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Learning theories


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  • 1. University of the Philippines College of Education Educational Technology Department EDTECH101 Learning Theories that Influence Utilization of Instructional Media ResourcesFerdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education
  • 2. Humanism vs. Technology High D CHumanism A B Low High Technology
  • 3. Educational Technology: Foundations Communications Systems approach Psychology
  • 4. Media as a channel of communication FeedbackTeacher Learner Schramm’s model – Field of Experience/ Feedback
  • 5. Dale’s Cone of ExperienceSource: from Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 1st Edition, © 1969. Reprinted with permission of Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
  • 6. Systems Approach
  • 7. 1 4 3 2 8 5 6 7 910
  • 8. Psychology• Behaviorism• Cognitivism• Constructivism
  • 9. Behaviorism1. Early behaviorism -- Pavlov (1849 - 1936) Focus on reflexive behavior Food Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Salivation (natural, not learned) Bell Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response (to Salivation bell)
  • 10. Behaviorism2. B.F. SkinnerFocus on voluntary behavior and reinforcement“Learning is a function of change in overt behavior.”
  • 11. B. F. Skinner 1904 – 1990  English Major PsychologyBook, Wallden II Skinner box
  • 12. Behaviorism“--- A person comes under the control of a stimulating environment, responds to subtle properties of that environment, and responds to it in many complex ways because of the consequences contingent upon earlier responses.---- ”(Operant Conditioning) 6) Initial behavior –7) Consequences (reinforcement/punishment) –8) Next behavior
  • 13. Behaviorism How to shape behavior and maintain it in strength? How to design instruction? Use Contingencies of ReinforcementA certain behavior consequences of that behavior
  • 14. Behaviorism1. Positive reinforcement3. Instant reinforcement5. Frequent reinforcement7. Multiple scheduled reinforcement
  • 15. BehaviorismUse of Media:Teaching machineProgrammed instructionStructuredFocus on objectives
  • 16. CognitivismFocus on Active Mental Process 1) Information Processing Model 2) Mental Development Model
  • 17. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory registerShort-term memory-- Working memoryLong-term memory
  • 18. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory register AttentionShort-term memory-- Working memory Remembering Not ForgettingLong-term memory
  • 19. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Attention gaining strategies: Attention Sensory register e.g. visuals, paradox Short-term memoryRemembering -- Working memory Active processing strategies: e.g. chucking/organizing content Retrieval strategies:Not forgetting e.g. relate new info. to old info. Long-term memory
  • 20. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model  Swiss philosopher and psychologistJean Piaget(1896-1980)
  • 21. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Observe/listen to children Piaget: What makes the wind? Julia: The trees. P: How do you know? J: I saw them waving their arms. P: How does that make the wind? J (waving her hand in front of his face): Like this. Only they are bigger. And there are lots of trees. P: What makes the wind on the ocean? J: It blows there from the land. No. Its the waves...## Four stages of childhood development(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
  • 22. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures)Assimilation: Accommodatio n: modifyingNew info. into existing existing structure/creat structure ing new one
  • 23. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development ModelAssimilation?? Accommodation??
  • 24. Cognitivism 2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures)Assimilation: Accommodatio n: modifyingNew info. into existing existing structure/creat structure ing new one Useful instructional strategies Advanced Organizers Transfer Mnemonics Organization and more…..
  • 25. ConstructivismDifferent from Objectivism such as Behaviorism/Cognitivism Objective entities/realities The correct structure
  • 26. Constructivism Constructivistic philosophy A real world we experience Multiple perspectives
  • 27. Constructivism“Situating” our cognitive experiences in authentic activities Real world problems emphasized
  • 28. Constructivism• Learning: ????• Teaching: ????
  • 29. Constructivism• Learning: based on experience/ construction of meaning/ social interaction• Instructional strategies?? - social collaboration - multiple perspectives - negotiation of meanings - situated in real cases
  • 30. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky
  • 31. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky1. Between people, then inside self2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP) - social interactions
  • 32. Remember!! (A. Bednar, et al. ) “Instructional design and development must be based upon some theory of learning and/orcognition; effective design is possible only if thedeveloper has developed reflexive awareness of the theoretical basis underlying the design.”
  • 33. Remember !! “ Theories of Learning and prescriptions forpractice must go hand in hand.” – (T. Duffy and D. Jonassen) Instructional Design (Prescriptions for practice) Constructivism Behaviorism Cognitivism
  • 34. Activity1. Case 1: Japan New teachers How to serve physically challenged students1. Case 2: USA A mix of slower and faster learners; thirty 7th graders Teach existing of different cultures in Asia3. Case 3: Paris Filipino as a second language; intermediate level A mix of 10 senior citizens; 10 university students Teach them Filipino 。4. Case 4: Indonesia High school students (above average) Teach to be active, creative…
  • 35. NEXT MEETING:Issues and trends in the use of media technology for classroom instructions