Slide 1 Social Change in Late Modernity Choice | Freedom |Duty
Slide 2 BABIESIs the free market fair? Does it: • maximise welfare? • respect freedom? • cultivate the good life?The test case: Baby M’’.
Slide 3 Contracts must be upheld because they respect individual liberty Free and voluntary? A deal is a deal Informed consent? Commodities to buy and sell? Contracts must be upheld because if both parties agree to the deal it must realise the utility principle Human value?Free markets rests on two claims:1. libertarian claim – letting people engage in voluntary exchanges respects their freedom2. utilitarian argument for free markets – free markets promote the general welfare. Whentwo people make a deal, both gain – as long as the deal doesn’t hurt anyone else it mustincrease general utility.Two arguments against this:1. market choices are not always as free as they might seem2. certain goods are degraded/corrupted if bought and sold for money.
Slide 4•Technological changes have broken the traditional ‘supply chain’ of conception/birth.•New surrogacy brokers have entered the market•Global markets have increased their reachTwo questions:• Is ‘free choice’ still applicable?• Are women’s bodies being degraded as a result of the global spread of surrogacy?The video on the following slide shows the implications of the global growth of surrogacy and allows you to reflect on those questions.
Slide 5 No more than reasonable expenses must have been paid, unless authorised by the court. What constitutes reasonable expenses depends on the facts of each particular case and although in practice the courts have shown a reasonably broad-brush approach, great care needs to be taken. http://www.surrogacyuk.org/whatissurrogacyc.htmlWhat role should legislation play?•Is it the state’s role to legislate on moral issues?•If it is, what are the criteria that should be applied?
Slide 6Do you believe in universal human rights?If you do, how do you defend article 1 of the Unversal Declaration of Human Rights? •From a utilitarian position? •From a libertarian position? •From an appeal to God? •Or from an appeal to Duty?The next video explores the idea of free choice – what does it really mean in a marketeconomy?
Slide 8Instead of saying that the supreme principle of morality comes from God, Kant argues that itis a consequence of: • Our rationality • Our autonomy
Slide 9Obeying your thirst is not making a decision to do something that you have decided. It’s notfreedom.How do we move beyond appetites?Autonomy V HeteronomyKants deontological approach: • The moral worth of an action consists not in the consequences that flow from it, but in the intention from which the act is done. • Motives matter – do the right thing for the right reason
Slide 10Guillermo Fariñas hunger strike in 2010 – an example of doing the right thing for the rightreason?