absolute or relative; generally # of trials receiving FB
amount of delay between precipitating action and FB
Conceptual Directive Rare Every Trial Lengthy Delay Immediate Low High SUPPORT
The Role of Support Feedback Present No Feedback Acquisition Retention High Increased performance Low Decreased performance Feedback/Support Condition Results Results Stay tuned… Stay tuned…
Less Support for Learning
Desirable Difficulties in acquisition
(see Schmidt and Bjork 1992)
Less support is better Butki & Hoffman, 2003 Park, Shea, & Wright, 2000 Schmidt, Young, Swinnen, & Shapiro, 1989 Schooler & Anderson, 1990 Schmidt, Lange & Young, 1990 Schroth, 1997
More Support for Learning
Cognitive Load Theory
More support is better Adams, 1971 Dihoff, Brosvic, Epstein & Cook, 2004 McLaughlin, 2007 Schmidt, Lange & Young, 1990 Vollmeyer & Rheinberg, 2005 Wulf, Shea, & Matschiner, 1998
Why the Mixed Results!?
& -Task demands
Support Revisited Feedback Present No Feedback Acquisition Retention High Increased performance Low Decreased performance Cog. Resources Task Demand Feedback/Support Condition Results Results
The Role of Cognitive Resources
Previous Research Reorganized Simple or easy tasks Complex or difficult tasks Task Load Prior knowledge Low knowledge Special pop. Younger adults High ability Older adults Low ability Learner Characteristics Low Feedback Support High Feedback Support Best Level of Support
The Role of Aging
Age Related Cognitive Declines a
Note: a (Craik & Salthouse, 2000)
Fluid and Crystallized ability changes by age b
Note: b (Craik & Salthouse, 2000)
Sensory processes Memory Working memory Visual perception Executive functions Attention
Feedback Research with Older Adults
Limited research as to whether more or less feedback is better for older adults
Resource framework would predict older adults need more supportive feedback than would be optimal for younger adults
Simple motor task
OA required feedback every trial vs YA learned from every 5 trials
(Wishart, Lee, Cunningham, & Murdoch, 2002)
Complex motor task
OA and YA both required more feedback support to learn the task
(Wuf, Shea, & Matschiner, 1998)
What are the feedback requirements for older and younger adults learning a simple cognitive task?
Simple or easy tasks Complex or difficult tasks Task Load Prior knowledge Low knowledge Special pop. Younger adults High ability Older adults Low ability Learner Characteristics Low Feedback Support High Feedback Support Best Level of Support
Age will interact with feedback support level, where older adults will require more support than younger. In addition, younger adults should learn more with less support compared to younger adults given more feedback support in acquisition
Acquisition Retention Younger adults, high support Younger adults, low support Older adults, low support Older adults, high support
Older Adults (65 – 75)
Manage 3 employees
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between age and feedback required to learn a complex cognitive task
Procedure Complete ability tests Acquisition (18 trials) Retention (12 trials) Feedback Retention Test 3 days More Less No Feedback
The Task: Furniture Factory Employee 1 Job Goal Feedback Reward Performance Decisions Employee 2 Job Goal Feedback Reward Performance Results Was it fair?
Differences in Feedback
Other Variables Measured
WMC of younger adults
By systematically categorizing task demand and cognitive resources, it will help to support or refute if resources explain feedback requirements
Questions &/or comments?
The experiment will be a 2 x 2 x 2 design.
Between subject variables
Within subject variables
A 2 x 2 factorial will also be conducted to investigate the relationship between feedback specificity and levels of motivation.