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8th Grade Grammar Review Mech Caps,Abbrev,Punc
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8th Grade Grammar Review Mech Caps,Abbrev,Punc


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grammar, English, middle school, mechanics

grammar, English, middle school, mechanics

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  • 1. 8 th Grade Grammar Review Mechanics
  • 2. Mechanics
    • Capital rules
    • First word in a sentence
    • First word in dialogue (inside quotes)
    • Proper nouns & adjectives
    • Title of people & things (except prepositions and conjunctions)
    • Abbreviations
    • Always use all caps and periods (where necessary)
      • Titles of people, time and historical dates, geographical names, measurements
    • Punctuation
    • End marks
      • Period
      • Exclamation point
      • Question mark
    • (All end marks are placed INSIDE of quotations; quotes finish off)
    • Connectors
      • Commas used with conjunctions
      • Semicolons ( NEVER use a conjunction with a semicolon)
    • Others
      • Commas
      • Colon
      • Quotation marks
      • Hyphen
      • Apostrophe
  • 3. Capitals
    • First word in a sentence
      • Ex: There were many flavors of ice cream. I like them all.
    • First word in dialogue ( inside quotation marks)
      • Ex: Jim shouted, “What did you say?”
    • All proper nouns & adjectives
      • Ex: CeCe and Jim went to the Science Center of Iowa . (CeCe and Jim are people; SCI is a place)
    • Title of people & things (except prepositions); only capitalize titles in direct address (except government officials; they are always capitalized)
      • Ex: Mr. Swensen was *president of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) . ( Mr. is title, Swensen is proper noun, ASPCA are all the non-preposition or conjunction words) *president is his position in this case, not his title
      • Uncle Harold and Aunt Mary live in Arizona. She is my *aunt. ( Uncle Harold and Aunt Mary are directly addressed; titles after possessive pronouns are NEVER capitalized
  • 4. Abbreviations
    • Always use all caps and periods (where necessary)
    • Titles of people
      • Ex: Mrs. Mr. Ms. Dr. Fr. Bro. Sr. Mme.
    • Time and historical dates
      • Ex: A.M./a.m. P.M./p.m. B.C.E. A.D.
    • Geographical names
      • Ex: (mailing addresses) Ave. Rd. St. P.O. Box
      • Ex: (states/districts) Ia. / IA D.C. B.C.
      • Ex: (countries) U.S.A.
    • Measurements (must be with number in order to use the abbreviation)
      • Ex: in. (inches) yd. (yards) c. (cups) gal. (gallon)
      • * METRIC measurements use NO PERIODS
        • L (liters) C (Celsius) kg (kilograms) m (meters) cm (centimeters)
  • 5. Punctuation
    • End marks
    • Complete a statement; exclamation point may end a non-sentence as well (interjection) & question mark is ONLY used to answer questions.
      • Period
        • Ex: Our dog is Moose. “Yes,” she said, “we want that one.”
      • Exclamation point
        • Ex: You did not! “Holy Cats!”
      • Question mark
        • Ex: “Are you sure?” he asked. Where are we?
    • * All end marks are placed INSIDE of quotations; end quotes are ALWAYS last
    • Connectors
    • Commas used with conjunctions
      • Ex: Marcie was right , but she didn’t rub it in.
    • Semicolons ( NEVER use a conjunction with a semicolon)
      • Ex: Kaylee’s favorite subject is math; Jake’s is history.
      • Ex: We carried in all our food; there are not supply stops out on the trail.
      • * Use of a semicolon shows higher writing skills; this is looked for in testing
  • 6. Punctuation
    • Others - comma
    • Commas in a listing:
      • Ex. Kelly, Josh, and Hank went on the trip.
    • Appositives (non-essential information about the subject or object; separated for clarity)
      • Ex: Tony , our best player, had just fouled out.
    • Dates and places
    • Ex: January 31, 2009 Des Moines, IA
    • Others – colon
    • Used to set off lists
      • Ex: I still need to pack: clothes, books, and my laptop.
    • End a salutation in business letters
      • Ex: Dear sir:
    • Writing time
      • Ex: We have practice from 4:30 – 6:00 tonight.
  • 7. Punctuation
    • Others – quotation marks
    • Always in direct quotes; should be first and last items written around spoken words.
      • Ex: “We did it !” they hollered.
    • Split quotes should end first item with a comma and the last item with an end mark
      • Ex: “Nate,” she called, “Could you let the dog out before you leave?”
    • In references: short stories, articles, episode of TV show, title of song, chapter of book, visual aid.
      • Ex: I enjoyed “Shame” in Boom! By Tom Brokaw. (“Shame” is title of chapter; Boom! is title of book)
    • Underlined in references: title of book, title of play, name of TV show, name of journal / magazine, title of website.
      • Ex: I used Education Today , TIME , and The Greatest Generation and as references in my research paper.
  • 8. Punctuation
    • Others – hyphen
    • Within written numbers / fractions
      • Ex: seventy-five three-fifths
    • Compound nouns
      • Ex: great-grandmother sister-in-law
    • Dividing words in writing: split on the syllable
      • Ex: We are in mid-dle school
    • * With formal writing, DO NOT use hyphens in place of commas
    • Others – apostrophe
    • Possessives all end in “ ‘s” (EXCEPT its); if the word ends in “s”, you only need to add an apostrophe after that “s”
      • Ex: Colleen’s book boys’ shoes Kris’ sled its side
    • Contractions: apostrophe shows where letters were removed to combine words
      • Ex: They’re going to town. It’s my party. I’ll take that bet.
    • Pluralizing letters, numbers, and symbols
      • Ex: You need to roll your r’s in Spanish.