Noha Bakr Ph.Dbakrnoha@aucegypt.edu1
 I. Why Did the Egyptians Revolt in 25 Jan 2011? II. Transitional Period Under the Military Rule III. Why Are We Lookin...
 Why did the Egyptians Revolt?3
A. Economic Conditions of Egypt Prior to25thof January Revolution.i.GDP: went up from just under 5% in the mid-1990s to7% ...
5
. On the Economic leveli. Unbalanced Development-Socially & Geographicallyii. Corruption-Legalized & Marriagebetween Polit...
B. Social Conditions of Egypt Prior to 25thof January Revolutioni. Rapid population growth, with a population f 83 million...
 Why did the Egyptians RevoltB. On the Social leveli. Demographicsii. Ethnic, Racial, Religious minoritiesDissatisfaction8
C. On the Political Leveli. On the national level-Dec 2010 Elections (Turn out 23%)Freud+Use of Money-Hereditary Rule-Huma...
On the Political Levelii. On the regional leveliii. On the international level10
BreadFreedomSocial JusticeHuman Dignity11
◦ Game Over in 18 days12
SCAF : The Earliest Phase in the TransitionalPeriod (The Honey Moon(13
14
◦ Elections are crucial to the democratic processand to delivering long-term, stable democratic outcomes,that the Egyptian...
 The elections draws the Path for the future ofEgypt A. Constitutional Declaration (March 2011)◦ *Parliamentary & Presid...
17The Culture of the Society reflects on Outcome*Religion*Seeking Stability*Youth verses Old age*Choices offered Black and...
18•The Culture of the Society reflects on OutcomeHistory & Experience of Opposition with grassroots
 Huge Turn Out if Early Elections◦ Diversified turn out, gender, race, religion◦ First time Egyptians Abroad Elect◦ Data ...
Huge Turn Out in Early Elections With High FemaleParticipation20
Patriotic ApproachApproach-Militarydefending theRevolution21
 In Consistence in the Turn Out A. Constitutional Declaration March 2011 (turn out43%) B. Parliamentary Elections◦ *Bi ...
 First Time International ObservationAllowed Domestic & International Elections observationmissions consider the strengt...
 Example of Observation The US-based Carter Center, led by formerpresident Jimmy Carter, observed EgyptsParliamentary & ...
 Elections prior to amending orestablishing elections laws orconstitutions Judicial Supervision to all Poll stations◦ Co...
 General Campaigning Defaults During the campaign period for 2012 parliamentaryelections, most politicians used a range ...
General Logistics Defaults Parliamentary Elections Logistics:◦ All phases of elections (candidate registration, complaint...
 Referendums & Elections takingPlace before the Constitution &Election Laws are drafted28
 Constitution Drafting Committee Constitutional Referendum Legislative System (Nov 2013)◦ Elections Law◦ Constitution a...
 Judicial Supervision Crisis Long Quoes Use of Religious Institutions30
 To its credit, Egypt’s post-Mubarak elections havebeen free from any serious or systematicfoul play.  This is not a smal...
 Civic Education◦ Many Egyptians still demonstrate a poorunderstanding of voting procedure and the broaderdemocratic proc...
 In most cases, problems could be remediedthrough simple measures like better planningand communication of the High Elect...
 Mechanizing Casting the Ballot◦ India’s Experience34
35
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Elections and the political transition in egypt

280

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
280
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Elections and the political transition in egypt"

  1. 1. Noha Bakr Ph.Dbakrnoha@aucegypt.edu1
  2. 2.  I. Why Did the Egyptians Revolt in 25 Jan 2011? II. Transitional Period Under the Military Rule III. Why Are We Looking into the Elections inEgypt? IV. Features of Elections in Transitional PeriodUnder the Military Rule V. Features of Elections Under the First Civil Rule VI. Over All Observations VII. Recommendations2
  3. 3.  Why did the Egyptians Revolt?3
  4. 4. A. Economic Conditions of Egypt Prior to25thof January Revolution.i.GDP: went up from just under 5% in the mid-1990s to7% in 2006-08ii. Egypt’s share of world trade: which had beenfalling continuously for 40 years, started expanding asexports tripled in value.iii. Foreign investment gushed in at record levelscumulative total of $46 billion between 2004 and 2009.iv. Gross public debt in that period fell by nearly a third4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. . On the Economic leveli. Unbalanced Development-Socially & Geographicallyii. Corruption-Legalized & Marriagebetween Politics&Moneyiii. Unemployment-9%6
  7. 7. B. Social Conditions of Egypt Prior to 25thof January Revolutioni. Rapid population growth, with a population f 83 million.ii.The UNDP Human development report of 2010 claims that 23.5% of populationbelong to the age category 18-29 years oldiii. The population was 90% Sunni Muslim, 9% Coptic Christian. Whileethnic and racial groups were in Nubians in Upper Egypt, Sinai Bedouins, and theBedouins tribes of western Egypt on the boarder with Libya.iv. Decrease in enfant mortality rate and increase in life expectancyreaching average of 73 years. In the last 20 yearsv. illiteracy has shown high level of decrease, however quantity doesn’t meanquality of education that enables competition in job market.vi. The IT revolution in Egypt has been unprecedented in range and scope. 22million Egyptians, mostly youth, have access to the internet.v. Adding that to 21 daily newspapers and 523 other forms of publications to and700 Arab speaking TV channels with ferocious political talk showsWhy Did the Egyptians Revolt in 25Jan 2011?7
  8. 8.  Why did the Egyptians RevoltB. On the Social leveli. Demographicsii. Ethnic, Racial, Religious minoritiesDissatisfaction8
  9. 9. C. On the Political Leveli. On the national level-Dec 2010 Elections (Turn out 23%)Freud+Use of Money-Hereditary Rule-Human Rights abuse9
  10. 10. On the Political Levelii. On the regional leveliii. On the international level10
  11. 11. BreadFreedomSocial JusticeHuman Dignity11
  12. 12. ◦ Game Over in 18 days12
  13. 13. SCAF : The Earliest Phase in the TransitionalPeriod (The Honey Moon(13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. ◦ Elections are crucial to the democratic processand to delivering long-term, stable democratic outcomes,that the Egyptians revolted to attain.◦ Support for good electoral process and practice istherefore central to attain democracy◦ Elections of 2010 were one of the Pillars thatenhanced discontent against Mubarak15
  16. 16.  The elections draws the Path for the future ofEgypt A. Constitutional Declaration (March 2011)◦ *Parliamentary & Presidential Elections before or afterdrafting a constitution? B. Parliamentary Elections *Bi Cameral System Presidential Elections (June 2012)◦ *Two rounds to gain simple majority16
  17. 17. 17The Culture of the Society reflects on Outcome*Religion*Seeking Stability*Youth verses Old age*Choices offered Black and White
  18. 18. 18•The Culture of the Society reflects on OutcomeHistory & Experience of Opposition with grassroots
  19. 19.  Huge Turn Out if Early Elections◦ Diversified turn out, gender, race, religion◦ First time Egyptians Abroad Elect◦ Data base well prepared/Elections with ID◦ The Sprit of the revolutionPatriotic Approach-Military defending therevolution19
  20. 20. Huge Turn Out in Early Elections With High FemaleParticipation20
  21. 21. Patriotic ApproachApproach-Militarydefending theRevolution21
  22. 22.  In Consistence in the Turn Out A. Constitutional Declaration March 2011 (turn out43%) B. Parliamentary Elections◦ *Bi Cameral System -People Council: 62% ,Second round higher 67%, Average64.5% -Shora Council: 7.5% (reasons) Presidential Elections◦ First Round: 46.42% per cent of registered voters havingcast ballots in the first round o◦ Second Round:50.6%Reasons for In consistency 22
  23. 23.  First Time International ObservationAllowed Domestic & International Elections observationmissions consider the strengths and weaknessesof an electoral process and make independentrecommendations◦ Mubarak International Observation & StateSovereignty◦ SCAF International Observation & NationalCivil Society Observation = Transparency23
  24. 24.  Example of Observation The US-based Carter Center, led by formerpresident Jimmy Carter, observed EgyptsParliamentary & first historical presidential elections. A delegation assembled of a panel of 80representatives from over 35 nations as well as deploy22 international representatives from 14 countries totravel to Egypt several days before the election. The centre has received accreditation from Egypt’sSupreme Presidential Electoral Commission (SPEC) 24
  25. 25.  Elections prior to amending orestablishing elections laws orconstitutions Judicial Supervision to all Poll stations◦ Constitutional Declaration declarations◦ Legislative System◦ Presidential Elections◦ Constitutional Referendum (The crisis)25
  26. 26.  General Campaigning Defaults During the campaign period for 2012 parliamentaryelections, most politicians used a range of illicit mediums toinfluence voters including the use of public institutions,such as moscques, and the distribution of goods andservices.   The use of religious slogans and places ofworship by Islamist parties was ubiquitous.  The Freedomand Justice Party and al-Nour Party in particular paid littleattention to the ban on Election Day campaigning, insteaddistributing materials inside and outside of polling stationsand constructing “media centers” where voters couldobtain instructions on how and where to vote.26
  27. 27. General Logistics Defaults Parliamentary Elections Logistics:◦ All phases of elections (candidate registration, complaintsand appeals, voting, and counting and tabulation) were oftencompromised in minor ways by mismanagement andmistakes. ◦ Some registration venues were so overcrowded thatscuffles broke out among irritable Egyptians. ◦ On election day, some polling stations opened late (in fact,some never opened whatsoever on the first day of voting) andran out of materials including ballots and ink. ◦ Ballot misprints on a large scale was the cause forcancellation and nullification of elections in some districts.27
  28. 28.  Referendums & Elections takingPlace before the Constitution &Election Laws are drafted28
  29. 29.  Constitution Drafting Committee Constitutional Referendum Legislative System (Nov 2013)◦ Elections Law◦ Constitution available29
  30. 30.  Judicial Supervision Crisis Long Quoes Use of Religious Institutions30
  31. 31.  To its credit, Egypt’s post-Mubarak elections havebeen free from any serious or systematicfoul play.  This is not a small accomplishment ina nation new to the workings of democracy Mubarak election legislations was the legalmechanism that governed the process The Military completely secured the electionsprocess Islamic outcome of legislative elections led toliberal outcome of University and Syndicateselections31
  32. 32.  Civic Education◦ Many Egyptians still demonstrate a poorunderstanding of voting procedure and the broaderdemocratic process. ◦ The HEC is not obligated by law to undertakecivic education, and accordingly has not.◦   The same is true of judges tasked with presidingover polling stations. ◦ An added concern and more cause for confusion in theMany of these election officials continue topossess inadequate knowledge of Egypt’scomplex electoral system and have not receivedsufficient training to remedy32
  33. 33.  In most cases, problems could be remediedthrough simple measures like better planningand communication of the High ElectionsCommission.  Concrete steps to improve electoral proceduresare laid bare in regular reports ofinternational election observation groups;the election commission needs only to act onthem. 33
  34. 34.  Mechanizing Casting the Ballot◦ India’s Experience34
  35. 35. 35

×