Although only recently accepted into the international food lexicon, umami, the fifth taste stretches back into the annals of food history. Many popular foods and seasonings evoke In the the umami taste, although it remained unidentified in a scientific sense. By Jeanne turner A fermented or pickled fish sauce called garum, rich in umami taste and char- acteristics, is one of the earliest recorded flavoring agents used in ancient Greece and Rome when Aristotle identified seven basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, spicy, astringent and sandy. Chinese records from as early as 1,000 B.C. documented five tastes. Other ancient cultures also record more than four basic tastes. Dashi ingredients from left to right: Kombu (kelp); Katsuobushi (Dried bonito); Niboshi (Small dried fish); Dried Shiitake mushroom; Water2 Apparently the ideas of a different Greek philosopher, Democritus, held greater power than Aristotle’s, as his identification of four basic tastes—sweet, salty, sour and bitter— became the world’s standard for almost 2,500 years. As modern science progressed in the early nineteenth century, giving us a better understanding of the human body with micro- scopic views of the tongue and taste buds, all evidence appeared to confirm the existence of just four different taste receptors. In 1903 the renowned French chef, Auguste Escoffier, published a cookbook including his original creation, veal stock, suggesting a fifth taste was responsible for the delicious flavor of this culinary masterpiece. But his assertions went no further at that time. In fact, among culinary treasures to emerge in the last century, perhaps none has had a great- er impact on the global community than umami—so complex it almost defies description, yet the H I S T O R Y so universal it is a wonder its secrets remained hidden for so long. Throughout the world, every culture can identify indigenous sources of umami. Nordic lands have anchovies, cod roe paste and dried fish. In South America and the Caribbean, dried shrimp improve the taste of soups, stews and rice dishes. Tomatoes, another source of umami, are native to Peru and Ecuador. What was the key that unlocked umami’s secret once and for all? It came in 1908 from yet another culture familiar with savory sensations that formed the backdrop to traditional dishes, as a Tokyo University professor decided to investigate the scientific explanation for the intriguing taste of dashi.
The Root of Umami DiscoveryresIdents of an IsLand distinctive that a good dashi helps reduce seaweed that helps lend dashi its distinc-nation, the Japanese people resourcefully the need for salt and oil and helps create tive umami profile, has the highest naturaluse the bounty the sea provides to enhance healthier nutritional profiles. levels of glutamate in the world.and enrich their cuisine. Not only do cer- Seasonality also plays an important Umami can be described as the savorytain foods and ingredients play a role in the role in Japanese culture and cuisine. The taste imparted by glutamate and fivedaily diet, they also have such an ancient garnishes selected, the food presentation, ribonucleotides, including inosinate andheritage that they are interwoven into the even the dishes chosen to serve the food guanylate, identified in 1913 and 1957history of Japanese culture. The best ex- are selected for their seasonal suitability, respectively, which occur naturally inample of this is dashi, a carefully prepared and food or ingredients used in their proper many foods, including meat, fish, certainstock that forms the basis for multiple season are said to be in “shun.” This focus vegetables and dairy products. Another nucleotide, adenylate, identified in the 1960s, is abundant in fish and shellfish. While the Japanese have enjoyed the benefits of umami in their cuisine for cen- turies, the Western world only recently em- braced the concept of umami. Professional chefs in the West now experiment with the types of ingredients that give the distinctive umami signature to a prepared meal. 3dishes within Japanese cuisine. on seasonality portrays the link between Further research in the 1980s solidi- Dashi is a deceptively simple stock cre- nature and food that is deeply ingrained fied umami’s acceptance as the fifth tasteated using carefully dried and prepared in- within Japanese cooking. Dashi might serve in the international lexicon. Umamigredients. Dashi relies upon the combina- as the basis for various popular dishes eaten acts synergistically with other flavorstion of kombu, or dried kelp seaweed, and in season, with winter dishes such as Pork to enhance and amplify their effect, tokatsuobushi, or dried bonito flakes, mixed and Miso Soup (Tonjiru) or Simmered bring out the full boldness and richnesswith other ingredients as distinctive as the Daikon Radish; or summer dishes such of the entire formulation for a heightenedchef who prepares his or her own unique as Grilled eggplant in dashi, or Somen, a gastronomic experience.variety. The kombu and katsuobushi are wheat noodle served with dipping sauce. In addition to its role as a palate pleaser,carefully selected, aged and dried. In 1908, Professor Kikunae Ikeda of umami is beneficial for human survival Whereas a Western bouillon might Tokyo Imperial University drilled down in the most primal sense. Each of the fivesimmer any number of fresh ingredients to the bare essence of dashi’s ingredients tastes recognized by the human body hasfor hours in a reduction, the dried dashi and identified a taste that could not be a special role to play. Historically, the tastesingredients are soaked in water or heated explained by any of the four traditional either encourage us to pursue the properonly briefly to extract the bare essence of tastes—sweet, salty, sour, bitter—or any nourishment for survival or warn us awayflavor. Steeping the ingredients in hot water combination of the four. Dr. Ikeda’s investi- from harmful foods. For example, weallows the amino acids to infuse the broth, gations led him to L-glutamate, the source desire sweet foods to help maintain enoughas amino acids are the basis of the stock’s of this taste, and he named the taste itself calories in our body and salty foods to helpunique taste. This taste is so rich and “umami.” In fact, kombu, the dried kelp us maintain a proper mineral
Thai Salad balance. Many sour or bitter foods were poisonous or dangerous to humans, so those two tastes acted as a warning.4 Our preference for and delight in foods with umami taste helps us ensure we consume the proper amount of amino acids for our bodily needs, which include, among many other functions, the Atsukezuri, Katsuobushi shavings right amount and type of proteins to help rebuild muscle tissue after exertion or exercise. But if you talk to chefs or other experts, they say a key characteristic of umami is to make your mouth water. Closely associated with foods in season that are ripened or matured, umami is a taste that reaches its best potential Miso through foods served at the peak of matu- rity to help promote good health. As foods ripen or mature, the amino acid content Dashi increases, enhancing the umami effect.
When Science MeetsCulinary Arts G lutamate, otherwise known as L-glutamate or monosodium glutamate (MSG), identified as the key amino acid responsible for umami flavor, is not exclusive to kombu. It is also common in Western ingredients with savory flavor, such as Parmesan cheese, asparagus, tomatoes, meat and anchovies (which NPR science writer Jonah Lehrer termed “glutamate speedballs”). Upon further investigation, research confirmed that these foods could also be included under the description of umami with respect to their amino acid profile. This could be one reason why, once Western chefs grasped the implications of umami, it took the culinary world by storm—it was always present yet unidentified; once acknowledged, it allowed for discovery of savory food cat- egories containing the essence of umami that could enhance fine cuisine. Just as with the other four basic tastes, the tongue has taste receptors that are tuned into umami. Scientific studies in recent years have also shown that the stomach contains glutamate receptors, and that the amino acid glutamate plays an important role in food digestion. Molecular gastronomy examines the link between the physical and chemical processes that occur during cooking and is becoming a focus of attention among chefs, researchers and food writers world- wide. It connects the scientific explanation for food or ingredient behavior with the 5 social, artistic and technical components of culinary processes. Some examples of the types of issues examined via molecular gastronomy might include the study of how various ingredients change depen- dent upon different cooking methods, and investigation into the question: Can we devise new cooking methods that produce unusual and improved results of texture and flavor? As science continues to join forces withthe S C I E N C E the culinary arts, Ajinomoto Company Inc. is committed to assisting with the development of healthier foods enhanced with umami-based ingredients, to not only help create better tasting food but to help develop a healthier population as well.
The 21st Century – “The Century of Amino Acids” amIno acIds, whIch most in and essential to the human body. Water mapped out our DNA genetic make up scientists acknowledge as the building accounts for approximately 60% of our body while the next project is determining the blocks of life, are critical to life and function weight, followed by amino acids (proteins), proteome, or the make up of all the proteins in a wide variety of ways in multiple indus- constituting 20%. Amino acids perform vari- that exist in the human body. Scientists tries and within the human body, including ous important functions and make up vital suspected there were between 10,000 or activity related to flavoring, nutritional func- body tissues such as muscles, the gastroin- 20,000 proteins; now they admit they don’t tion, physiological well being, and reactivity. testinal tract, internal organs, hemoglobin even know the final number.” Amino acid-based ingredients provide a contained in red blood cells, and collagen, Amino acids play a role in areas as di- wide range of tastes or benefits to foods, such the main component of our hair and skin. verse as seasonings, pharmaceuticals, nutri- as umami or sweet taste sensations supplied Athletes were among the first to discover tional supplements, cosmetics, fertilizers and by monosodium glutamate and aspartame and use amino acid-based foods and ingre- livestock feed. Some scientists and humani- dients to help rebuild muscle during or after tarians believe amino acids hold the key to a workout. Science confirmed that helping solve the global issue of malnutrition the human body during exercise and due to inadequate protein intake. Amino recovery utilizes most rapidly pro- acid fortification is a cost-effective, highly teins that have a certain amino acid bioavailable method of maximizing limited composition, specifically branched- food supplies. Ajinomoto Group also utilizes chain amino acids (BCAAs such the nutrient-rich byproduct generated dur- as valine, leucine, and isoleucine), ing amino acid production to convert food which promote the protein synthesis supplies into valuable coproducts such as of skeletal muscles. fertilizer or feed, which reduces the waste Despite scientific advances, stream and helps preserve our ecosystem. lately the research community has Overall, research proves that essential discovered it has barely scratched amino acids are necessary for proper bodily the surface of the vast universe of function and nutritional balance. The Aji- respectively. In this capacity, amino amino acids and proteins that exist nomoto Group believes that amino acids acid-based ingredients help enhance within the human body, or their hold the key to future development of food,6 or highlight the natural flavors of other functions. “We have between 100,000 nutritional products and pharmaceuticals. ingredients, foods and seasonings while or more different proteins that make our Ajinomoto will continue to be the world’s remaining in the background. bodies function properly,” said Jack Heaton, premier company committed to providing Far from being obscure synthetic sub- president of Ajinomoto Scientific Group, better health, nutrition and quality of life stances, amino acids are naturally present LLC, Raleigh, N.C. “The genome project through amino acid creation and utilization. 1908 1956 1963 dr. Kikunae Ikeda ajinomoto U.s.a., Inc., ajinomoto concludes tie-up obtains patent formally established with cPc International Inc. to produce (presently Unilever Bestfoods) L-glutamate 1956 as the source of ‘umami.’ ajinomoto do Brazil Industria 1968 e comercio, s.a established ajinomoto del Peru s.a. established 1909 aji-no-moto, the product, 1962 1973 is launched as umami ajinomoto concludes tie-up ajinomoto concludes tie-up with seasoning based on with Kellogg company general foods corporation; glutamate. reincorporated in Japan as ajinomoto general foods, Inc.
Sweeeeettttt!!!!sImILar to BUILdIng BLocKs, populations such as diabetics a great deal human body metabolizes all essential ami-which in multiple permutations can create of variety and flexibility in budgeting total no acids in the same way. When a personmyriad structures, amino acids in various carbohydrate intake without affecting consumes aspartame, the body breaks itmolecular combinations can create an blood sugar. And with an increased focus down into aspartic acid, phenylalanine andastonishing variety of food ingredients. The on obesity within the general population, a small amount of methanol, identical tosame substance that creates the unique aspartame can help tame weight manage- that found naturally in pectin-containingsavory taste of umami is also responsible, in ment issues by enabling product develop- food products. The rest of the diet providesa different form, for mimicking the unique ers to create foods with a sweet profile much greater quantities oftaste of sugar. yet reduced calorie count compared to a these components than Aspartame is approximately 200 times sugar-sweetened counterpart. does aspartame.sweeter than sugar, which means that 200 From frozen novelties to hard candieskg of sugar can be replaced with 1 kg of as- to iced tea, cocoa mixes and carbonatedpartame. Aspartame has an energy value of soft drinks, aspartame enhances the4 calories per gram but, because only min- eating experience of consumers world-ute amounts of aspartame are required to wide without adding toprovide the equivalent sweetness of sugar, the waistline.it can reduce a product’s calorie content byup to 99%. It offers excellent solubility andis suitable for most product applicationswithin a certain pH and temperature range.Aspartame is utilized as a stable sweetener Aspartame is a dipeptidein products ranging from homogenized composed of two amino acids:dairy foods to beverages, frozen desserts, L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine.confections, baked goods, cereals and fruit Phenylanine is an essential aminopreserves. In addition, aspartame can in- acid, considered essential fortensify and extend fruit flavors in foods and proper bodily function andbeverages. For example, aspartame makes good health. Many com- 7chewing gum taste sweet up to four times mon foods, such aslonger than gum sweetened with sugar. meat, cheese, fish, Aspartame does not promote tooth vegetables or fruit,decay and is an FDA-approved, safe also contain thesesweetening agent, and thus offers special constituents, and the1974 1980 1982eUroLYsIne s.a. established ajinomoto danone co., Ltd. ajinomoto opens pharmaceutical-in france established (presently calpis grade L-amino acid manufacturing ajinomoto danone co., Ltd.) plant in raleigh, n.c.1974ajinomoto Interamericana Industria e 1981 1983comercio Ltda. established in Brazil aspartame available nutrasweet ag established in for tabletop use switzerland (presently ajinomoto1975 sweeteners europe)nissin-ajinomoto alimentos Ltda.established
A Look Ahead the scIentIfIc dIscoverY Just as amino acids are the building ment, they also will live well, or live better, of glutamate as the basis for umami taste blocks for so many unique and diverse and it is our goal to help them achieve this and the foundation of Ajinomoto oc- products, they also form the platform for better balance,” says Yamaguchi. curred within a year of each other. The first Ajinomoto’s future plans. While in the last As part of its corporate mission, Ajino- ingredient the company manufactured, century dietitians emphasized vitamins moto Group is working to help solve some Aji-no-moto, umami seasoning based on and minerals, the next century will be the of the enormous challenges facing our glutamate, reflects its contribution to the century of amino acids, according to Norio planet—adequate food resources, sustain- food ingredient marketplace. “Aji-no-moto” Yamaguchi, Chairman of the Board for the ability, proper food and nutrition educa- is written in three characters in Japanese Ajinomoto Group. tion, environmental pollution protection that literally mean the “essence of taste.” The company has a new slogan to help and the fight against global warming. The Ajinomoto Group not only has helped carry it and its customers forward into its While no effort is less important than bring heightened flavor to the world, but so next century of business: ‘Eat Well—Live another, the focus on food ingredients much more through its efforts in various Well,’ which expresses the link between includes a company growth strategy that is industries, based on the amazing proper- our eating habits and their related effects in accordance with ecological principles. ties derived from amino acids. Eat Well—Live Well on health. “Instead of having to As the global leader in amino acid visit the doctor for a cure, amino production and supply to the food chain, acids can help bring us to the place the Ajinomoto Group offers irreplaceable where the entire focus of medicine shifts value, especially in a world facing huge from cure to prevention, a true focus on issues of whether adequate food resources wellness through foods,” says Jack Heaton, can be secured for all humanity.8 President, Ajinomoto Aminoscience. Ajinomoto works globally but thinks “When consumers eat well, or eat the locally, bringing out the best in regional right combination of foods for nourish- cuisines and helping food industry profes- sionals create products that reach their fullest potential. 1983 1986 amino-acid based heartland Lysine Inc., eddyville plant sweetener aspartame commences operations introduced to revolution- ize carbonated soft drinks, other beverages and sugar- 1993 ajinomoto U.s.a., Inc. Iowa msg plant free foods. commences operations 1984 1997 heartland Lysine, Inc. established in ajinomoto Biolatina opens the United states (presently ajinomoto valparaiso plant heartland LLc) home-use product line-up (ca. 1990)
GRAS PlusMSG - the natural flavor enhancerhow can a food IngredIent have MYTH BuSTINga safety factor greater than GRAS, the “generally sound scientific evidence refutes the idea that monosodiumrecognized as safe” designation from the Food and glutamate (msg) can cause adverse physical reactions inDrug Administration? When that agency reviews the people who eat it.ingredient’s designation and calls for additional testing from a letter in the new england Journal of medicineby authorized, respected, scientifically sound principles containing one person’s musings about his experience in aand discovers it is indeed a benign ingredient. chinese restaurant, society threw science out the window and In 1992, the FDA contracted with the Federa- and culturally fueled suspicion grew, with no basis in fact.tion of American Societies for Experimental Biology the myth was thoroughly debunked in a 1999 vogue article(FASEB), an independent group of scientists, to by Jeffrey steingarten entitled, “why doesn’t everybody incomplete the most comprehensive review of available china have a headache?”scientific data on glutamate safety to date. glutamate, a naturally occurring amino acid in our bodies, The 1995 FASEB report reaffirmed the safety of is present in the first food we consume as babies. human breastMSG when it is consumed at usual levels by the general milk contains large amounts of glutamate at a level ten timespopulation and found no evidence of any connection higher than glutamate present in cow’s milk. scientists believebetween MSG and any serious, long-term reactions. the glutamate acts as a taste enhancer to encourage babies to In 1991 the European Community’s Scientific drink the milk so they can grow.Committee for Food confirmed MSG safety. Food a sprinkle of Parmesan cheese on top of a favorite ItalianStandards Australia conducted a review even more dish contains 1200 mg of glutamate per 100g serving, givingrecently in 2002 and concluded that MSG is indeed a the food a rich taste experience common to other foods highsafe ingredient. The Joint Expert Committee on Food in natural glutamate levels. the chart below displays commonAdditives of the United Nations Food and Agricul- foods naturally rich in glutamate:ture Organization and World Health Organization Food glutamate (mg/100g)consider MSG one of the safest food additives. And Parmesan cheese 8,210the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition reiterated cheddar cheese 6,090recently that MSG can be ”regarded as harmless for the walnuts 658whole population.” fresh tomato 310 If Chinese restaurant syndrome were real, we Beans 880would hear comments about “steakhouse syndrome” steak > 2,000or “Italian seafood restaurant syndrome” as glutamate white mushrooms 400is a natural part of these delicious dishes. MSG is made salmon 3,840up by the natural fermentation of glucose. Broccoli 9502000 2005tecUs (technology & engineering ajinomoto Interamericana Limeiracenter) established plant starts production of amino acids for foods and pharmaceuticals 2006 ajinomoto Biolatina opens Pederneiras 2009 plant (production of ajinomoto company Inc. celebrates feed-use amino acids) 100 years of leadership decoding and using amino acids in food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and other key2000 industries.ajinomoto frozen foods U.s.a., Inc.,established
Tokyo Based, Global Focus A jinomoto Food Ingredients, LLC Ajinomoto works continually to make it easier for its North American clients to incorporate amino acid power into food and beverage formulations. Ajinomoto Food Ingredients, LLC, recently opened its new application center in Chicago, Illinois, dedicated to supporting formulation development for dry or liquid beverage applications, seasoning blends and protein modification applications. Ajinomoto also operates a facility in Ames, Iowa dedicated to meat applica- tions and designed to help support the Activa® transglutamanase business. Ajinomoto’s enzyme capabilities help meat processors make a better profit with beef tenderloin. Typically the tails or narrow ends of the tenderloins are too small to cut filets. By binding two tenderloins, head or thick end to tail or the narrow end, processors will obtain full size filet cuts. “Consumers cannot tell the difference between the filet using Activa and the ones that don’t use the enzyme,” says Brendan Naulty, president of Ajinomoto Food In- gredients, LLC. “The enzyme binds the meat together seamlessly and has no effect on flavor.” Formerly, due to quick enzyme reaction, that technology was only available for small batch operations. However, by creating a system that has a buffered pH, the enzyme activ- ity is slowed down, enabling its use in large-scale operations. Enzyme technology is not exclusive to proteins. In a foodservice or deli application, for example, when pasta is kept in a warming tray, Activa can help the pasta maintain its al dente texture for hours. In the dairy industry, Activa enzyme technology can trim costs while improving quality in cheese, cream cheese and yogurt products. The enzyme addition allows for greater water-binding by cross-linking amino acids within the dairy protein. This helps maintain texture in string cheese or lends a clean ‘bite’ to pizza cheese. “Our team members and facilities in the U.S. stand ready to help food manufacturers operate with the utmost efficiency while improving product quality and presentation,” said Naulty. “We’re here to serve our customers in North America by applying a combination of a century’s worth of tradition, reputation for quality, and exciting new developments in10 amino acid technology to applications for today’s marketplace.” Ajinomoto AminoScience, LLC Ajinomoto AminoScience, LLC, in Raleigh, N.C., operates within four major market segments. Overall, its purified amino acids help improve life, with a business model that focuses on purity, consistency and quality. Out of the twenty amino acids the company manufactures, nine are produced in the Raleigh facility. It is the only U.S.-based manufacturer of pharmaceutical grade amino acids (cGMP), supplying much of the world’s supply of amino acids for pharmaceuti- cal purposes. Primarily used for nutritional therapy, they supply nourishment that goes directly into the bloodstream or serve as raw materials for producing therapeutic proteins, the B u S I N E S S antibodies or vaccines via cell culture. Fifty years ago Ajinomoto was a pioneer in supply- ing pharmaceutical grade amino acids to these key markets. Other important markets include the nutritional industry, or amino acids for improv- ing wellness, and the food industry, for infant formula, functional foods or functional food additives. A recent company focus is the beverage segment, according to Jack Heaton, company president. Ajinomoto AminoScience has petitioned for GRAS (generally recognized as safe) cer- tification for five of its amino acids. This will allow for broader use of its amino acids for food
FRIED NOODlES THAI STYlE Serves 2 2 cups narrow rice noodles 3 cups water 1 cup diced firm tofu 1 cup prawns, shelled and deveined 2 tbsp chopped shallotcategories promoting their functional ben- Amino acids can replace soybean meal 2 tbsp chopped garlicefits. The beverage industry particularly is in in swine and poultry diets to provide the 1 cup bean sproutsconstant competition to introduce enticing animals with a more economical and better 2 eggsnew flavors and certain amino acids have a balanced diet. Produced in the form of a 2 seeded chilies, soaked andbasis of flavor either alone or in combination. dry powder, three pounds of lysine added squeezed dryAmino acids stimulate certain taste recep- to 97 pounds of corn equals 100 pounds 2 tbsp dried shrimptors, sparking interest in their utilization for of soybean meal, supplying the vital amino 2 tbsp chopped pickled white radishflavoring. To accommodate this growing acids the livestock requires in its diet, yet at 3 tbsp tamarind juiceinterest in use as flavors the company has a cost savings to the producer. Additional 1 tbsp sugar or palm sugarupdated its FEMA GRAS status. soybean meal can be replaced by supple- 1 tsp soy sauce The real excitement lies in the future menting more (> 3 lbs) lysine with the ½ tsp aji-no-moto (monosodiumof amino acids for better health. A variety second limiting amino acid (threonine). glutamate)of studies are underway on the benefits of As an additional benefit, the addition 3 tbsp chopped roasted peanutsvarious amino acids for an expanding range of the amino acid lysine to the animal diet ¼ cup vegetable oilof health benefits. Many scientists believe helps lower nitrogen excretion, of concern 1/3 cup chinese leek, cut intoamino acids are the key to revolutionizing to both agriculturalists and environmen- one-inch lengthsour health care system, shifting the focus talists. For every 1% drop in crude protein 1 lime, cut into 4 piecesfrom curing illness to preventative care (lowering soybean meal), nitrogen excre-with a dedicated emphasis on wellness. tion is reduced by approximately 10%. By Boil the water, pour it over the rice “Most people today think of vitamins as utilizing lysine and threonine in animal noodles and leave until the noodlesa staple item that helps replenish the body’s diets, nitrogen excretion can be lowered by soak up the water.supply of deficient elements in nutrition,” 20-30%. Amino acids increase the utiliza- Pound the chilies, garlic and shal-says Heaton. “Amino acids are more basic tion efficiency of the nitrogen in feeds lot until thoroughly ground.yet than vitamins. Our DNA tells the body (same animal performance with less con- heat the oil in the wok. fry thewhich proteins to synthesize to perform sumed nitrogen). Adding amino acids to chilies, garlic, pickled white radishnecessary bodily functions. Now we’re the animal diet is highly beneficial for the and shallot until fragrant, then thestudying the metabolome, the metabolism animal, the farmer and the environment. tofu, dried shrimp and prawn. seasonand the proteins that define the way our The animal feed grade lysine or amino with the tamarind juice, sugar, soymetabolism works, since everyone’s body acid is produced in a U.S. based plant sauce and umami seasoning. addfunctions in a different way. The addition in Eddyville, Iowa. Another amino acid the noodles to the wok and stir fryof amino acids into the body has a very real produced there includes threonine. well. to finish, add the bean sprouts,purpose. It can, in fact, aid in wellness— Tryptophan and valine are marketed to the chinese leek and egg. serve with thein the same way that people take vitamin animal industry by Ajinomoto Heartland peanuts and lime.C to prevent colds, for example, arginine but produced in France. Feed-use aminohelps keep blood vessels more flexible and acids also help reduce the amount of landbranched-chain amino acids help build needed for grain production, achievingskeletal muscle proteins.” the most economical and efficient use of Ajinomoto AminoScience LLC can meet limited arable land.any amino acid need, from initial research to For animal feed processors, the lysinemanufacturing, blending and pulverization and threonine substitution is an easy for-through storage, labeling and packaging to mulation adjustment to ensure the animalanalytical and technical support. receives an amino acid balanced diet. Primary markets include the U.S., Canada,Ajinomoto Heartland Lysine, LLC Mexico and the Caribbean. Another plantAjinomoto Heartland Lysine, Chicago, IL, in Brazil supplies amino acids to the animalsupplies amino acids for animal nutrition. nutrition markets in South America.
Ajinomoto group Philosophy: Our philosophy is to contribute significant advances in Food and Health on a global basis and ultimately to create a better life for all.Ajinomoto Food Ajinomoto AminoScience llC Ajinomoto Heartland llC Ajinomoto Co. Inc. Ajinomoto InteramericanaIngredients llC 4020 ajinomoto drive 8430 w. Bryn mawr ave. european headquarters Indústria e Comércio ltda.8430 west Bryn mawr ave. raleigh, nc 27610, Usa suite 650 153 rue de courcelles rue Joaquim tavora 541suite 635 tel: 919-325-1400 chicago, IL 60631, Usa 75817 Paris cedex 17 villa marianachicago, IL 60631, Usa fax: 919-325-1420 tel: + 1 773 380 7000 france sao Paulo, sP – 04015-901tel: 773-714-1436 fax: + 1 773 380 7006 tel: 33-(1) 47-66-98-63 Brazilfax: 773-714-1431 fax: 33-(1) 47-66-98-56 tel: 55-(11) 5080 6742 fax: 55-(11) 5080 6739 tokyo headquarters tel: +81-3-5250-8111