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Matter and change 2014

Matter and change 2014






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    Matter and change 2014 Matter and change 2014 Presentation Transcript

    • Matter I. States of Matter  Kinetic Molecular Theory  States of Matter
    • A. Kinetic Molecular Theory  KMT  Particles of matter are always in motion.  The kinetic energy (speed) of these particles increases as temperature increases.
    • B. Four States of Matter  Solids  very low KE - particles vibrate but can’t move around  fixed shape  fixed volume
    • B. Four States of Matter  Liquids  low KE - particles can move around but are still close together  variable shape  fixed volume
    • B. Four States of Matter  Gases  high KE - particles can separate and move throughout container  variable shape  variable volume
    • B. Four States of Matter  Plasma  very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-)  gas-like, variable shape & volume  stars, fluorescent light bulbs, CRTs
    • Matter II. Classification of Matter Matter Flowchart Pure Substances Mixtures
    • A. Matter Flowchart MATTER Can it be physically separated? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element MIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCE yes no Can it be chemically decomposed? noyesIs the composition uniform? noyes Colloids Suspensions
    • A. Matter Flowchart  Examples:  graphite  pepper  sugar (sucrose)  paint  soda element hetero. mixture compound hetero. mixture solution
    • B. Pure Substances  Element  composed of identical atoms  EX: copper wire, aluminum foil
    • B. Pure Substances  Compound  composed of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio  properties differ from those of individual elements  EX: table salt (NaCl)
    • B. Pure Substances  Law of Definite Composition  A given compound always contains the same, fixed ratio of elements.  Law of Multiple Proportions  Elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds.
    • B. Pure Substances  For example… Two different compounds, each has a definite composition.
    • C. Mixtures  Variable combination of 2 or more pure substances. Heterogeneous Homogeneous
    • C. Mixtures  Solution  homogeneous  very small particles  no Tyndall effect Tyndall Effect  particles don’t settle  EX: rubbing alcohol
    • C. Mixtures  Colloid  heterogeneous  medium-sized particles  Tyndall effect  particles don’t settle  EX: milk
    • C. Mixtures  Suspension  heterogeneous  large particles  Tyndall effect  particles settle  EX: fresh-squeezed lemonade
    • C. Mixtures  Examples:  mayonnaise  muddy water  fog  saltwater  Italian salad dressing colloid suspension colloid solution suspension
    • Matter III. Properties & Changes in Matter Extensive vs. Intensive Physical vs. Chemical
    • A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Extensive Property  depends on the amount of matter present  Intensive Property  depends on the identity of substance, not the amount
    • A. Extensive vs. Intensive  Examples:  boiling point  volume  mass  density  conductivity intensive extensive extensive intensive intensive
    • B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Property  can be observed without changing the identity of the substance  Chemical Property  describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes in identity
    • B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  melting point  flammable  density  magnetic  tarnishes in air physical chemical physical physical chemical
    • B. Physical vs. Chemical  Physical Change  changes the form of a substance without changing its identity  properties remain the same  Chemical Change  changes the identity of a substance  products have different properties
    • B. Physical vs. Chemical  Signs of a Chemical Change  change in color or odor  formation of a gas  formation of a precipitate (solid)  change in light or heat
    • B. Physical vs. Chemical  Examples:  rusting iron  dissolving in water  burning a log  melting ice  grinding spices chemical physical chemical physical physical
    • Matter IV. Phase Changes Phase Changes Phase Change Diagrams
    • Phase Changes  Are Physical Changes  Most substances can exist in 3 states (Solid, Liquid, Gas)  Temperature and pressure determine the state of matter.
    • Phase Changes  States of matter are called Phases when they exist together as physically different parts of a mixture.  For example: Ice water is a heterogeneous mixture of 2 phases – it exists as a liquid and a solid together.  When energy is added or removed, one phase can change into another
    • Phase Changes Requiring Energy  Melting – solid to liquid  Vaporization – liquid to a gas  Sublimation – solid to gas  These phase changes require energy to be added to the system.
    • Phase Changes the Release Energy  Condensation – gas to liquid  Deposition – gas to solid  Freezing – liquid to solid  These phase changes require energy to be removed from the system.
    • Phase Diagrams  Phase diagram shows phase of matter at different temperatures and pressures  Each substance unique  There is usually a “Triple Point” where all three phases can coexist  “Critical Point” – temperature and pressure at which above substance cannot exist as liquid
    • Phase Diagram - Water
    • Phase Diagram CO2
    • Matter V. Separation Techniques Filtration Chromotography Distillation
    • Filtration  To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. The solid remains in the filter paper and the liquid goes through the paper into the beaker.
    • Chromotography  Used to separate small amounts of liquids from each other, such as to separate different colored dyes that make up the ink in a marker.  Some dyes are more soluble than others, the dyes travel up the chromatography paper at different distances.  The more soluble dyes move further up the paper than the less soluble ones, and you can see the separation of the colors.
    •  Is used to separate and collect a liquid from the solid that is dissolved in it.  The solution is heated in a flask until the liquid boils.  The gas produced passes into the condenser where it is cooled and condenses to a liquid.  The pure liquid (distillate) is collected in a beaker. Distillation
    • Other Separation Techniques  Evaporation – Is used to separate and collect a soluble solid out of a liquid it is dissolved in. The solution is heated until the liquid boils. When the liquid has boiled away, the solid remains.  Magnetism – To separate a magnetic particle from a non-magnetic particle. A strong magnet is passed over the mixture, which collects the magnetic particle and leaves the other particle(s) behind.