brazil is the needto address the introduction of suitable crops, logistics and conversion technologies. This may involve a transition over time tomore efficient crops and conversion technologies.
  31. 31. Thus, the fundamental problem is not availability of biomass resources but the sustainablemanagement and the competitive and affordable delivery of modern energy services. This implies thatall aspects both production and use of bioenergy must be modernized and, most importantly,maintained on a sustainable and long-term basis.Biomass fuels also have an increasingly important role to play in the welfare of the globalenvironment. Using modern energy conversion technologies it is possible to displace fossil fuels withan equivalent biofuel.When biomass is grown sustainably for energy there is no net build-up of CO2, assuming that theamount grown is equal to that burned, as the CO2 released in combustion is compensated for by thatabsorbed by the growing energy crop.The sustainable production of biomass is therefore an important practical approach to environmentalprotection and longer-term issues such as reforestation and revegetation of degraded lands and inmitigating global warming.Bioenergy can play a significant role both as a modern energy source and in abating pollution. Indeed,a combination of environmental considerations, social factors, the need to find new alternative sourcesof energy, political necessities and rapidly evolving technologies are opening up new opportunities formeeting the energy needs from bioenergy in an increasingly environment-conscious world.This is reflected in the current worldwide interest in Renewable Energy in general and bioenergy inparticular. Concerns with climate change and environment are playing a significant role in promotionbiomass and bioenergy, although there is still considerable uncertainty as to what the ultimate effectswill be.
  32. 32. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZILTRADITIONAL AND MODERN USES BIOMASS The FAO classifies bioenergy into three main groups: woodfuels or agro-fuels, and urban waste-based fuels. Biomass can also be classified as: traditional bioenergy (firewood, charcoal, residues), and modern biomass (associated with industrial wood residues, energy plantations, use of bagasse, etc.). Traditional uses of biomass in its ‗raw‘ form are often very inefficient, wasting much of the energy available, and are also often associated with significant negative environmental impacts. Modern applications are rapidly replacing traditional uses, particularly in the industrialized countries. Changes are also occurring in many developing countries, although very unevenly. However, in absolute terms the use of traditional bioenergy continues to grow due to rapid population increases in many developing countries, increasing demand for energy and a lack of accessible or affordable alternative energy sources. Modern applications require capital, skills, technology, market structure and a certain level of development. Traditional uses of biomass have been estimated at between 900 Mtoe to 1500 Mtoe, depending on the source. These are rough estimates since, as already mentioned, traditional uses are at the core of the informal economy and never enter the official statistics. Modern applications. As was clearly reflected in the Bonn Conference, which was attended by representatives from 154 countries, concerted support for Renewable Energy is leading to a rapid, albeit varying, increase in modern applications of bioenergy around the world. The modernization of biomass embraces a range of technologies that include combustion, gasification and pyrolysis for: household applications, e.g. improved cooking stoves, use of biogas, ethanol; small cottage industrial applications, e.g. brick-making, bakeries, ceramics, tobacco curing, and large industrial applications, e.g. CHP, electricity generation.Technology options. Many studies have demonstrated that just minor technology improvements could increase the efficiencyof biomass energy production and use significantly, maintain high productivity of biomass plantations on a sustainable basisand mitigate environmental and health problems associated with biomass production and use.Combustion technologies produce about 90 per cent of the energy from biomass, converting biomass fuels into several formsof useful energy, e.g. hot air, hot water, steam and electricity. Commercial and industrial combustion plants can burn manytypes of biomass ranging from woody biomass to MSW. The simplest combustion technology is a furnace that burns thebiomass in a combustion chamber. Biomass combustion facilities that generate electricity from steam-driven turbinegenerators have a conversion efficiency of between 17 and 25 per cent.Cogeneration can increase this efficiency to almost 85 per cent. Large-scale combustion systems use mostly low-qualityfuels, while high-quality fuels are more frequently used in small application systems.
  33. 33. The main advantages of co-firing include:• existence of an established market particularly for CHP• relatively smaller investment compared to a biomass only plant (i.e. minor modification in existingcoal-fired boiler)• high flexibility in arranging and integrating the main components into existing plants (i.e. use ofexisting plant capacity and infrastructure)• favourable environmental impacts compared to coal-only plants• potentially lower local feedstock costs (i.e. use of agro-forestry residues and energy crops, if present,productivity can increase significantly)• potential availability of large amounts of feedstock (biomass/waste) that can be used in co-firingapplications, if supply logistics can be solved• higher efficiency for converting biomass to electricity compared to 100 per cent wood-fired boilers(for example, biomass combustion efficiency to electricity would be close to 33–37 per cent when firedwith coal)• planning consent is not required in most cases.
  34. 34. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS COFIRING AND GASIFICATION Co-firing is potentially a major option for the utilization of biomass, if some of the technical, social and supply problems can be overcome. Co-firing of biomass with fossil fuels, primarily coal or lignite, has received much attention particularly in Denmark, the Netherlands and the United States. For example, in the United States tests have been carried out on over 40 commercial plants and it has been demonstrated that co- firing of biomass with coal has the technical and economic potential to replace at least 10 GW of coal-based generation capacity by 2012 and as much as 26 GW by 2020, which could reduce carbon emissions by 16–24 MtC (Millions tonnes Carbon). Since large-scale power boilers range from 100 MW to 1.3 GW, the biomass potential in a single boiler ranges from 15 to 150 MW. Biomass and Woodpellets can be blended with coal in differing proportions, ranging from 2 to 25 per cent or more. Extensive tests show that biomass energy could provide, on average, about 15 per cent of the total energy input with modifications only to the feed intake systems and the burner. Gasification is one of the most important research, development and demonstration (RD&D) areas in biomass for power generation, as it is the main alternative to direct combustion. Gasification is an endothermal conversion technology in which a solid fuel is converted into a combustible gas. The importance of this technology lies in the fact that it can take advantage of advanced turbine designs and heat-recovery steam generators to achieve high energy efficiency. The main attractions of gasification are: higher electrical efficiency (e.g. 40 per cent or more compared with combustion 26–30 per cent), while costs may be very similar; important developments on the horizon, such as advanced gas turbines and fuel cells; possible replacement of natural gas or diesel fuel used in industrial boilers and furnaces; distributed power generation where power demand is low AND displacement of gasoline or diesel in an internal combustion (IC) engine.
  35. 35. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS CLASSIFICATION Biomass classification. There are many ways of classifying biomass, but generally it can be divided into woody biomass and non-woody biomass, including herbaceous crops. The system adopted in this e-book divides biomass types into eight categories. This is attractive because it allows similar methods of assessment and measurement for each type of biomass. You may be inclined to use a more refined classification system, but whatever method you select, make sure that it is clearly specified. 1 Natural forests/woodlands. These include all biomass in high standing, closed natural forests and woodlands. This category will also include forest residues. 2 Forest Energetic plantations. These plantations include both commercial plantations (pulp and paper, furniture) and energy plantations (trees dedicated to producing energy such as charcoal, and other energy uses). The total contribution of bioenergy in the future will be strongly linked to the potential of ‗energy forestry/crops plantations‘ since the potential of residues is more limited. 3 Agro-industrial plantations. These are forest plantations specifically designed to produce agro- industrial raw materials, with wood collected as a byproduct. 4 Trees outside forests and woodlands. These consist of trees grown outside forest or woodland, including bush trees, urban trees, roadside trees and on-farm trees. Trees outside forests have a major role as sources of fruits, firewood, etc., and their importance should not be underestimated.
  36. 36. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS CLASSIFICATION 5 Agricultural crops. These are crops grown specifically for food, fodder, fibre or energy production. Distinctions can be made between intensive, larger-scale farming, for which production figures may show up in the national statistics, and rural family farms, cultivated pasture and natural pasture. 6 Crop residues. These include crop and plant residues produced in the field. Fuel switching can result in major changes in how people use biomass energy resources. 7 Processed residues. These include residues resulting from the agro-industrial conversion or processing of crops (including tree crops), such as sawdust, sawmill off-cuts, bagasse, nutshells and grain husks. These are very important sources of biomass fuels and should be properly assessed.8 Animal wastes. These comprise waste from both intensive and extensive animal husbandry. When considering the supplyof biomass, it is also important to ascertain the amount that is actually accessible for fuel, not the total amount produced.
  38. 38. BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION INDUSTRY BIOMASS THE FUTURE FOR BIOENERGY AND BIOMASS BRAZIL BIOMASS POTENTIAL BRAZILTable shows that the energy potentially available from crop, agriculture and agroindustry, forestry residues in Brazil is about12-14 EJ. However, there is considerable variation in the estimates, which vary from around 0.5 to 1.2 Gt/yr for agricultureand 100–200 Mt/yr for forestry residues, and thus should be regarded as rough indications only. Product Production Total Residue Brazil 2010 Brazil 2010 (mill tonn) SugarCane 501.231.000 290.713,980 (Bagasse, Waste and Staw) Wood 205.010.012 m³ 157.992.556 m³(Wood Residue and Waste m³) Soya – Grains 68.479.967 95.871.950 (Straw and Waste) Corn - Grains 56.059.638 79.604.685 (Straw, Cob and Waste) Banana 7 072 076 29.136.953 (Leaf and Banana Stalks) Cassava 26.078.596 17.237.951 Rama (95%) Rice- Grains 11.325.672 16.875.250 (Bark and Straw ) Beans 3.223.074 11.828.681 (Straw and Waste) Herbaceous Cotton 2.931.295 8.647.319 (Pell, Waste and Seed) Wheat 5.960.523 8.344.732 (Straw and Waste) Orange 19 094 786 3.628.009 (Bran Orange Bagasse) Coconut 1.991.957 1.195.174 (Bark and Waste) Pineapple 1 448 875 869.325 (Meat and Waste) Coffee 2.862.013 801.363 (Bark and Waste) Sorghum 3900 794.176 (Grain and Waste)
  39. 39. Forest Industrial Production Waste and Wood and Forest and Consumption 2009 Logs Forest Plywood Industrial Wastes of Logs (m³) and Firewood Residue Production (m³) (m³) (m³) (%) Forest 205.010.012 5,29% 10.845.029 Logs 70.200.000 42.163.000 28.037.000 MDF 16.600.000 7.215.000 9.385.000PlywoodSawdust 122.159.595 22,00% 26.875.110 75.142.139Firewood 82.850.417 Total Forest 10.845.029 Residue (m³) Residue Industrial (m³) 64.297.110 Firewood (m³) 82.850.417 Total (m³) 157.992.556We have a potential of 157,992,556 cubic meters of forest residues. Incomparison (TJ) for thermal power generation 1,244,253 TJ have enough tomeet all domestic demand for energy. If we were to compare the use of non-renewable sources, avoiding theconsumption of coal and 56,877,331 m³ produce 71.096.664 ton of pellets orbiomass and would prevent the issuance of 189,591,060 tons of CO2.
  40. 40. According to the Brazilian Forestry Inventory small pieces of wood, including tree bark, are the majorwaste obtained from the forestry industry, corresponding to 71% of the total waste. Sawdust issecond, accounting for 22%.Furthermore, major wood loss occurs during the wood processing in the furniture sector. In somecases, up to 80% of a tree is lost between the tree being cut in the forest and the furnituremanufacturing.In Brazil, short-rotation woody crops such as round wood (Eucalyptus and Pinus) yielded 55 milliontons (dry matter). Their potential production is estimated at 81.4million tons (dry matter) yr-1 on aplanted area of 6.51 million ha with an average mean annual increment from 13 to 14.7 t (dry matter)ha-1 yr-1.Furthermore, 50.9 million tons (dry matter) of woody biomass from native forests was produced in2010, of which 15.1 million tons (dry matter) were of saw logs, 30.3 million tons (dry matter) offirewood and 5.5 million tons (dry matter) of wood for charcoal.There are no estimates of potential production. Current production of forest residues in Brazil isestimated to be 55.6 million tons (dry matter) yr-1, of which 59% is field residue and 41% is industrialwaste.Plantations and native forests contribute 51 and 49%, respectively. Potential production is 72.8 milliontons (dry matter) yr-1, of which 63 and 37% is from plantations and native forests, respectively.Forestry wastes obtained from the correct handling of the reforesting projects may increase the futureforest energetic productivity. The energetic potential of the forestry waste in the world was estimatedto be 35 EJ/year (10 GW).