CITY-STATES City-States are political units made up of a city and all surrounding lands. City-States were geographically formed by mountains and valleys The two most famous Greek city-states were Athens and Sparta
ATHENS Athenians thought that having a strong mind was equally as important as being physically strong Athens was an important trading center. (it is located 4 miles from the coast)
ATHENS (CONTINUED) Athenian boys began school when they were six years old boys were taught reading, writing, music and history. a boy became a citizen in Athens when he was eighteen. (he was expected to know all the laws) After a boy became a citizen he spent the next two years in the army
ATHENS (CONTINUED) Athens had the first democratic government. (everyone had a voice in their government) Athens had many famous philosophers that included Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
SPARTA Sparta was Athens’ rival city-state. Sparta valued strength, deceit of an enemy and fearlessness about death Sparta’s power came from its tough and professional army
SPARTA (CONTINUED) Sparta was ruled by an oligarchy (small ruling group) of rich families. Spartans valued order and discipline. Dominated Greece from 600 B.C.to 371 B.C.
SPARTA (CONTINUED) Newborn babies were inspected to see if they were strong enough to be a Spartan Boys at the age of seven left their family to begin military training Spartan boys were whipped if they made a mistake. They were supposed to show no sign of pain while being whipped.
SPARTA (CONTINUED) Spartan boys had only a basic education. They were instructed in reading and writing. Men became full citizens at the age of 30. Then they could hold office or vote. All Spartan men ate their meals with the army; not with their families .
SPARTA (CONTINUED) Spartan women’s job was to have strong healthy babies. Spartan girls were just as athletic as the boys. They learned how to wrestle, throw a javelin and they exercised daily. Spartan women could own their own land, run their households and conduct business.
SPARTA (CONTINUED) Spartan men were not allowed to do any manual labor outside of their job as soldiers. Slaves were used to do the manual labor. Spartans were expected to fight to the death. Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 B.C.) Sparta’s dominance only lasted until 371 B.C. when it was defeated by the city-state of Thebes.