Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Kelley & McLaughlin, 2009

185

Published on

Presented at the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society meeting in San Antonio, TX

Presented at the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society meeting in San Antonio, TX

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
185
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Feedback is information from an external source about performance meant to guide learning. Feedback has various roles. It can be used to inform the learner of correct responses, or to increase motivation and to help energize the learner.
  • performance can be viewed as temporary transient effects, or what an individual does in an activity while Learning can be defined as a permanent change in the ability of an individual
  • Here are three parameters for feedback generally manipulated in feedback research to provide more or less support. The first is content, which studies generally measure as the units or type of information in the feedback. Frequency has generally been examined as being absolute, meaning the total number of trials with feedback, or relative, meaning the percentage of total trials with feedback. Timing of feedback indicates the amount of delay between the action and feedback on that action. For example, taking a test and receiving a grade a week later would be feedback with a 1 week delay.
  • Feedback studies have generally looked at feedback in terms of “more” or “less” information. However, more or less information doesn’t always correspond to more or less support. So, what we really mean is more or less instruction, or guidance for the learner.
  • These parameters have generally been studied by placing them on a spectrum and comparing the extremes. (PRESS)For example, feedback content has been compared by giving conceptual feedback about a system or directive feedback about correct actions. Feedback frequency has been compared from rare or once at the end of training, to feedback every trial.Timing has been compared with many different delays between action and feedback. You can think of these parameters as being set to some point between their extremes (PRESS).I’ve created a label called support (PRESS) that captures the way these feedback parameters have been manipulated. If you think about the low side of the spectrum offering less SUPPORT for performance and the right side offering more… it helps to organize the feedback literature. (PRESS) I’ll get more into how this organizes the findings in a minute.“Common sense” might suggest that giving High support during acquisition and thereby making the learner appear to demonstrate more accurate performance at that time would result in better learning. This is not the case.MOST researchers currently agree: setting any of these parameters toward the low side tends to reduce perf. in acq but increase performance after a retention interval and on transfer tests. This is called the paradox of transfer and retention.
  • One way to test this theory is comparing samples of populations with known differences, older and younger adults
  • Working memory capacity is the amount of attentional processes available to an individual as well as the ability to focus and allocate these processes, or the simultaneous processing and storing of information.
  • A Complex task can be defined as a task with many interacting elements, while a task difficulty can be thought of as the ease in which a task is accomplished.We can debate the difficulty of the task, but we wouldn’t classify this as a complex task.
  • -Manipulation check-More > less FB-YA> OA
  • Transcript

    • 1. Feedback Specificity Requirements for Learning in Younger and Older Adults:The Role of Cognitive Resources and Task Demand
      Christopher M. Kelley & Anne Collins McLaughlin
      North Carolina State University
      Learning, Aging & Cognitive Ergonomics (LACE) Lab
    • 2. Definitions
      Research
      The Study
      Overview
    • 3. Feedback
    • 4. Performance
      vs
      Learning
      (Brosvic, Dihoff, Epstein, & Cook, 2006; McLaughlin, 2007; Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984; Schmidt &Bjork, 1992)
    • 5. Feedback
      Parameters
    • 6. Content
      Frequency
      Timing
    • 7. Support
      (McLaughlin, 2007)
    • 8. Conceptual Directive
      Rare Every Trial
      Lengthy Delay Immediate
      LOW HIGH
      SUPPORT
      Content
      Frequency
      Timing
    • 9. Research
    • 10. Feedback (Support) Present
      No Feedback
      Acquisition
      Retention
      Feedback/Support
      Condition
      Results
      Results
      Mixed
      Increased performance
      High
      LEARNING
      Mixed
      Decreased performance
      Low
      Cog. Resources
      Task Demand
    • 11. Learner Characteristics
      Task Load
      High Ability Younger Adults
      Prior Knowledge
      Simple or Easy Tasks
      Low Feedback Support
      Best Level of Support
      Low ability Older Adults
      Special Pop Low knowledge
      Complex or Difficult
      Tasks
      High Feedback Support
    • 12. Balance
      Task Demands
      Cognitive
      Resources
      Feedback =
    • 13. Who
    • 14. Cognitive Resources
      Young Adults
      &
      Older Adults
    • 15. Cognitive Resources
      Working Memory
      (Engle, Kane &Tuholski, 1999 )
    • 16. How
    • 17. Task Demands
      Simple Task
    • 18. What Task?
    • 19. Windows Pop-ups
      2 Cues
    • 20. Cue 1
    • 21. Cue 2
      Tone
      Grammar
    • 22. Is this really a simple task?
    • 23. The Study
    • 24. Research Question
      What are the feedback requirements for older and younger adults learning a simple cognitive task?
    • 25. Hypotheses
      Age will interact with feedback support level, where older adults will require more support than younger; in addition, younger adults should learn more with less support compared to younger adults given more feedback support in acquisition
    • 26. Method
      Design
      • Between Participants
      Independent Variables
      • Feedback Support
      • 27. Age (quasi)
      Dependent variables
      Participants
      • Younger Adults
      • 30. Older Adults
      Task
    • Procedure
      Session 1
      Session 2
      4days
      Acquisition
      (80 trials)
      Retention
      (40 trials)
      Complete ability tests
      Feedback
      No Feedback
      Retention Test
      Less
      More
    • 34.
    • 35. Low Feedback
    • 36. High Feedback
    • 37. Results
    • 38. Preliminary Results
      Participants: 38 Younger Adults and 42 Older Adults
      2 (Feedback: low, high) x 2 (Age Group: Younger, Older)
    • 39. Preliminary Results
      Main effect of feedback
      Main effect of age
      Session x Age interaction
    • 40. Performance
    • 41. Performance by Age & Feedback
      *
      *
      *
      *p < .05
    • 42. Conclusion
      Participants that received high feedback out performed those in their age group receiving low feedback
      What is a simple cognitive task?
    • 43. Acknowledgements
      This research was supported by a grant from North
      Carolina State University’s Faculty Research and Professional Development (FRPD) fund under the auspices of the Office of Research and Graduate Studies
      The Learning, Aging, and Cognitive Ergonomics Lab at NC State University www.lacelab.org
      North Carolina State University
      Learning, Aging & Cognitive Ergonomics (LACE) Lab

    ×