Made to stick: the science of adult learning.
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Made to stick: the science of adult learning.



A presentation I have given about a dozen times over the years, last presented in May of 2011. An overview of 'Made to Stick' by Dan and Chip Heath - a great book for educators!

A presentation I have given about a dozen times over the years, last presented in May of 2011. An overview of 'Made to Stick' by Dan and Chip Heath - a great book for educators!



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Made to stick: the science of adult learning. Made to stick: the science of adult learning. Presentation Transcript

  • Made to Stick Brian S. McGowan, PhD May 6 th , 2011
  • Made to Stick
    • Built off the work of Malcolm Gladwell:
    • “ Tipping Point examined the forces that cause social phenomena to ‘tip’, or make the leap from small groups to big groups.”
    • “ Tipping Point had 3 sections:
      • First - the need to get the right people
      • Third - the need for the right context
      • The second – ‘the stickiness factor’ ”
  • Made to Stick Lesson #1: What is Sticky?
  • Why are ‘we’ here:
    • We = the CME community
    • We are the seed AND the soil for excellence in education .
    • … success lies in our ability to transfer knowledge .
  • MTS: Calls to Action
    • Everything can be made (more) rememberable.
    • We must challenge ourselves to make things stick(y)/(ier).
    • Never stop asking: “How can [this] be stickier?”
    • Example
    • Is this sticky?
  • Example #1: How can this be stickier?
  • What is the AHRQ Study?
    • K nowledge
    • A ttitude
    • S kills
    • B ehavior
    • O utcomes
    • Do changes endure?
  • What is the AHRQ Study?
    • K
    A S B O
  • Which is Stickier? KASBO
  • Made to Stick Model
    • Simple
    • Unexpected
    • Concrete
    • Credible
    • Emotional
    • Stories
  • Made to Stick Model
    • S
    U C C E S S
  • Made to Stick Lesson #2: Simple
  • SIMPLE Spotting and Communicating A Clear Message
  • Simple is Sticky
    • The Archvillain of sticky ideas is the Curse of Knowledge
    • Our learners have a lot to say about how our messages are transferred
  • The Curse of Knowledge
    • The more we know something, the less able we are to imagine what it feels like not to know it…
    • The greater the challenge:
      • to make break something down
      • to engage without overwhelming
      • to develop an accessible message
    Learners have a lot to say about how your messages are ‘transferred’
  • Need To Communicate
    • Military
    • Air Traffic Control
    • Emergency Room
    • Surgeons
    What can we learn from the communication strategies of these highly skilled, high stress professions?
  • A Simple Roadmap
    • Commander’s Intent:
      • No plan survives contact with the enemy.
    • Ask yourselves:
      • If we do nothing else during tomorrow’s mission we must __________.
      • The single, most important thing we must do tomorrow is __________.
  • Simple is…
    • A engineer knows she has created a masterpiece not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to takeaway.
      • Antoine de Saint-Exupery
  • A Simple Exercise #1:
    • Tappers and Listeners Experiment
      • Think of three of your favorite songs – privately jot them down
      • Ask a colleague or friend. “Can you guess the song I am about to drum for you?”
      • Don’t stop until all of the songs have been guessed – no hints!
      • Learn from the challenges presented by perspective…
  • Made to Stick Lesson #3: Unexpected
  • UNEXPECTED Building a Treasure Map Experience for Learners
  • UNEXPECTED The IOM says our CE system is broken…. stay tuned to learn why it may be all YOUR fault…
  • The First Step of Knowledge Transfer
    • The more we are confronted with our knowledge gaps, the more likely we are to be curious
    • Unexpectedness IS NOT about a gimmick
    • Unexpectedness IS NOT about clipart
    • Unexpectedness IS NOT about animations
    • Unexpectedness IS about peaking a learner’s curiosity
  • Every ‘Aha!’ moment must be preceded with a ‘Huh?’ moment
  • An itch to be scratched…
    • The attention-grabbing action must force the learner to ask THE question that you are ready to answer…
      • Curiosity-peaking actions that do not focus the learner are counterproductive
      • Predisposing actions not followed by solutions are ‘painful’
    Are your programs (communications) attracting attention or distracting attention?
  • Coming up on News at 11…
    • Temperatures are stable for the next few days, but a drastic change is in order for the weekend, stay to find out whether you will need shorts or a parka…
    • There is an insidious new addiction raging through our middle schools and the source might be…YOU.
    Are your activities teasing or spoon-feeding the learners?
  • An Unexpected Exercise #2:
    • Consider the last talk you gave or worked on:
      • How did the presentation begin?
      • Did it attract or distract attention?
      • What was done to frame the question?
  • Made to Stick Lesson #4: Concrete
  • CONCRETE Use Pre-built Handles
  • Concrete is the easiest to embrace! (pg 129) Of all of the components of the MTS model…
    • Easily understood
    • Easily remembered
  • Did You Ever Wonder…
    • Are fables memorable because they are so concrete or are they so concrete because the ambiguity and abstraction was lost – was the forgettable stuff forgotten over time? (pg 107)
  • Concrete Concepts Are The Only Common Language
    • Abstraction is the luxury of the expert. If you’ve got to teach an idea to a room full of people, and you aren’t certain what they know, concreteness is the only safe language (pg 104)
  • Concrete Ideas are SMART
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Realistic
    • Timely
    The Biology of Sticky The Velcro Number
  • Concrete Concepts Allow Learners To Understand And Learn
    • There is no compromise in teaching…
    • Like the tappers and listeners game…it can feel unnatural to talk concretely about subject matter [we know well]… but if we are willing to make the effort we will see the reward.
  • A Concrete Exercise #3:
    • Ask your colleagues or friends:
    • In 20 seconds write down as many words as you can think of that end in -h.
    • In 20 seconds write down as many words as you can think of that end in -sh.
    Concrete Concepts Are Not Absolute: Know the Right Starting Point
  • Made to Stick Lesson #5: Credible
  • CREDIBLE Belief is The Gatekeeper to Memory
  • CREDIBLE Taking Advantage of Human Gullibility Since Antiquity Alternative Introduction:
  • Why Do We Believe Something
    • It is easier/safer not to ask questions?
    • ‘ doubt’ takes thought/energy
    • ‘ doubt’ is unsettling
    • Some ideas just seem more ‘plausible’
  • Why Do We Believe Something
    • External Credibility :
      • Family
      • Friends
      • Authorities
    • Internal Credibility:
      • Evidence-base
      • Experience
      • Details
    non-modifiable vs modifiable factors
  • Friends, Family, & Authorities
  • Internal Credibility
    • Evidence-base
    • Experience
    • Details
    … the most important thing to remember about using statistics effectively. Statistics are rarely meaningful in and of themselves. Statistics will, and should, almost always be used to illustrate a relationship…and learners should remember the relationship, not the numbers (pg 143)
  • Credible: Fueling Con-Artist Since Antiquity
    • Kevin Trudeau regularly appeared on infomercials hawking "miracle" products
    • Until he was prosecuted by the Federal Trade Commission …
    • He ended up consenting to an agreement whereby he wouldn't appear on infomercials
  • Made to Stick Lesson #6: Emotional
  • EMOTIONAL The Grease that Lubricates the Gears of Learning..
  • Getting from A to B to C
    • Knows
    • Knows how
    • Shows how
    • … but do we do?
    • For example: Exercise?
  • 3 Ways to Move an Audience?
    • Use emotional triggers
    • Appeal to self interest
    • Appeal to self identity
  • Use Emotional Triggers
    • One vs the Masses
    • Emotion vs Analysis
  • Appeal to Self Interests
    • Transcendence – Helping others
    • Self-actualization – Fulfillment
    • Aesthetic – Balance/Beauty
    • Learning – Knowing
    • Esteem – Status
    • Belonging – Affection
    • Security – Safety
    • Physical – Comfort
  • Appeal to Self Interests
    • What’s In It For You?
      • Highlight the benefit of the benefit
    • Classic advertising example:
      • The room was full of laughter as you approached the piano, but as you began to play…
  • Appeal to Self Identity
    • What’s In It For People Like You?
      • Subjective norms
    • 2 examples:
      • “ Bubba’s and Texans”
      • Firefighters and popcorn makers
  • Made to Stick Lesson #7: Stories
  • STORIES The Immense Power of “Role-playing”
  • The Next Best Thing…
    • “… sit still and picture yourself performing a task successfully, step by step…”
      • Darts, trombone, skating…
    • Mental practice produced 2/3rds of the benefits of physical practice
  • Knowledge Transfer
    • Presenting facts = Analysis
    • Stories = Simulation
  • Imagination = Simulation
    • Blurry line b/w protagonist & learner…
      • We can not separate ourselves from the actions and emotions of the story
      • Wonders of a limited neurochemistry
    • Advantage = Mass customization
  • What lessons did we learn? To Make Things Stick… S imple U nexpected C o ncrete C redible E motional S tories
  • Summary Everything can be made (more) rememberable.
  • Questions or Comments