Vocabulary Strategies to Improve SAT Scores <ul><li>Leonardtown High School </li></ul><ul><li>Christine Chadwick, Stefanie...
Justification 35 Strategies for developing Content Area Vocabulary by “ Content area achievement depends closely on studen...
Content Area Examples <ul><li>English- students write the way they talk (or text), emphasis on vocabulary to help overall ...
Problem and Population <ul><li>Students could improve their verbal SAT scores and content area achievement with more expli...
Semantic Map <ul><li>Structured word map </li></ul><ul><li>write the vocabulary word in the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c...
<ul><ul><li>Allows for a visual/spatial representation of vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students see the relations...
Research questions  <ul><li>Affective Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the students feel comfortable using content area ...
Data collection plan Pre-post Tests Observation Student Work Do students feel comfortable using content vocabulary? X X X ...
Pre-post Assessment I <ul><li>Half of the questions on the pre-post assessment will look like the following question: </li...
Pre-post Assessment II <ul><li>10 vocabulary words </li></ul><ul><li>Words will be used in context </li></ul><ul><li>Stude...
Observation guidelines <ul><li>Specific items to observe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the students used vocabulary words </li...
Timeline <ul><li>Each group member will complete every step on the decided day in their respective classrooms. </li></ul><...
English 11 Results Quantitative Data <ul><li>Vocabulary words used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 1: p=1.846E-12  Si...
English 12 Results Quantitative Data <ul><li>Vocabulary words used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 1: p=0.102  Not Si...
Chemistry Honors Results <ul><li>Vocabulary Words Correctly Used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre test 1: Post test 1 Ttest p.= 2...
Chemistry Honors Results <ul><li>Student View on Vocabulary Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-test 1: Post test 1 Ttest ...
Experiment Variation <ul><li>With this variation of the experiment, the same test was given 3 different times: </li></ul><...
Government Results <ul><li>Vocabulary words used correctly  </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post: p= 0.341761  Not significant </li>...
Findings from observations <ul><li>Few observations were made: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rarely using vocabulary words in Engl...
Overall Findings <ul><li>Vocabulary scores increased from Post 1 to Post 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Student view of vocabulary us...
Answers to research questions <ul><li>Are the students using the vocabulary?  </li></ul><ul><li>Students use vocabulary ra...
Answers to research questions <ul><li>Are students’ vocabulary scores rising? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, scores are rising in ...
Discussion <ul><li>This strategy yielded overall positive results although reimplementation would help to provide more rel...
Next steps? <ul><li>Implications for Future Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategy should be implemented identically acr...
Back to the big picture <ul><li>Semantic mapping is one of many study tools </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to learn about...
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  • Before moving to the next slide, talk about why Chemistry words were used more- possibly because they are more practical and used in a more concrete way than words like oligarchy or imperialism
  • Carp powerpoint

    1. 1. Vocabulary Strategies to Improve SAT Scores <ul><li>Leonardtown High School </li></ul><ul><li>Christine Chadwick, Stefanie Glorioso, Daniel Morris, Marc Pirner </li></ul>
    2. 2. Justification 35 Strategies for developing Content Area Vocabulary by “ Content area achievement depends closely on students’ mastery of specialized vocabulary”Our Strategy: Semantic Mapping SIP: Improve SAT scores- “Offer the entire school testing skills and vocabulary words”
    3. 3. Content Area Examples <ul><li>English- students write the way they talk (or text), emphasis on vocabulary to help overall academic English </li></ul><ul><li>English- explicit academic vocabulary instruction is not being observed in some classes </li></ul><ul><li>Government- there are many words and concepts that are specific to government that are fundamental to learning / high performance in social studies </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry- there are many vocabulary words that are highly specific to chemistry that are need to be successful in the sciences </li></ul>
    4. 4. Problem and Population <ul><li>Students could improve their verbal SAT scores and content area achievement with more explicit vocabulary instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honors Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English 11 and 12 Standard and CM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government 10 CM </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Semantic Map <ul><li>Structured word map </li></ul><ul><li>write the vocabulary word in the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connect words that are synonyms, antonyms, definitions, examples, parts of speech etc.   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>context rather than dictionary definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usage rather than memorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>more vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Example of student work </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Allows for a visual/spatial representation of vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students see the relationships between concepts and vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires higher order thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can help activate prior knowledge </li></ul></ul>Benefits of Strategy
    7. 7. Research questions <ul><li>Affective Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the students feel comfortable using content area vocabulary? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the students using the vocabulary? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are students’ vocabulary scores rising? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Data collection plan Pre-post Tests Observation Student Work Do students feel comfortable using content vocabulary? X X X Are the students using the vocabulary? X X X Are vocabulary scores rising? X X X
    9. 9. Pre-post Assessment I <ul><li>Half of the questions on the pre-post assessment will look like the following question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Vocabulary Word) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. I have never encounter this word before. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. I have seen this word before. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C. I can define this word. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. I have used this word before </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Other half to check student understanding of each vocabulary word. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Pre-post Assessment II <ul><li>10 vocabulary words </li></ul><ul><li>Words will be used in context </li></ul><ul><li>Students will determine whether the word is used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Selected response format </li></ul><ul><li>Post assessment- vocabulary quiz </li></ul>
    11. 11. Observation guidelines <ul><li>Specific items to observe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the students used vocabulary words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When and how often students use vocabulary words in speech and writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tally of how many times students use vocabulary words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions to think about during observation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do students hesitate when attempting to use vocabulary words? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Timeline <ul><li>Each group member will complete every step on the decided day in their respective classrooms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>October 18: pre-test 1 will be given with the vocabulary for the week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 22: post-test 1 will be given for the same vocabulary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 25: pre-test 2 given with vocabulary for the week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Week of October 26: strategy implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 29: post-test 2 will be given for the same vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>November 8 and 9: analyze data </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. English 11 Results Quantitative Data <ul><li>Vocabulary words used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 1: p=1.846E-12 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 2: p=0.308 Not Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Post-post 1: p=3.153E-11 Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The semantic maps made a significant difference in increasing vocabulary scores. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student view on vocabulary knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 3: p=3.787E-23 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 4: p=3.376E-16 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Post 2: p=6.182E-5 Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic maps made a significant difference in increasing student self view of vocabulary knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. English 12 Results Quantitative Data <ul><li>Vocabulary words used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 1: p=0.102 Not Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 2: p=2.37x10^-4 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Post-post 1: p=0.0516 Not Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The semantic maps made a significant difference in increasing vocabulary scores. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student view of vocabulary use </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 1: p= 3.16x10^-5 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post 2: p=1.28x10^-10 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Post-post 1: p=8.51x10^-3 Significant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The semantic maps made a significant difference in increasing vocabulary scores. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Chemistry Honors Results <ul><li>Vocabulary Words Correctly Used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre test 1: Post test 1 Ttest p.= 2.03x10-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This shows that the students made significant improvements on their knowledge of the vocabulary words from the pre test to the post test. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretest 2: Post test 2 Ttest p.= 8.95x10-13 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This shows that the students made significant improvements on their knowledge of the vocabulary words from the pre test to the post test. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post test 1: Post test 2 Ttest p.= 0.0769 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no statistical significant difference between the two post tests, but is approaching significance.. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Chemistry Honors Results <ul><li>Student View on Vocabulary Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-test 1: Post test 1 Ttest p . = 3.55x10-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This shows that the students made significant improvements in their knowledge of the vocabulary words from the pre test to the post test. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-test 2: Post-test 2 Ttest p.= 1.37x10-16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This shows that the students made significant improvements in their knowledge of the vocabulary words from the pre test to the post test. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post test 1: Post test 2 Ttest p.= 0.0215 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This shows that the students felt they knew the words more after they did the semantic maps than when they did not use any type of formal strategy. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Experiment Variation <ul><li>With this variation of the experiment, the same test was given 3 different times: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-test- first time they see the test </li></ul><ul><li>Post-test – second time- still no intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Final- third time after semantic mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Data is compared between pre-post, pre-final, and post-final to determine whether or not the intervention was successful </li></ul>
    18. 18. Government Results <ul><li>Vocabulary words used correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-post: p= 0.341761 Not significant </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-final: p= 0.000149 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>Post-final: p=4.75131E-05 Significant </li></ul><ul><li>The semantic mapping technique made a significant difference in increasing vocabulary scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Students view on vocabulary knowledge Pre-post: p= 0.003989 Significant Pre-final: p= 1.34406E-12 Significant Post-final: p= 2.80948E-07 Significant The semantic mapping technique made a significant difference in increasing student comfort with vocabulary. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Findings from observations <ul><li>Few observations were made: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rarely using vocabulary words in English or Government class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used more in practice in Chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used when explicitly asked to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students recognized words when used by others </li></ul>
    20. 20. Overall Findings <ul><li>Vocabulary scores increased from Post 1 to Post 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Student view of vocabulary use increased </li></ul><ul><li>Rare student use of vocabulary words in the classroom setting, more confidence and use in Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of vocabulary words when used </li></ul>
    21. 21. Answers to research questions <ul><li>Are the students using the vocabulary? </li></ul><ul><li>Students use vocabulary rarely </li></ul><ul><li>Students reported using vocabulary words more often after the implementation of semantic mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore- semantic mapping increases student use of vocabulary words </li></ul>
    22. 22. Answers to research questions <ul><li>Are students’ vocabulary scores rising? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, scores are rising in English and Government, but not in Chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>could be due to a lack of vocabulary routine in Chemistry. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Discussion <ul><li>This strategy yielded overall positive results although reimplementation would help to provide more reliable results </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons data could be flawed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty selected response questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies were not implemented identically in all classrooms, nor did they follow a specific procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty of vocabulary words varied across data sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of the tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deviation from observation guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too many words in a short amount of time for Chemistry </li></ul>
    24. 24. Next steps? <ul><li>Implications for Future Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategy should be implemented identically across all content areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use fewer vocabulary words of relatively equal difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>could be broken into two separate studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One study on vocabulary scores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specify use as a study tool </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One study on student view on vocabulary use </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Back to the big picture <ul><li>Semantic mapping is one of many study tools </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to learn about different study tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraged to use other visuals as study tools to study for the SAT. </li></ul></ul>
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