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Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
Words As Definitions of Experience 3
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Words As Definitions of Experience 3


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  • 1. Words as Definitions of Experience (3)
    Language and Society
  • 2. As natural as breathing
    Ideology functions to convince its audience that the ideas it offers up are timeless and ahistorical – that they have always been and always will be thus
  • 3. As natural as breathing: Why?
    How does the material context of a culture come to be naturalised and valued to the extent that it can be used to differentiate between the human and non-human?
  • 4. Ideology
    Discourses and narratives that circulate in a culture and determine what can and can’t be thought, and what can and can’t be done.
    In order to be effective they have to decontextualise their own culture and hide the contingent nature of thoughts and activities in a culture.
    They have a group basis – they construct and promote meanings which privilege one culture, or one section of a culture, over another.
  • 5. Ideology and Communication
    How does ideology influence and determine communication practices and how people of their identity?
    The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life processes in general. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness
    The relations of production, and social being, determine consciousness
  • 6. Ideology and Communication
    Ideology constructs the relation between workers and capitalists as something other than exploitative and historical
    Ideology draws attention away from the inequalities and oppressiveness of everyday life, and the politics of the material contexts that control people’s lives
  • 7. Ideology and Communication
    Marxist notions of ideology are characterised by two points:
    The overdetermining role of the relations of production and the economic sphere as an explanation of the realities of life
    The use of stories, narratives and explanations to create a false consciousness which edits out those political and economic realities
  • 8. Ideology and Language
    Ideology is produced at the same time that signs are produced as meaningful
    Without signs there is no ideology
    All cultural meanings are produced by signs – words, clothes, posters, films and photographs
    Since all meanings are produced in cultures there can be no ‘natural’ or pre-cultural meanings
    A culture is therefore a kind of battleground in which various groups try to impose their meanings are the expense of the meanings of other groups
  • 9. When the battleground is war
    War is verbal as well as physical – demonising an enemy, reducing them to abstractions and, more broadly, justifying a particular way of life or worldview
    Human compassion
    Context specific
    Military training
    Theories of international relations
    The drive of ‘corporatisation’
  • 10. Targets
    Bombs are aimed at military targets
    Official information is about targets
    Installations are targeted
    Civilian targets are avoided
  • 11. Abstraction
    The representation of particular aspects of reality in terms that refer to universal categories in which the particulars can be subsumed
    Representations that accomplish the near disappearance of particular facts unless they fit the preferred theory
    Abstraction is not simply the result of the use of a particular term but is the effect of using the term in particular contexts
  • 12. Abstraction
    ‘In the most extensive effort of the bombing campaign so far, US bombers struck a series of Taliban targets today.’
    ‘The pentagon announced today that attacks on military targets have significantly eroded the anti-aircraft capacity of the Taliban regime.’
    ‘In the second week of the campaign against terrorism, planes bombarded targets in the North of Afghanistan.’
  • 13. Abstraction
    Military targets
    Civilian targets
    Our boys are more important
    Destruction of military targets doesn’t hurt civilians
    Killing civilians is made easier amidst a lot of talk about the need not to kill them
    Civilian deaths are a PR opportunity for the militiary to stress its care for the health and well-being of people around the world
  • 14. Abstraction
    Discourse: The corporatisation of everyday life
    the state drives to expand its own power, to secure predictable and profitable investment for global capital and secure privileged relationships with other states
    The objectification/abstraction of killing serves these interests
    Discourse: the framing of foreign policy and state model of security
    The chess ‘game’ – the language ‘game’
  • 15. ‘Five thousand people didn’t die here; five thousand individuals died.’