MIT Engineering Design Portfolio


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Engineering design projects in my MIT undergraduate and graduate curriculum.

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MIT Engineering Design Portfolio

  1. 1. Claudia Maritza Espinoza Engineering Design PortfolioMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Civil & Environmental Engineering(860) 490-5841 |
  2. 2. Table of ContentsClass Title Page1.101 - Floating Islands 1-21.102 - Micro-hydro Generator 3-41.107 - Arsenic Sorption of Biosand Filters 5-61.106 - Flow Rate of Muddy River 7-8 - Diffusivity Coefficient of Tannic Acid 9 - 101.103 - Rooftop Farms 11 - 12 - Bamboo Bridge 13 - 14UROP - Mussel Feeding 15 - 16
  3. 3. Table of ContentsClass Title Pagen/a - Kosim Water Keg 17 - 18MEng - Kanchan Arsenic Filter 19 - 20
  4. 4. Floating Islands 1.101, Fall 2007 1
  5. 5. This project aimed to redesign the Back Bay area of Boston, MA in order to accommodate a greater & modern society.Approach: Final Design ModelTo expand the commercial area of theBack Bay by opening up the CharlesRiver basin and incorporating“floating islands” of recreationalbuildings.Teaching Component:Designed an apparatus that willdemonstrate the effect ofhydrostatics and restoring forces ona floating structure. 2
  6. 6. Micro-Hydro Generator 1.102, Spring 2008 3
  7. 7. The objective of this project was to use the kinetic energy of water flow, through municipal pipelines, as a power source for remote water quality meters. Approach: Final Design Model Develop a turbine and micro-hydro generator system to transfer energy from the pumping station to a pH sensor.Implementation:Using a transformer and a flow rate of 40gal/min, we obtained a voltage of 400 mVfrom our turbine hydro-generator.Role: Lead designer (KeyCreator CADmodel) 4
  8. 8. Arsenic Sorption of Biosand Filters 1.107, Spring 2009 5
  9. 9. This study investigated the arsenic sorption capacity of sand conditioned with iron nails in the presence of several ion species prevalent in Bangladeshi groundwater.Approach:Assess the effectiveness of filter conditioning Resultsthrough the formation of hydrous ferricoxyhydroxides (HFOs) as potential sorption sitesfor arsenic ions. BGW +20 mg/L [Si}Determine whether phosphorus [P] and silica [Si] 0.5 mg/L [As] controllower the partitioning coefficient of arsenic inartificial Bangladeshi groundwater (BGW).Implementation:Nepali nails were soaked with clean concrete sand BGW + 3 mg/L [P]for 24 hours. Conditioned sand was shaken withBGW, As, P and Si solution for 10 minutes and letit sit for 5 min. 0.5 mg/L [As] controlSamples were measured using Perkin Elmerinductively coupled plasma optical emissionspectroscopy ( ICP- OES). 6
  10. 10. Muddy River Flow rate 1.106, Fall 2009 7
  11. 11. The objective was to develop an experimental method to estimate the volumetric flow rate of the Muddy River, Q [m3s-1].Approach:The flow rate mid-depth and at the center of theriver would be measured to minimize the influencesof external factors (i.e. high surface velocities due towind).Also, since entering the river was not permitted, thedesign incorporated a mechanism that floats beneaththe surface and takes advantage of the bridges nearthe Museum of Fine Arts (MFA).Implementation :Using a fishing float and weights, we measured thetime it would take for the float to reach one side ofthe bridge to the other. Results Mean Velocity [ms-1]: 0.33 +/- 0.03We also measured the length and width of the bridge, Area [m2]:as well as the depth of the river, from the mid-point 3.0 +/- 0.3of the bridge, to estimate the cross-sectional area of Vol. Flow rate [m3s-1]:the river and the distance the float traveled. 1.0 +/- 0.1 8
  12. 12. diffusion coefficient of tannic acid 1.106, Fall 2009 9
  13. 13. The objective was to design and execute an experiment that will most accurately estimate the molecular diffusion coefficient of tannic acid in water, Dm = O(10^-6 cm/s). Approach: To isolate molecular diffusion of tannic acid from tea bags from turbulent diffusion of mixing and density properties of tea water. Lipton natural black tea (hot brewed) was used for its 9.61 +/- 0.3% content of tannin acid per tea bag (Amin, 1997). Results Dm = 5x10-6 [cm2/s] +/- 2x10-6 [cm2/s] Implementation: Tea bags were pre-wetted and placed in the lid of (dz^2 vs. t) for the pre-wetted teabag vessel a glass vessel. Vessel were completely filled with 3 distance squared water, sealed with a lid and gently flipped over 2.5 2 y = 9E-06x - 0.253 R2 = 0.9688 (cm^2) upside down. 1.5 1 Once the tea concentration was fully mixed across 0.5 the cross-section of the vessel, the vertical rise of 0 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 -0.5 the tea, due to molecular diffusion, could be time (sec) observed.Reference: Amin Alaa S. (1997). Utilization of Tetrazolium Blue for Colorimetric Assay of Tannins in Tea. Mikronchim. Acta 126, 105-108. 10
  14. 14. rooftop farming 1.103, Spring 2010 11
  15. 15. This project aimed at designing a innovative vertical farm.Approach: FinalDesign modular and easily transportable rooftopfarms: Design - Easily customized for customer to create Model unique farm - Appealing to our customers, commercial grocery stores in New EnglandResearch and Testing:Module Structure: compact design, adjustable fordifferent systems, storageCompatible production system: hydroponics,aquaponics, decomposition, soil-based cropsEnergy usage & financial feasibilityRole: Head designer for production system (GoogleSketch-up models) 12
  16. 16. bamboo footbridge 1.103, Spring 2010 13
  17. 17. The footbridge of design was intended to build a pass way over a ditch that connects the roadside to a social enterprise ceramic filter factory in Taha, Ghana.Approach: Building & TestingDesign a footbridge that was feasible in Ghana:- Easy and quick to assemble- Mobil and/or foldable- Uses local materials of Ghana- Applicable over flood levels of Ghanian storms- Aesthetically pleasingImplementation:2 ‘ x 12 ‘ spam, cable stayed bridge made frombamboo, jute rope and metal chainBridge must withstand a testing weight of 1 ton( 2,000 lb)Role: Conducted hydraulic analysis of floodflows by the ditch, near the set location of bridge 14
  18. 18. Mussel Feeding: Evaluating ToxicLevels of Organic Chemicals in Sediment Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program: Ralph M. Parsons Lab, Gschwend group May 2009 - December 2009 15
  19. 19. Researched and designed experiments to develop an effective method for the toxic evaluation of hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) mixtures in sediment.Approach: ResultsMeasure high concentrations of HOC mixtures % Feeding Rate Reductionthough the toxic effect of narcosis in Mytilus edulis(blue mussels).The sub-lethal effect of narcosis in mussels can bemeasured through a decrease in feeding rate,quantified through the fluorescence of algalconcentration in solution. Text [Phenanthrene] (ug/L) [Phen] extracted from LDPE bottleImplementation: 12 over time (1 hour)Mussels fed in different concentrations of 10 [Phen] (ug/L)phenanthrene solution in artificial seawater. 8Throughout feeding, 2 mL of solution is pipetted and 6read for fluorescence units, calibrated for chloroform 4(algal mass) and phenanthrene concentration. 2 0Buffering systems to stabilize exposed toxicant 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Time (hours)concentration were researched (“spiked” LDPE bottles). Bottle 3 Bottle 4 Bottle 5 Bottle 6 16
  20. 20. Kosim Water Keg: Ceramic Water Filter System Study in Tamale, Ghana In collaboration with: Pure Home WaterSusan Murcott (MIT, Senior Lecturer of the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering) Christopher R. Schulz (Senior VP of Camp, Dresser & McKee) June 2010 - August 2010 ! 17
  21. 21. Researched a new ceramic water filter model for the potential marketing and development in northern Ghana. !Approach:The KWK filter system is a made of two traditional“flowerpot-shaped” ceramic filter elements. Incontrast to the standard ceramic pot filter, the KWKfilters water from the outside to the inside of thesystem, and it also included a siphon pump toremove filtered water safely stored inside the keg.This designed aimed at increasing the filtration flow Text ! !rate and at reducing the recontamination ofpathogen free water. Results • Microbial and turbidity removal: KWK did not perform as well as the standard ceramicImplementation: filter.Conducted on-site water quality testing including: • Flow rate: the KWK rates were higher by abacterial removal, turbidity removal and flow rate factor of 3 or 4 in the first 2 hours, which is appealing to local community members.measurements of the KWK filters. Also, documented • The KWK construction may have weakenedthe production of the ceramic elements and the pots and led to poor microbial andcontributed to filter design alterations. Furthermore, turbidity removal performance.evaluated the production, costs and social feasibility •A re-design of the KWK to strengthen theof deployment through demonstration gatherings in filter system and include local materials islocal rural communities. recommended. 18
  22. 22. Kanchan Arsenic Filter:M.Eng. Thesis Study in Nepal In collaboration with: Maclyn O’DonnellEnvironment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO); Kathmandu, Nepal September 2010 - June 2011 19
  23. 23. Researched the arsenic removing performance of the KAF under different groundwater chemical compositions of rural Nepal.Approach:Groundwater arsenic contamination Resultsis a recognized problem in many #!!" #!"areas of South Asia. However, the !"#$%&()*%$%+",-*%(./0123( !!"uncertain performance of the KAF &#!"under various water quality &!!" %#!"conditions has limited the %!!"distribution of the KAF outside of $#!"Nepal. Our study focused on assessing the effect of various $!!"groundwater chemical parameters on the arsenic removal Text #!" !"performance of the KAF. $" $$" %$" &$" $" #$" ($" 4&5+$"(6$7$",%$(89:;$"( )$" *$" +$" $!$" <"*9%=(>,+$"( 4&5+$"(?9+5$+( • Tested 101 filtered water and 77 groundwaterImplementation: samples in 15 different villages.Conducted on-site water quality testing for the inlet • Concluded that the KAF will not performgroundwater source and the outlet filtered water for the well in groundwater conditions that do notfollowing parameters: promote iron corrosion. • Poor performance indicators: GW As > 200•Arsenic •pH •Manganese ug/L; Nail Fe(II) < 1.1 mg/L; GW Chloride < 7•Ferrous Iron •Dissolved Oxygen •Flow rate mg/L; low GW Hardness; high GW pH.•Phosphate •Chloride •Filter age • Next Steps: incorporating local components•Silica/Silicate •Electrical •Location into the KAF system to increase iron•Hardness (CaCO3) Conductivity •User survey corrosion. GW = groundwater 20