Atom Bonding: Atoms want to be “ HAPPY ” AS I HAVE STATED! The idea behind this is Atomic shells want to be full. Some atoms have too many electrons and some want to give up atoms. EX: Sodium Magnesium 11 total electrons 12 total electrons 2 filled shells 2 filled shells 1 extra electron 2 extra electrons REMEMBER: Atoms want to have a full shell; to be HAPPY. Sodium and Magnesium have a couple of extra electrons. The way chemistry works is, it is easier to give up extra electrons. There are atoms that want extra electrons. Look at Oxygen and Fluorine: Oxygen: Fluorine: 8 total electrons 9 total electrons 1 full shell 1 full shell To be happy it wants 2 more 1 missing electron # Think about water = H2O Each want a full shell of eight:
They can share and make a Covalent Bond or make an Ionic Bond. Now for An example: Sodium has an extra electron; Fluorine wants one!!!! So Sodium gives one to Fluorine and then “ EVERYONE IS HAPPY” IONS: A normal atom is called neutral. This is when an atom has a number of electrons that is equal to it’s atomic number. Example: A Sodium atom equals 11 electrons it has 1 too many, so it finds an atom that needs one; so it can give it up to. Clorine can take the extra electron from Sodium “ YOUR HAPPY” You’re an Ion – missing an electron You’re a Sodium ion Now you have 10 electrons; but Neon has 10 electrons YOU ARE NOT NEON!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! You’ve become an ion Your not attractive electrically , but other charged ions see you as a good partner!!!! A lot like dating!
You need to remember Atoms can share an electron or they can give up An electron. COVALENT: MEANS SHARE ELECTRONS IONIC : MEANS ELECTRONS ARE GIVEN UP!
Tuesday September 23 rd , 2008 Make a testable question and a data table for this hypothesis.
How does the amount of water effect the time it takes to freeze? Amount of Water Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 1 cup 2 cups 3 cups