Teaching adults[1]


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Teaching Adults DE

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  • Note: To navigate this workshop just click the mouse. Any text with an underline is a link to the web. Click it each underline when prompted. Some slides are designed with animation. Merely click the slide once, and wait for the content to load.
  • Please make notes of concerns.
  • Please ask the participants their thoughts on definitions. Then click on the terms to link to the internet for feedback.
  • “Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities” (University of Michigan, 1996).
  • Click through 7 points. They will “fade” in.
  • Go to Course Redesign Handout (PDF)
  • Note: there may be components missing. If so, consider how you would input the content to adhere to the PIE model (Remember, it is important to be consistent).
  • This is what it could look like. Or it might be PIE, PIE, PIE instead of PPIIEE, etc. Any variation that follows Gagne’ is acceptable. Please label PIE in every “pop up” and tie it to the objective (see the bottom corner O.3). Students should ALWAYS know the relevance of the task.
  • Example is that of a pedagogical model.
  • The example on the right (Welcome Video!) is the correct answer. Once the participants answer. Ask them how they know (identify PIE)?
  • Link to Facilitator View-PIE Consider these examples under each section of PIE. Tool Reminder: Quality Rubric, Gagne’, Student Survey, and Facilitator Questions
  • Teaching adults[1]

    1. 1. TEACHING ADULTS IN DE FORMAT A faculty development workshop Christine Leake, M.S., M.B.A.
    2. 2. Workshop Agenda  Welcome and Introductions  Discussion: Teaching Adults Using Technology  Form: Theory & Principles: Pedagogy vs. Andragogy  Consistency-PIE Model  Measurable Outcomes - More Than Test Scores: Skill Transfer, Engagement, and Motivation Count Objectives 1. Differentiate the terms Pedagogy and Andragogy 2. Identify Adult Learning Principles 3. Demonstrate a working knowledge of the PIE Model 4. Understand that form and consistency in DE course design impacts measurable outcomes (a standardized course design lowers frustration, diminishes distractions, and empowers students)
    3. 3. Welcome! Let’s take a few moments to get to know each other. Please tell us: • Your name • What courses you teach • How long you’ve been teaching • Whether you’ve taught a DE section • Your greatest concern surrounding online education
    4. 4. Link & Discuss Terms Teacher/Instructor/Professor Facilitator Pedagogy Andragogy Socratic Teaching Method Constructivism Distance Learning (hybrid, online) O.1
    5. 5. Compare and Contrast “Adult education is a process through which learners become aware of significant experience. Recognition of significance leads to evaluation. Meanings accompany experience when we know what is happening and what importance the event includes for our personalities” (Knowles, Holton, and Swanson, 2005). O.1 Reference Knowles, M.S. Holton, E. F. and Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.
    6. 6. EXAMPLES CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT PEDAGOGY “In pedagogy, the instructor is in charge of the learning experience. The instructor will control the content, delivery methods, and evaluation processes. In a true pedagogical approach, the passing of an instructor designed or approved examination determines how effectively the students have learned” (Flosi, 2011 para 5). ANDRAGOGY “Adults need to understand the applicability of the lesson before they will engage in the learning. In law enforcement training, the subject matter must be relevant, realistic and immediately applicable …. In a survey of officers, they indicated that for learning to transfer, they had to be able to apply the skills and knowledge immediately into their practice” (Flosi, 2011 para 9). REFERENCE Flosi, E. (2011). Curriculum development for law enforcement: Pedagogy versus andragogy. Retrieved from: http://www.Policeone.Com/officer-safety/articles/3773478- curriculum-development-for-law-enforcement-pedagogy-versus-andragogy/ O.1
    7. 7. From theory to principle… Adult Learning Principles 1. Adults are motivated to learn as they experience needs and interests that learning will satisfy (immediate and relevant). 2. Adults’ orientation to learning is life-centered. 3. Experience is the richest source for adult learning. 4. Adult’s have a deep need to be self-directing. 5. Individual differences among people increase with age. Reference Knowles, M.S. Holton, E. F. and Swanson, R. A. (2005). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc. O.2
    8. 8. Instructional Design Facilitation Pedagogy Adult Learning Principles Adult Learning Theory or Andragogy Distance Education What happens when you put these concepts together? O.1 O.2
    9. 9. the result… Student – Centered Learning Environments that are layered in theory (form), are designed for consistency, and yield optimal conditions for transfer. O.1 O.2 Instructional Design Adult Learning Principles Adult Learning (Andragogy) Adult Learning Principles Instructional Design Distance Education Pedagogy Facilitation
    10. 10. Test your knowledge Pedagogy Andragogy Adult Learning Principle Socratic Teaching Method Constructivism Distance Education 1. Hybrid or Blended Learning 2. Questioning is the primary method of teaching 3. The teacher is responsible for learning 4. The learner is responsible for learning 5. Using one’s life experiences to construct new meanings and transfer knowledge 6. Experience is the richest source for adult learning A B Match column A with the correct response in column B Correct Responses: 3, 4, 6, 2, 5, 1
    11. 11. Instructional Design O.3 Instructional Design is where learning theory and the learning environment meet. Courses are designed with the students’ needs at the center of the instruction. Student Learning Theory/Principles Learning Environment Instructional Design
    12. 12. Designing DE Courses for Adults What do we know? • Adults need to direct their learning experiences • Adults need relevant learning experiences • Adults have rich life experiences to draw from • Adults are responsible for their learning • Facilitators and designers, design courses with the adult learners’ needs in mind • When designing courses we need to consider more than the content, but the experience the learner will encounter • Understanding how adults learn allows us to design courses that are engaging, relevant, and assess for synthesis and transfer
    13. 13. Designing DE Courses for Adults What resources are available?
    14. 14. Equation Knowledge + Tools/Resources + Support + Instructional Design Model = Consistent “Student – Centered” Course Designs Our goal is to use a Learning Management System (LMS) to design courses using an instructional design model which will yield coursework that is grounded in learning theory, and that is consistent in the online learning environment.
    15. 15. Consistency is form Why is it important to maintain consistency in DE courses?When we design courses according to an easy to use model, both the instructor and student encounter less distractions. Distractions reduce motivation and engagement. When all faculty members use the same model of design, all students come to know the model and will know how to navigate each DE course with ease. When students experience success, they believe they will be successful in the future. Self efficacy is a key ingredient in an online learning environment (self directing). A consistent model also allows students to integrate their current skill-set across the curriculum (relevance).
    16. 16. PIE: An Instructional Design Model The Newby, Stephich, Lehman, and Russell Model 1. Planning 2. Implementing 3. Evaluating A model focused on “a shift from a teacher- centered to a learner-centered classroom environment” with use of today’s media technology (Gustafson & Branch, 2002 p. 44). To Implement is to Do or Act To Evaluate is to Assess, Modif y, and Measure Reference Gustafson, K. L. & Branch, R. M. (2002). Survey of instructional development models. Syracuse, NY: Eric Clearinghouse on Information To Plan is to Prepare
    17. 17. Planning Implementing Evaluating 1. What do the learners need to know (Objectives)? 2. What do they already know (life experiences)? 3. How will they “self direct” through the content? 4. How will I use technology to link the content to my students’ needs for relevant learning experiences? 5. How will I incorporate the lessons from Course Redesign and Adult Learning Theory in my courses? 1. How will I set up my online course so it is easy to use and engaging? 2. How will I address learning preferences in the online portion of this course (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and combination)? 3. How will I know that my students have the minimum computer skills necessary to complete the online portion of the course? 4. How will I incorporate the objectives in every lesson? 1. How will I measure transfer? 2. How will I know when remediation is necessary? 3. How will I know if my students are engaged in the learning process? 4. Am I using technology to motivate my students and keep them engaged or are they frustrated? 5. How will I know if the objectives have been met? 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. PIE: Facilitator View Can you think of any other questions that would apply in these sections?
    18. 18. Planning Implementing Evaluating 1. What do I need to learn (Objectives)? 2. How does this relate to what I already know or want to know (life experiences)? 3. How much control will I have over my schedule (self direct)? 4. How difficult will it be to navigate through this course? How different is it from the others? How much time is it going to take to learn the process? 1. How will I be able to use my personal experiences to connect to this material? 2. How do I put what I have read into practice when I am not physically in the classroom? 3. How will I know if I have interacted with my peers enough to satisfy the requirements? 4. How will I interact with my classmates’ who have different opinions and perspectives when there is no emotion or body language in the written word (encountered in DE)? 1. What are the grading requirements? 2. How will I know when remediation is necessary? 3. Am I meeting the expectations of the instructor? How do I know? Where can I find feedback on my assignments? 4. How will I know if the objectives have been met? 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. PIE: Student View
    19. 19. Gagne’s Events of Instruction 1. Gain Attention 2. Introduce Objectives 3. Activate prior learning 4. Present new material 5. Provide opportunities for guided practice 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention and transfer Reference Smith, P. L. & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons P P P P I I E E E Can you decide which event falls in the planning, implementing, and evaluation stages of the design model?
    20. 20. Give PIE a TRY! Use the screen shot from D2L to put the content in the appropriate (PIE) order. Move these bullet points by “clicking and dragging.”
    21. 21. PIE in PLAY Below we have a screen shot of Module 1 from Course Redesign. These topics are relevant to designing courses online as well as for demonstrating PIE. Each item under the topic is labeled with the appropriate letter in PIE to demonstrate a how a course should look in the content area.
    22. 22. Let’s take a closer look Planning • Students are introduced to the objectives and timeline • Students are asked a question about last week’s assignment • Students are asked to complete a new reading assignment or to do research on the web. Implementing • Students are asked to participate in a discussion of pertaining to the new content. • Students are asked to respond to a minimum of two peers’ responses in the discussion board (Note: discussions must add perspective to the original point) • Students are provided problem-solving opportunities. Evaluating • Students are provided feedback from peers and the facilitator • Students are provided both qualitative and quantitative means of feedback.
    23. 23. Test your knowledge Which example illustrates Adult Learning and PIE? D2L Example: Content Area MODULE 1 Checklist for Chapter 1 Read Chapter 1 Reading Quiz Chapter 1 Presentation Chapter 1 Presentation Quiz Chapter 1 Video Chapter 1 Video Quiz Chapter 1 Discussion (Participation) Chapter 1 Written Assignment D2L Example: Content Area MODULE 1 Welcome video! Did you know? Weekly Goals Chapter 1 – The Law & You The Law & You Peer Discussion Test Yourself Professor Pontiff Presents! Did you hear the Professor? Blog it. Let’s debate! Closing Arguments
    24. 24. MOTIVATION D2L Example: Content Area MODULE 1 Checklist for Chapter 1 Read Chapter 1 Reading Quiz Chapter 1 Presentation Chapter 1 Presentation Quiz Chapter 1 Video Chapter 1 Video Quiz Chapter 1 Discussion (Participation) Chapter 1 Written Assignment Take a moment to describe a motivated student. How does the quality of work differ between a motivated and unmotivated student? Consider the outline above: Are you motivated by what you see there? How will you use today’s session to design courses using Adult Learning Principles paired with D2L and PIE? O.3 O.4
    25. 25. PIE Applied Please take a moment to access a course you are facilitating and choose one unit of instruction to modify according to PIE. Planning (Preparation) Welcome video! Did you know? Weekly Goals Chapter 1 – The Law & You Professor Pontiff Presents! Implementing (Action) The Law & You Peer Discussion Did you hear the Professor? Blog it Let’s debate! Evaluating (Assess & Measure) Test Yourself Closing Arguments O.4 PIE: Facilitator View Law School DE Guide FCSL DE Quality Rubric
    26. 26. PIE Check 1. What was your greatest challenge when modifying your unit of instruction? 2. Do you need additional feedback on applying the PIE model? Please elaborate 3. Will you use the PIE model when designing DE courses? 4. What do you need in order to use this model with ease? Thank you for your participation. O.4