Minerals slideshare

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Minerals slideshare

  1. 1. Minerals
  2. 2. What is a Mineral? <ul><li>Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure </li></ul>
  3. 3. What do all minerals have in common? <ul><ul><li>All: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are formed by natural processes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a definite volume and shape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are made up of particles that are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over (called a CRYSTAL ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Watch “ Crystals ” by Brainpop… </li></ul><ul><li>username: ehms password: bonac </li></ul><ul><li>Search “Crystals” if it does not bring you right to the video. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.What element are diamonds made from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. What do all crystals have in common? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Groups of Minerals <ul><li>Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. </li></ul>Amethyst Beryl (Emerald) Calcite
  6. 6. MICA Quartz Quartz, mica <ul><li>Contain oxygen & silica </li></ul><ul><li>The most abundant group of minerals </li></ul>Silicates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  7. 7. Silver Gold Ruby Iron Copper Diamond iron, copper, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies <ul><li>Make up only 5% of the Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Include some of the most important minerals </li></ul>Non-Silicates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  8. 8. Calcite with Duftite inclusions Calcite (CaCO 3 ) <ul><li>Carbon & oxygen and a positive ion, such as calcium </li></ul>Carbonates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  9. 9. Hematite (Fe 2 )O 3 <ul><li>Metallic ion and oxygen </li></ul>Oxides Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  10. 10. Galena (PbS) <ul><li>Sulfur and a metallic ion </li></ul>Sulfides Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  11. 11. Barite on Calcite BaSo4 / CaCO3 Barite BaSo4 Barite (BaSO 4 ) <ul><li>Metallic ion, Sulfur & oxygen </li></ul>Sulfates Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  12. 12. Gold (Au), Diamond (C), Silver (Ag) <ul><li>Single elements </li></ul>Native Elements Examples Characteristics Mineral Group
  13. 13. How do minerals form? <ul><li>1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium Cooling = SMALL crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow Cooling = LARGE crystals </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How do minerals form? <ul><li>2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water) will reform into crystals as the water evaporates and the dissolved elements recrystalize. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Can be misleading </li></ul><ul><li>Can vary with the type of impurities </li></ul>
  16. 16. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) <ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Surface reflection </li></ul><ul><li>metallic = shiny like metal </li></ul><ul><li>non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface </li></ul>Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster
  17. 17. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) <ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><li>The color of the powdered form of the mineral </li></ul><ul><li>The color of the streak can be different than the mineral </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals must be softer than the streak plate </li></ul>
  18. 18. Streak…can help identify quartz BUT... http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b3.html Their colors may vary (remember, color Bad!)
  19. 19. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) <ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>How easily a mineral scratches materials </li></ul><ul><li>Mohs Hardness Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scale from 1 ( softest ) to 10 ( hardest ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Find out more… <ul><li>“ Electronic” Hardness Test </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b2.html </li></ul>
  21. 21. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) <ul><li>Cleavage & Fracture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way the mineral breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage —minerals break along smooth , flat surfaces and every fragment has the same general shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fracture —minerals that break at random with rough or jagged edges </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Cleavage or Fracture? 1. 4. 3. 2.
  23. 24. Physical Properties of Minerals (can be used to identify the mineral) <ul><li>Other Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction to magnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bending of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction with hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell & taste </li></ul></ul>http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b4.html
  24. 25. <ul><li>Watch Brainpop—“ Mineral Identification ” </li></ul><ul><li>Username: ehms password: bonac </li></ul><ul><li>Search “Mineral Identification” if it does not bring you right to the video. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>. If a mineral can scratch your fingernail, the mineral is _______________ than your fingernail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. What is luster? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. What is a gem? <ul><li>A Mineral OR Rock that has value </li></ul><ul><li>Rare ! </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes polishing or cutting will add value </li></ul>
  26. 27. The End

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