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  • 1. Valuing Play Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2.
    • What was your most memorable play experience as or with a child?
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3.
    • If so, for whom?
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4.
    • Components of play
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Characteristics of Play (What children experience) Observable Behaviors (What adults see) Contexts of Play (What impacts it and where it occurs)
  • 5.
    • Froebel (1887)
    • Play is the purest, most spiritual activity of humans at this stage.
    • Einstein (1954)
    • The point is to develop the childlike inclination for play.
    • Brian Sutton Smith (1997)
    • [Play is] fun, being outdoors, being with friends, choosing freely, not working, pretending, enacting fantasy, drama, and playing games.
    • Caplan and Caplan (1997)
    • Play is the highest form of research.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6.
    • Bredekamp (1987)
    • [Play is] a primary vehicle for and indicator of [children's] mental growth. . . . Play is an essential component of developmentally appropriate practice.
    • Ed Klugman (1995)
    • Play is a major interactive process through which children learn about themselves.
    • Ablon (2002)
    • [Play is an] activity that occurs within certain time and place limits, according to accepted rules.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Requires active involvement Pleasurable Focuses on action rather than outcomes Symbolic Free of external rules Voluntary Play
  • 8.
    • Play is pleasurable.
    • Play is voluntary and intrinsically motivated.
    • Play is symbolic, meaningful, and transformational.
    • Play actively engages the players.
    • Play is rule-bound.
    • Play focuses on process rather than product.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9.
    • Play is natural and valuable for all young children.
    • Play and development are reciprocal, progressive, and transformative.
    • Play promotes good physical and mental health.
    • All children should have easy access to play places that are safe and that support quality play.
    • All children have the right to play as stated in Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child .
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10.
    • Play
    • positive affect
    • creative combinations, improvisational
    • casual demeanor; heart rate is variable
    • Exploration
    • neutral affect (cautious)
    • stereotypical behaviors
    • Intense; heart rate is
    • steady; and concentration evident
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11.
    • Sensorimotor play
    • Symbolic play
    • Games with rules
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12.
    • Practice play or functional play
      • mere practice play
      • fortuitous combinations
      • intentional combinations
      • constructive play
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13.
    • Level I (Birth to 2 years)
      • symbolism begins
    • Level II (2 to 7 years)
      • orderliness
      • exact imitation of reality
      • collective symbolism with differentiation and complementary adjustment of roles
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14.
    • unoccupied behavior
    • onlooker behavior
    • solitary play
    • parallel play
    • associative play
    • cooperative play
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15.
    • Mesosystem
      • interaction between two systems
      • chronosystem —i mpact of factors over time
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. macrosystem exosystem microsystem child
  • 16.
    • maintain healthy, safe, play spaces.
    • develop schedules that ensure that basic physiological needs are met.
    • cultivate an array of familiar peers, materials, or other culturally relevant materials.
    • display behaviors that encourage but do not disrupt play.
    • establish an agreement between the adult and the child that play can occur. Signals are often used to indicate that this is a psychologically safe play space.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17.
    • focusing on the process (rather than the goal) of play. Ask exploratory questions that help extend the child’s play.
    • elaborating and building on children’s play or interests. Make comments, offer new and varied materials.
    • reflecting the emotions children express in their play and actions. This labels and validates children’s feelings.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18.
    • defining the problem. Help children learn negotiation skills. Encourage them to think about alternatives.
    • providing varied materials to encourage exploration and play.
    • providing open-ended materials for play.
            • (Klein, Wirth, and Linas, 2003, pp. 40 – 41)
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19.
    • poverty and violence
    • changing cultural values
    • inadequate space
    • overemphasis on academics
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20.
    • Play can be defined and studied using specific criteria.
    • Characteristics, observable behaviors, and context guide the study of play.
    • Play can and should be an important part of every child’s life.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21.
    • So share what you learned about play this evening.
    Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Copyright 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. No class on the 11 th Fall Break 10/11-12 Live seminars will continue on the 18 th !